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837 555.html
@@ -0,0 +1,837 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
+<!--=================================================-->
+<!--Page design by Tony van Roon, November 21, 1996 -->
+<!--Copyright Tony van Roon, Cambridge, On, CANADA -->
+<!--ALL Schematics Copyright (c) Tony van Roon - 1993-->
+<!--=================================================-->
+<html><head>
+<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1">
+<meta http-equiv="imagetoolbar" content="no">
+<meta http-equiv="Content Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1">
+<meta name="description" content="555 Timer/Oscillator Tutorial, 555, timers, Electronics Tutorials with examples">
+<meta name="keywords" content="555-Tutorial, Timer, timers, 741, Op-Amp, PLL, Shunts, Coils, Resistors, Capacitors, R/C, Radio-Control, RC-Webdirectory">
+<meta name="Author" content="Tony van Roon">
+<meta name="Copyright" content="(C) 2002, Tony van Roon. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED">
+<title>555 Timer/Oscillator Tutorial</title>
+</head>
+<body ondragstart="return false" onselectstart="return false" oncontextmenu="return false">
+<center><img src="555_files/555logo.gif" alt="" border="1" height="143" width="547"></center><br>
+<br>
+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="#0000FF" size="3"><b><font color="#FF0000">©</font> by Tony van Roon
+</b></font><br>
+<hr align="left" noshade="noshade" width="30%">
+
+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="#FF00FF" size="5">T</font>he 555 timer IC was first
+introduced around 1971 by the Signetics Corporation as the SE555/NE555 and was called "<b>The IC Time Machine</b>"
+and was also the very first and only commercial timer ic available. It provided circuit designers and hobby tinkerers
+with a relatively cheap, stable, and user-friendly integrated circuit for both monostable and astable applications.
+Since this device was first made commercially available, a myrad of novel and unique circuits have been developed and
+presented in several trade, professional, and hobby publications. The past ten years some manufacturers stopped
+making these timers because of competition or other reasons. Yet other companies, like
+<a href="http://www.nteinc.com/">NTE</a> (a subdivision of Philips) picked up where some left off.<br>
+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="#FF00FF" size="5">T</font>his primer is about this fantastic timer which
+is after 30 years still very popular and used in many schematics. Although these days the CMOS version of this IC,
+like the <a href="http://www.motorola.com/">Motorola</a> MC1455, is mostly used, the regular type is still available,
+however there have been many improvements and variations in the circuitry. But all types are pin-for-pin plug
+compatible. Myself, every time I see this 555 timer used in advanced and high-tech electronic circuits, I'm amazed.
+It is just incredible.<br>
+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="#FF00FF" size="5">I</font>n this tutorial I will show you what exactly the
+555 timer is and how to properly use it by itself or in combination with other solid state devices without the
+requirement of an engineering degree. This timer uses a maze of transistors, diodes and resistors and for this
+complex reason I will use a more simplified (but accurate) block diagram to explain the internal organizations of the
+555. So, lets start slowly and build it up from there.<br>
+<br>
+
+<img src="555_files/table1.gif" alt="Table 1, Manufacturers" align="left" height="304" width="297"><br><br><br><br><br><font color="#0000FF" size="2"><i>
+The first type-number, in Table 1 on the left, represents the type which was/is preferred for military applications
+which have somewhat improved electrical and thermal characteristics over their commercial counterparts, but also a bit
+more expensive, and usually metal-can or ceramic casing. This is analogous to the 5400/7400 series convention for TTL
+integrated circuits.</i></font><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>
+<br>
+<center><img src="555_files/555fig1.gif" alt="Fig. 1/2, 555 pin-out" height="192" width="539"></center><font size="3"><br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
+<font color="#FF00FF" size="4">T</font>he 555, in fig. 1 and fig. 2 above, come in two packages, either the round
+metal-can called the 'T' package or the more familiar 8-pin DIP 'V' package. About 20-years ago the metal-can type
+was pretty much the standard (SE/NE types). The 556 timer is a dual 555 version and comes in a 14-pin DIP package,
+the 558 is a quad version with four 555's also in a 14 pin DIP case.<br>
+<br>
+<font color="#0000FF" size="2"><img src="555_files/555block.gif" alt="Fig. 3, 555 Block Diagram" align="left" height="400" width="426"><br><br><br><i><b>I
+</b>nside the 555 timer, at fig. 3, are the equivalent of over 20 transistors, 15 resistors, and 2 diodes, depending
+of the manufacturer. The equivalent circuit, in block diagram, providing the functions of control, triggering, level
+sensing or comparison, discharge, and power output. Some of the more attractive features of the 555 timer are: Supply
+voltage between 4.5 and 18 volt, supply current 3 to 6 mA, and a Rise/Fall time of 100 nSec. It can also withstand
+quite a bit of abuse.<br>
+<br>
+<b>T</b>he Threshold current determine the maximum value of Ra + Rb. For 15 volt operation the maximum total
+resistance for <b>R</b> (Ra +Rb) is 20 Mega-ohm.</i></font><br>
+<br><br><br>
+
+<font color="#FF00FF" size="4">T</font>he supply current, when the output is 'high', is typically 1
+milli-amp (mA) or less. The initial monostable timing accuracy is typically within 1% of its calculated value, and
+exhibits negligible (0.1%/V) drift with supply voltage. Thus long-term supply variations can be ignored, and the
+temperature variation is only 50ppm/°C (0.005%/°C).<br><br>
+<br><br>
+
+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="#FF00FF" size="4">A</font>ll IC timers rely upon an external
+capacitor to determine the off-on time intervals of the output pulses. As you recall from your study of basic
+electronics, it takes a finite period of time for a capacitor (C) to charge or discharge through a resistor (R).
+Those times are clearly defined and can be calculated given the values of resistance and capacitance.<br>
+<font color="#FF00FF" size="4">T</font>he basic RC charging circuit is shown in fig. 4. Assume that
+the capacitor is initially discharged. When the switch is closed, the capacitor begins to charge through the
+resistor. The voltage across the capacitor rises from zero up to the value of the applied DC voltage. The charge
+curve for the circuit is shown in fig. 6. The time that it takes for the capacitor to charge to 63.7% of the applied
+voltage is known as the time constant (t). That time can be calculated with the simple expression:<br>
+<br>
+<img src="555_files/555time.gif" alt="Fig. 4, 555 Timing" align="right" height="333" width="329"><br><center><font color="#0000FF" size="4"><b> t = R X C </b></font></center><br>
+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="#FF00FF" size="4">A</font>ssume a resistor value of 1
+MegaOhm and a capacitor value of 1uF (micro-Farad). The time constant in that case is:<br>
+<br>
+<center><font color="#0000FF" size="4"><b> t = 1,000,000 X 0.000001 = 1 second</b></font></center><br>
+<font size="3">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="#FF00FF" size="4">A</font>ssume further that the applied
+voltage is 6 volts. That means that it will take one time constant for the voltage across the capacitor to reach
+63.2% of the applied voltage. Therefore, the capacitor charges to approximately 3.8 volts in one second.<br>
+<br><br><br><br>
+<img src="555_files/555fig41.gif" alt="Fig. 4-1, Pulse change" align="left" height="141" width="305"><br><br><font color="#0000FF" size="2"><i>Fig. 4-1,
+Change in the input pulse frequency allows completion of the timing cycle. As a general rule, the monostable 'ON'
+time is set approximately 1/3 longer than the expected time between triggering pulses. Such a circuit is also known
+as a 'Missing Pulse Detector'. </i></font><br><br><br><br><br>
+<br>
+<font size="3">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="#FF00FF" size="4">L</font>ooking at the curve in fig. 6.
+you can see that it takes approximately 5 complete time constants for the capacitor to charge to almost the applied
+voltage. It would take about 5 seconds for the voltage on the capacitor to rise to approximately the full 6-volts.<br>
+<br>
+
+<center><img src="555_files/555equiv.gif" alt="Fig. 4-2, Equivalent Circuit" height="447" width="561"></center>
+<br>
+
+<font color="#0000FF" size="5"><b><u>Definition of Pin Functions:</u></b></font><br>
+<br>
+Refer to the internal 555 schematic of Fig. 4-2<br>
+<br>
+<font color="#FF00FF"><b>Pin 1 (Ground):</b></font>&nbsp;&nbsp;The ground (or common) pin is the
+most-negative supply potential of the device, which is normally connected to circuit common (ground) when operated
+from positive supply voltages.<br>
+<br>
+
+<font color="#FF00FF"><b>Pin 2 (Trigger):</b></font>&nbsp;&nbsp;This pin is the input to the lower comparator
+and is used to set the latch, which in turn causes the output to go high. This is the beginning of the timing
+sequence in monostable operation. Triggering is accomplished by taking the pin from above to below a voltage level
+of 1/3 V+ (or, in general, one-half the voltage appearing at pin 5). The action of the trigger input is
+level-sensitive, allowing slow rate-of-change waveforms, as well as pulses, to be used as trigger sources. The
+trigger pulse must be of shorter duration than the time interval determined by the external R and C. If this pin is
+held low longer than that, the output will remain high until the trigger input is driven high again.
+One precaution that should be observed with the trigger input signal is that it must not remain lower than 1/3 V+
+for a period of time <i>longer</i> than the timing cycle. If this is allowed to happen, the timer will re-trigger
+itself upon termination of the first output pulse. Thus, when the timer is driven in the monostable mode with input
+pulses longer than the desired output pulse width, the input trigger should effectively be shortened by
+differentiation.
+The minimum-allowable pulse width for triggering is somewhat dependent upon pulse level, but in general if it is
+greater than the 1uS (micro-Second), triggering will be reliable.
+A second precaution with respect to the trigger input concerns storage time in the lower comparator. This portion
+of the circuit can exhibit normal turn-off delays of several microseconds after triggering; that is, the latch can
+still have a trigger input for this period of time <i>after</i> the trigger pulse. In practice, this means the
+minimum monostable output pulse width should be in the order of 10uS to prevent possible double triggering due to
+this effect.
+The voltage range that can safely be applied to the trigger pin is between V+ and ground. A dc current, termed
+the <i>trigger</i> current, must also flow from this terminal into the external circuit. This current is typically
+500nA (nano-amp) and will define the upper limit of resistance allowable from pin 2 to ground. For an astable
+configuration operating at V+ = 5 volts, this resistance is 3 Mega-ohm; it can be greater for higher V+ levels.<br>
+<br>
+
+<font color="#FF00FF"><b>Pin 3 (Output):</b></font>&nbsp;&nbsp;The output of the 555 comes from a
+high-current totem-pole stage made up of transistors Q20 - Q24. Transistors Q21 and Q22 provide drive for
+source-type loads, and their Darlington connection provides a high-state output voltage about 1.7 volts less
+than the V+ supply level used. Transistor Q24 provides current-sinking capability for low-state loads referred
+to V+ (such as typical TTL inputs). Transistor Q24 has a low saturation voltage, which allows it to interface
+directly, with good noise margin, when driving current-sinking logic. Exact output saturation levels vary markedly
+with supply voltage, however, for both high and low states. At a V+ of 5 volts, for instance, the low state Vce(sat)
+is typically 0.25 volts at 5 mA. Operating at 15 volts, however, it can sink 200mA if an output-low voltage level
+of 2 volts is allowable (power dissipation should be considered in such a case, of course). High-state level is
+typically 3.3 volts at V+ = 5 volts; 13.3 volts at V+ = 15 volts. Both the rise and fall times of the output
+waveform are quite fast, typical switching times being 100nS.
+The state of the output pin will always reflect the inverse of the logic state of the latch, and this fact may be
+seen by examining <font color="red">Fig. 3.</font> Since the latch itself is not directly accessible, this
+relationship may be best explained in terms of latch-input trigger conditions. To trigger the output to a high
+condition, the trigger input is momentarily taken from a higher to a lower level. [see "Pin 2 - Trigger"]. This
+causes the latch to be set and the output to go high. Actuation of the lower comparator is the only manner in which
+the output can be placed in the high state. The output can be returned to a low state by causing the threshold to go
+from a lower to a higher level [see "Pin 6 - Threshold"], which resets the latch. The output can also be made to go
+low by taking the reset to a low state near ground [see "Pin 4 - Reset"].
+The output voltage available at this pin is approximately equal to the Vcc applied to pin 8 minus 1.7V.<br>
+<br>
+
+<font color="#FF00FF"><b>Pin 4 (Reset):</b></font>&nbsp;&nbsp;This pin is also used to reset the latch and
+return the output to a low state. The reset voltage threshold level is 0.7 volt, and a sink current of 0.1mA from
+this pin is required to reset the device. These levels are relatively independent of operating V+ level; thus the
+reset input is TTL compatible for any supply voltage.
+The reset input is an overriding function; that is, it will force the output to a low state regardless of the
+state of either of the other inputs. It may thus be used to terminate an output pulse prematurely, to gate
+oscillations from "on" to "off", etc. Delay time from reset to output is typically on the order of 0.5 µS,
+and the minimum reset pulse width is 0.5 µS. Neither of these figures is guaranteed, however, and <i>may vary
+</i> from one manufacturer to another. In short, the reset pin is used to reset the flip-flop that controls the
+state of output pin 3. The pin is activated when a voltage level anywhere between 0 and 0.4 volt is applied to the
+pin. The reset pin will force the output to go low no matter what state the other inputs to the flip-flop are in.
+When not used, it is recommended that the reset input be tied to V+ to avoid any possibility of false resetting.<br>
+<br>
+
+<font color="#FF00FF"><b>Pin 5 (Control Voltage):</b></font>&nbsp;&nbsp;This pin allows direct access to the
+2/3 V+ voltage-divider point, the reference level for the upper comparator. It also allows indirect access to the
+lower comparator, as there is a 2:1 divider (R8 - R9) from this point to the lower-comparator reference input, Q13.
+Use of this terminal is the option of the user, but it does allow extreme flexibility by permitting modification of
+the timing period, resetting of the comparator, etc.
+When the 555 timer is used in a voltage-controlled mode, its voltage-controlled operation ranges from about 1 volt
+less than V+ down to within 2 volts of ground (although this is not guaranteed). Voltages can be safely applied
+outside these limits, but they should be confined within the limits of V+ and ground for reliability.
+By applying a voltage to this pin, it is possible to vary the timing of the device independently of the RC network.
+The control voltage may be varied from 45 to 90% of the Vcc in the monostable mode, making it possible to control the
+width of the output pulse independently of RC. When it is used in the astable mode, the control voltage can be varied
+from 1.7V to the full Vcc. Varying the voltage in the astable mode will produce a frequency modulated (FM) output.
+In the event the control-voltage pin is not used, it is recommended that it be bypassed, to ground, with a
+capacitor of about 0.01uF (10nF) for immunity to noise, since it is a comparator input. This fact is not obvious
+in many 555 circuits since I have seen many circuits with 'no-pin-5' connected to anything, but this is the proper
+procedure. The small ceramic cap may eliminate false triggering.<br>
+<br>
+
+<font color="#FF00FF"><b>Pin 6 (Threshold):</b></font>&nbsp;&nbsp;Pin 6 is one input to the upper comparator
+(the other being pin 5) and is used to reset the latch, which causes the output to go low.
+Resetting via this terminal is accomplished by taking the terminal from below to above a voltage level of 2/3 V+ (the
+normal voltage on pin 5). The action of the threshold pin is level sensitive, allowing slow rate-of-change waveforms.
+The voltage range that can safely be applied to the threshold pin is between V+ and ground. A dc current, termed
+the <i>threshold</i> current, must also flow into this terminal from the external circuit. This current is
+typically 0.1µA, and will define the upper limit of total resistance allowable from pin 6 to V+. For either
+timing configuration operating at V+ = 5 volts, this resistance is 16 Mega-ohm. For 15 volt operation, the maximum
+value of resistance is 20 MegaOhms.<br>
+<br>
+
+<font color="#FF00FF"><b>Pin 7 (Discharge):</b></font>&nbsp;&nbsp;This pin is connected to the open collector
+of a npn transistor (Q14), the emitter of which goes to ground, so that when the transistor is turned "on", pin 7 is
+effectively shorted to ground. Usually the timing capacitor is connected between pin 7 and ground and is discharged
+when the transistor turns "on". The conduction state of this transistor is identical in timing to that of the output
+stage. It is "on" (low resistance to ground) when the output is low and "off" (high resistance to ground) when the
+output is high.
+In both the monostable and astable time modes, this transistor switch is used to clamp the appropriate nodes of the
+timing network to ground. Saturation voltage is typically below 100mV (milli-Volt) for currents of 5 mA or less,
+and off-state leakage is about 20nA (these parameters are not specified by all manufacturers, however).
+Maximum collector current is internally limited by design, thereby removing restrictions on capacitor size due to
+peak pulse-current discharge. In certain applications, this open collector output can be used as an auxiliary output
+terminal, with current-sinking capability similar to the output (pin 3).<br>
+<br>
+
+<font color="#FF00FF"><b>Pin 8 (V +):</b></font>&nbsp;&nbsp;The V+ pin (also referred to as Vcc) is the
+positive supply voltage terminal of the 555 timer IC. Supply-voltage operating range for the 555 is +4.5 volts
+(minimum) to +16 volts (maximum), and it is specified for operation between +5 volts and +15 volts. The device
+will operate essentially the same over this range of voltages without change in timing period. Actually, the most
+significant operational difference is the output drive capability, which increases for both current and voltage
+range as the supply voltage is increased. Sensitivity of time interval to supply voltage change is low, typically
+0.1% per volt. There are special and military devices available that operate at voltages as high as 18 volts.<br>
+<br>
+
+<img src="555_files/555test.gif" alt="Fig. 5, 555 timer Tester" align="left" height="243" width="458"><br>
+<font color="#0000FF" size="2"><i>Try the simple 555 testing-circuit of Fig. 5. to get you going, and test all your
+555 timer ic's. I build several for friends and family. I bring my own tester to ham-fests and what not to
+instantly do a check and see if they are oscillating. Or use as a trouble shooter in 555 based circuits. This
+tester will quickly tell you if the timer is functional or not. Although not foolproof, it will tell if the 555
+is shorted or oscillating. If both Led's are flashing the timer is most likely in good working order. If one or
+both Led's are either off or on solid the timer is defective. Simple huh? </i></font>
+<br>
+
+<img src="555_files/555fig6.gif" alt="Fig. 6, capacitor charging" align="left" height="174" width="349"><br>
+<font color="#0000FF" size="2"><i>The capacitor slows down as it charges, and in actual fact never reaches the full
+supply voltage. That being the case, the maximum charge it receives in the timing circuit (66.6% of the supply
+voltage) is a little over the charge received after a time constant (63.2%).</i></font><br><br><br><br>
+<br><br><br>
+
+<img src="555_files/555fig7.gif" alt="Fig. 7, capacitor discharging" align="left" height="176" width="354"><br><br><br>
+<font color="#0000FF" size="2"><i>The capacitor slows down as it discharges, and never quite reaches the ground
+potential. That means the minimum voltage it operates at must be greater than zero. Timing circuit is 63.2% of
+the supply voltage.</i></font><br><br><br><br><br>
+<br>
+<img src="555_files/555fig8.gif" alt="Fig. 8, discharge of a capacitor" align="left" height="157" width="246"><br><br><br>
+<font color="#0000FF" size="2"><i>The discharge of a capacitor also takes time and we can shorten the amount of time
+by decreasing resistance (R) to the flow of current.</i></font><br><br><br><br><br><br>
+<br>
+
+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="#FF00FF" size="4">O</font>perating Modes: The 555 timer has
+two basic operational modes: one shot and astable. In the one-shot mode, the 555 acts like a monostable
+multivibrator. A monostable is said to have a single stable state--that is the off state. Whenever it is
+triggered by an input pulse, the monostable switches to its temporary state. It remains in that state for a
+period of time determined by an RC network. It then returns to its stable state. In other words, the monostable
+circuit generates a single pulse of a fixed time duration each time it receives and input trigger pulse. Thus the
+name one-shot. One-shot multivibrators are used for turning some circuit or external component on or off for a
+specific length of time. It is also used to generate delays. When multiple one-shots are cascaded, a variety of
+sequential timing pulses can be generated. Those pulses will allow you to time and sequence a number of related
+operations.<br>
+<br>
+The other basic operational mode of the 555 is as and astable multivibrator. An astable multivibrator is simply and
+oscillator. The astable multivibrator generates a continuous stream of rectangular off-on pulses that switch between
+two voltage levels. The frequency of the pulses and their duty cycle are dependent upon the RC network values.<br>
+<br>
+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="#FF00FF" size="4">O</font>ne-Shot Operation: Fig. 4 shows
+the basic circuit of the 555 connected as a monostable multivibrator. An external RC network is connected between
+the supply voltage and ground. The junction of the resistor and capacitor is connected to the threshold input which
+is the input to the upper comparator. The internal discharge transistor is also connected to the junction of the
+resistor and the capacitor. An input trigger pulse is applied to the trigger input, which is the input to the lower
+comparator.<br>
+<br>
+With that circuit configuration, the control flip-flop is initially reset. Therefore, the output voltage is near
+zero volts. The signal from the control flip-flop causes T1 to conduct and act as a short circuit across the
+external capacitor. For that reason, the capacitor cannot charge. During that time, the input to the upper
+comparator is near zero volts causing the comparator output to keep the control flip-flop reset.<br>
+<br>
+
+<img src="555_files/555fig9a.gif" alt="Fig. 9a, monostable" align="left" height="181" width="217"><br><br><br><br>
+<font color="#0000FF" size="2"><i>Notice how the monostable continues to output its pulse regardless of the inputs
+swing back up. That is because the output is only triggered by the input pulse, the output actually depends on the
+capacitor charge.</i></font><br> <br><br><br><br><br>
+
+<font color="#0000FF" size="5"><u>Monostable Mode:</u></font><br>
+The 555 in fig. 9a is shown here in it's utmost basic mode of operation; as a triggered monostable. One immediate
+observation is the extreme simplicity of this circuit. Only two components to make up a timer, a capacitor and a
+resistor. And for noise immunity maybe a capacitor on pin 5. Due to the internal latching mechanism of the 555,
+the timer will always time-out once triggered, regardless of any subsequent noise (such as bounce) on the input
+trigger (pin 2). This is a great asset in interfacing the 555 with noisy sources. Just in case you don't know
+what <i>'bounce'</i> is: bounce is a type of fast, short term noise caused by a switch, relay, etc. and then picked
+up by the input pin.<br>
+The trigger input is initially high (about 1/3 of +V). When a negative-going trigger pulse is applied to the trigger
+input (see fig. 9a), the threshold on the lower comparator is exceeded. The lower comparator, therefore, sets the
+flip-flop. That causes T1 to cut off, acting as an open circuit. The setting of the flip-flop also causes a
+positive-going output level which is the beginning of the output timing pulse.<br>
+<br>
+The capacitor now begins to charge through the external resistor. As soon as the charge on the capacitor equal
+2/3 of the supply voltage, the upper comparator triggers and resets the control flip-flop. That terminates the
+output pulse which switches back to zero. At this time, T1 again conducts thereby discharging the capacitor. If
+a negative-going pulse is applied to the reset input while the output pulse is high, it will be terminated
+immediately as that pulse will reset the flip-flop.<br>
+<br>
+Whenever a trigger pulse is applied to the input, the 555 will generate its single-duration output pulse. Depending
+upon the values of external resistance and capacitance used, the output timing pulse may be adjusted from
+approximately one millisecond to as high as on hundred seconds. For time intervals less than approximately
+1-millisecond, it is recommended that standard logic one-shots designed for narrow pulses be used instead of a 555
+timer. IC timers are normally used where long output pulses are required. In this application, the duration of the
+output pulse in seconds is approximately equal to:<br>
+<br>
+<center><font color="#0000FF" size="4">T = 1.1 x R x C (in seconds)</font></center>
+<br>
+The output pulse width is defined by the above formula and with relatively few restrictions, timing components R(t)
+and C(t) can have a wide range of values. There is actually no theoretical upper limit on T (output pulse width),
+only practical ones. The lower limit is 10uS. You may consider the range of T to be 10uS to infinity, bounded only
+by R and C limits. Special R(t) and C(t) techniques allow for timing periods of days, weeks, and even months if so
+desired.<br>
+However, a reasonable lower limit for R(t) is in the order of about 10Kilo ohm, mainly from the standpoint of power
+economy. (Although R(t) can be lower that 10K without harm, there is no need for this from the standpoint of
+achieving a short pulse width.) A practical minimum for C(t) is about 95pF; below this the stray effects of
+capacitance become noticeable, limiting accuracy and predictability. Since it is obvious that the product of these
+two minimums yields a T that is less the 10uS, there is much flexibility in the selection of R(t) and C(t). Usually
+C(t) is selected first to minimize size (and expense); then R(t) is chosen.<br>
+<br>
+The upper limit for R(t) is in the order of about 15 Mega ohm but should be less than this if all the accuracy of
+which the 555 is capable is to be achieved. The absolute upper limit of R(t) is determined by the threshold current
+plus the discharge leakage when the operating voltage is +5 volt. For example, with a threshold plus leakage current
+of 120nA, this gives a maximum value of 14M for R(t) (very optimistic value). Also, if the C(t) leakage current
+is such that the sum of the threshold current and the leakage current is in excess of 120 nA the circuit will never
+time-out because the upper threshold voltage will not be reached. Therefore, it is good practice to select a value
+for R(t) so that, with a voltage drop of 1/3 V+ across it, the value should be 100 times more, if practical.<br>
+So, it should be obvious that the real limit to be placed on C(t) is its leakage, not it's capacitance value, since
+larger-value capacitors have higher leakages as a fact of life. Low-leakage types, like tantalum or NPO, are
+available and preferred for long timing periods.
+Sometimes input trigger source conditions can exist that will necessitate some type of signal conditioning to
+ensure compatibility with the triggering requirements of the 555. This can be achieved by adding another capacitor,
+one or two resistors and a small signal diode to the input to form a pulse differentiator to shorten the input
+trigger pulse to a width less than 10uS (in general, less than T). Their values and criterion are not critical;
+the main one is that the width of the resulting differentiated pulse (after C) should be <i>less</i> than the
+desired output pulse for the period of time it is below the 1/3 V+ trigger level.<br>
+<br>
+There are several different types of 555 timers. The LM555 from National is the most common one these days, in my
+opinion. The Exar XR-L555 timer is a micropower version of the standard 555 offering a direct, pin-for-pin (also
+called plug-compatible) substitute device with an advantage of a lower power operation. It is capable of operation
+of a wider range of positive supply voltage from as low as 2.7volt minimum up to 18 volts maximum. At a supply
+voltage of +5V, the L555 will typically dissipate of about 900 microwatts, making it ideally suitable for battery
+operated circuits. The internal schematic of the L555 is very much similar to the standard 555 but with additional
+features like 'current spiking' filtering, lower output drive capability, higher nodal impedances, and better noise
+reduction system.<br>
+<br>
+<a href="http://www.maxim.com/">Maxim's</a> ICM7555, and <a href="http://www.sanyo.com/">Sanyo's</a> LC7555 models are a low-power, general purpose CMOS design version
+of the standard 555, also with a direct pin-for-pin compatibility with the regular 555. It's advantages are very
+low timing/bias currents, low power-dissipation operation and an even wider voltage supply range of as low as 2.0
+volts to 18 volts. At 5 volts the 7555 will dissipate about 400 microwatts, making it also very suitable for battery
+operation. The internal schematic of the 7555 (not shown) is however totally different from the normal 555 version
+because of the different design process with cmos technology. It has much higher input impedances than the standard
+bipolar transistors used. The cmos version removes essentially any timing component restraints related to timer
+bias currents, allowing resistances as high as practical to be used.<br>
+This very versatile version should be considered where a wide range of timing is desired, as well as low power
+operation and low current sync'ing appears to be important in the particular design.<br>
+A couple years after Intersil, <a href="http://www.texasinstruments.com/">Texas Instruments</a> came on the market
+with another cmos variation called the LINCMOS (LINear CMOS) or Turbo 555. In general, different manufacturers
+for the cmos 555's reduced the current from 10mA to 100µA while the supply voltage minimum was reduced to
+about 2 volts, making it an ideal type for 3v applications. The cmos version is the choice for battery powered
+circuits. However, the negative side for the cmos 555's is the reduced output current, both for sync and source,
+but this problem can be solved by adding a amplifier transistor on the output if so required. For comparison, the
+regular 555 can easily deliver a 200mA output versus 5 to 50mA for the 7555. On the workbench the regular 555
+reached a limited output frequency of 180Khz while the 7555 easily surpassed the 1.1Mhz mark and the TLC555 stopped
+at about 2.4Mhz. Components used were 1% Resistors and low-leakage capacitors, supply voltage used was 10volt.<br>
+<br>
+Some of the less desirable properties of the regular 555 are high supply current, high trigger current, double
+output transitions, and inability to run with very low supply voltages. These problems have been remedied in a
+collection of CMOS successors.<br>
+A caution about the regular 555 timer chips; the 555, along with some other timer ic's, generates a big (about 150mA)
+supply current glitch during each output transition. Be sure to use a hefty bypass capacitor over the power
+connections near the timer chip. And even so, the 555 may have a tendency to generate double output transitions.<br>
+<br>
+
+<img src="555_files/555fig9b.gif" alt="Fig. 9b, Astable example" align="left" height="181" width="195">
+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<font color="#FF00FF" size="4">A</font>stable operation: Figure 9b
+shows the 555 connected as an astable multivibrator. Both the trigger and threshold inputs (pins 2 and 6) to the
+two comparators are connected together and to the external capacitor. The capacitor charges toward the supply
+voltage through the two resistors, R1 and R2. The discharge pin (7) connected to the internal transistor is
+connected to the junction of those two resistors.<br>
+When power is first applied to the circuit, the capacitor will be uncharged, therefore, both the trigger and
+threshold inputs will be near zero volts (see Fig. 10). The lower comparator sets the control flip-flop causing
+the output to switch high. That also turns off transistor T1. That allows the capacitor to begin charging
+through R1 and R2. As soon as the charge on the capacitor reaches 2/3 of the supply voltage, the upper comparator
+will trigger causing the flip-flop to reset. That causes the output to switch low. Transistor T1 also conducts.
+The effect of T1 conducting causes resistor R2 to be connected across the external capacitor. Resistor R2 is
+effectively connected to ground through internal transistor T1. The result of that is that the capacitor now
+begins to discharge through R2.<br>
+The only difference between the single 555, dual 556, and quad 558 (both 14-pin types), is the common power rail.
+For the rest everything remains the same as the single version, 8-pin 555.<br>
+<br>
+
+<img src="555_files/555fig10.gif" alt="Initial charge-up" align="right" height="130" width="305">As soon as the voltage across the capacitor
+reaches 1/3 of the supply voltage, the lower comparator is triggered.
+That again causes the control flip-flop to set and the output to go high. Transistor T1 cuts off and again the
+capacitor begins to charge. That cycle continues to repeat with the capacitor alternately charging and discharging,
+as the comparators cause the flip-flop to be repeatedly set and reset. The resulting output is a continuous stream
+of rectangular pulses.<br>
+<br>
+The frequency of operation of the astable circuit is dependent upon the values of R1, R2, and C. The frequency can
+be calculated with the formula:<br>
+
+<center><font color="#0000FF" size="4">f = 1/(.693 x C x (R1 + 2 x R2))</font></center>
+<br>
+The Frequency f is in Hz, R1 and R2 are in ohms, and C is in farads. The time duration between pulses is known as
+the 'period', and usually designated with a 't'. The pulse is on for t1 seconds, then off for t2 seconds. The total
+period (t) is t1 + t2 (see fig. 10). That time interval is related to the frequency by the familiar relationship:<br>
+<br>
+<center><font color="#0000FF" size="4">f = 1/t</font>&nbsp; <font size="4">or</font>&nbsp; <font color="#0000FF" size="4">t = 1/f</font></center>
+<br>
+The time intervals for the on and off portions of the output depend upon the values of R1 and R2. The ratio of the
+time duration when the output pulse is high to the total period is known as the duty-cycle. The duty-cycle can be
+calculated with the formula:<br>
+<br>
+<center><font color="#0000FF" size="4">D = t1/t = (R1 + R2) / (R1 + 2R2)</font></center>
+<br>
+You can calculate t1 and t2 times with the formulas below:<br>
+<br>
+<center><font color="#0000FF" size="4">&nbsp;t1 = .693(R1+R2)C</font></center>
+<center><font color="#0000FF" size="4">t2 = .693 x R2 x C</font></center>
+<br>
+The 555, when connected as shown in Fig. 9b, can produce duty-cycles in the range of approximately 55 to 95%. A
+duty-cycle of 80% means that the output pulse is on or high for 80% of the total period. The duty-cycle can be
+adjusted by varying the values of R1 and R2.<br>
+<br>
+
+<font color="#0000FF" size="4"><u>Applications:</u></font><br>
+There are literally thousands of different ways that the 555 can be used in electronic circuits. In almost every
+case, however, the basic circuit is either a one-shot or an astable.
+The application usually requires a specific pulse time duration, operation frequency, and duty-cycle. Additional
+components may have to be connected to the 555 to interface the device to external circuits or devices.
+In the remainder of this experiment, you will build both the one-shot and astable circuits and learn about some of
+the different kinds of applications that can be implemented. Furthermore, the last page of this document contains
+555 examples which you can build and experiment with.<br>
+<br>
+
+<font color="#0000FF" size="4"><u>Required Parts:</u></font><br>
+In addition to a breadboard and a DC powersupply with a voltage in the 5 to 12 volt range, you will need the
+following components: 555 timer, LED, 2-inch /8 ohm loudspeaker, 150-ohm 1/4 watt resistor, two 10K ohm 1/4
+resistors, two 1-Mega ohm 1/2 watt resistors, 10 Mega ohm 1/4 watt resistor, 0.1 µF capacitor, and a 0.68µF
+capacitor.<br>
+<hr>
+
+<img src="555_files/555fig11.gif" alt="Fig. 11, one-shot" align="left" height="207" width="271"><center>
+<font size="5">Experimental steps: </font></center>
+<br>
+
+<font color="#0000FF"><br><br><br><i>This circuit is resetable by grounding pin 4, so be sure to have an extra wire at
+pin 4 ready to test that feature.</i>
+</font><br><br><br>
+<br>
+
+<pre><b>
+ 1. On your breadboard, wire the one-shot circuit as shown in figure 11.
+
+ 2. Apply power to the circuit. If you have a standard 5 volt logic supply,
+ use it for convenience. You may use any voltage between 5 and 15
+ volts with a 555 timer. You can also run the circuit from battery power.
+ A standard 9-volt battery will work perfectly.
+ With the power connected, note the status of the LED:
+ is it on or off? ________________
+
+ 3. Connect a short piece of hook-up wire to the trigger input line on pin 2.
+ Momentarily, touch that wire to ground. Remove it quickly. That will
+ create a pulse at the trigger input.
+ Note and record the state of LED: _____________________
+
+ 4. Continue to observe the LED and note any change in the output state
+ after a period of time. What is the state? ______________
+
+ 5. When you trigger the one-shot, time the duration of the output pulse with
+ a stopwatch or the seconds hand on your watch. To do that, the instant
+ that you trigger the one-shot by touching the wire to ground, immediately
+ start your stopwatch or make note of the seconds hand on your watch.
+ Trigger the one-shot and time the output pulse. Write in the approximate
+ value of the pulse-duration: ______________________
+
+ 6. Using the values of external resistor and capacitor values in Fig. 11 and
+ the time interval formula for a one-shot, calculate the output-pulse duration.
+ What is your value? _____________________
+
+ 7. Compare your calculated and timed values of output pulses. Explain any
+ discrepancies between your calculated and measured values.
+ Answer: _________________________________________________
+
+ 8. Connect a short piece of hook-up wire to pin 4. You will use that as a
+ reset.
+
+ 9. Trigger the one-shot as indicated previously. Then immediately touch
+ the reset wire from pin 4 to ground. Note the LED result: _____________
+
+ 10. With a DC voltmeter, measure the output voltage at pin 3 during the one
+ shot's off and on states. What are your values?
+ OFF: __________ volts ON: ___________ volts.
+
+ 11. Replace the 10 MegOhm resistor with a 1 MegOhm resistor and repeat
+ steps 5 and 6. Record your timed and calculated results:
+ Timed: ________ seconds Calculated: _________seconds
+</b></pre>
+<img src="555_files/555fig12.gif" alt="Fig. 12, astable multivibrator" align="left" height="220" width="290"><font color="#0000FF" size="1">
+<br><br><br><br><i>If you want to get fancy, after you've completed the experiment you can replace the resistors
+with potentiometers to build a variable function generator and play with that to learn more. To automate the 'RESET'
+pin, you can connect this pin directly to the positive of pin 8. (Thanks Bob).</i></font><br>
+<br><br><br><br>
+<br><br>
+
+<pre><b>
+ 12. Next you will experiment with astable circuits. First, rewire the circuit so
+ it appears as shown in Fig. 12.
+
+ 13. Apply power to the circuit and observe the LED. What is happening?
+ Answer: ____________________________________________________
+
+ 14. Replace the 10 MegOhm resistor with a 1 MegOhm resistor. Again
+ observe the LED. Is the frequency higher or lower? _________________
+
+ 15. Using the formula given in the tutorial, calculate the oscillation frequency
+ using R1 as 10 MegOhm, and again with R1 as 1 MegOhm, and again with
+ R1 as 10 MegOhm. R2 is 1 MegOhm in both cases. Record your freq's:
+ f = _____________ Hz (R1 = 10 MegOhm)
+ f = _____________ Hz (R1 = 1 MegOhm)
+
+ 16. Calculate the period, t1 and t2, and the duty-cycle for each resistor value:
+ 10 MegOhm: t = ___________ t1 = ____________ t2 = ____________
+
+ 1 MegOhm: t = ___________ t1 = ____________ t2= ____________
+</b></pre>
+
+<img src="555_files/555fig13.gif" alt="Fig. 13, with speaker" align="left" height="162" width="202"><font color="#0000FF"><br><br><br><br><i>
+Monitoring the timer with a speaker can be amusing if you switch capacitors or resistors to make an organ.</i>
+</font><br><br><br>
+<br><br>
+
+<pre><b>
+ 17. Rewire the circuit making R1 and R2 10,000 ohms (10K) and C equal to 0.1µF.
+ Use the same circuit in Fig. 12. But, replace the LED and its resistor with
+ a speaker and capacitor as shown in Fig. 13.
+
+ 18. Apply power to the circuit and note the result: ______________________
+
+ 19. Calculate the frequency of the circuit: f = ____________________ Hz
+
+ 20. If you have an oscilloscope, monitor the output voltage on pin 3.
+ Disconnect the speaker and note the output. Also, observe the capacitor
+ charge and discharge at pin 6 or 2: _____________________________</b></pre>
+<br>
+<hr noshade="noshade">
+<font color="#FF00FF" size="3"><b>Review of steps 1 through 20:</b></font><br>
+The circuit you built for those steps was a one-shot multi-vibrator. The circuit is similar to that described in
+the tutorial. The trigger input is held high with a 10,000 ohm resistor. When you bring pin 2 low, by touching the
+wire to ground, the one-shot is fired. The LED installed at the output of the 555 is used to monitor the output
+pulse. The LED goes on when the one-shot is triggered.<br>
+The component values selected for the circuit are large, so as to generate a long output pulse. That allows you
+to measure the pulse duration with a stop watch. Once the one-shot is triggered, the output LED stays on until
+the capacitor charges to 2/3 of the supply voltage. That triggers the upper comparator and causes the internal
+control flip-flop to reset, turning off the pulse and discharging the capacitor. The one-shot will remain in that
+state until it is triggered again.<br>
+Timing the pulse should have produced an output duration of approximately 7.5 seconds. Calculating the output time
+interval using the formula given previously, you found the pulse duration to be: <br>
+<br>
+<font color="blue" size="4"><center> t = 1.1 x .68 x 10<sup>-6</sup> x 10<sup>7</sup> = 7.48 seconds </center></font>
+<br>
+
+You may have notice some difference between the calculated and actual measured values. The differences probably
+result from inaccuracies in your timing. Further more, component tolerances may be such that the actual values are
+different from the marked values.<br>
+In <b>steps 8 and 9</b> you demonstrated the reset function. As you noticed, you could terminate the output pulse
+before the timing cycle is completed by touching pin 4 to ground. That instantly resets the flip-flop and shuts off
+the output pulse.<br>
+In <b>step 10</b>, you measured the output voltage. When off, the output is only a fraction of a volt. For all
+practical purposes it is zero. When triggered, the 555 generates a 3.5 volt pulse with a 5-volt supply. If you used
+another value of supply voltage, you would probably have discovered that the output during the pulse is about 1.5
+volt less than the supply voltage.<br>
+In <b>step11</b>, you lowered the resistor value to 1 Megohm. As you noticed, that greatly shortens the output
+pulse duration. The LED only stayed on for a brief time; so brief in fact that you probably couldn't time it
+accurately. The calculated duration of the output pulse is 0.748 seconds.<br>
+
+The circuit you built for <b>steps 12 - 20</b> was an astable multi-vibrator. The astable circuit is an oscillator
+whose frequency is dependent upon the R1, R2, and C values. In <b>step 13</b>, you should have found that the LED
+flashed off and on slowly.<br>
+The oscillation frequency is 0.176 Hz. That gives a period of:<br>
+<br>
+ <center><font color="#0000FF" size="4">t = 1/f = 1/.176 = 5.66 seconds</font></center>
+<br>
+Since R1 is larger than R2, the LED will be <b>on</b> for a little over 5 seconds and it will stay <b>off</b> for
+only 0.5 seconds. That translates to a duty-cycle of:<br>
+<br>
+ <center><font color="#0000FF" size="4">D = t1/t = 5.18/5.66 = .915 or 91.5%</font></center>
+<br>
+In <b>step 14</b>, you replaced the 10 MegOhm resistor with a 1 MegOhm resistor making both R1 and R2 equal. The new
+frequency is 0.706 Hz, much higher than in <b>step 13</b>. That translates to a period of 1.41 seconds. Calculating
+the t1 and t2 times, you see that the LED is on for 0.942 second and off for 0.467 second. That represents a
+duty-cycle of:<br>
+<br>
+ <center><font color="#0000FF" size="4">D = 0.942/1.41 = 0.67 or 67%</font></center>
+<br>
+In <b>step 17</b>, you made R1 = R2 = 10,000 ohm (10K) and C = 0.1uF. That increased the frequency to 480Hz. The
+result should have been a loud tone in the speaker.<br>
+If you had used an oscilloscope, you saw the output to be a distorted rectangular wave of about 2 volts
+peak-to-peak. That distortion is caused by the speaker load. Removing it makes the waveform nice and square and
+the voltage rises to about 5 volts peak-to-peak. The capacitor waveform is a combination of the classical charge
+and discharge curves given earlier.<br>
+The time is useful in computer, function generators, clocks, music synthesizers, games, flashing lights, printers,
+scanners and the list goes on and on.<br>
+<hr noshade="noshade">
+
+<!--The following lines contain example circuits using the 555 timer/oscillator-->
+<center><font size="3"><font size="+3">Example Circuits:</font></font></center><font size="3">
+<br>
+I have placed a couple 555 circuit examples below for your convenience. Play with different component values
+and use the formulas mentioned earlier to calculate your results. Things to remember: For proper monostable
+operation with the 555 timer, the negative-going trigger pulse width should be kept short compared to the desired
+output pulse width. Values for the external timing resistor and capacitor can either be determined from the
+previous formulas. However, you should stay within the ranges of resistances shown earlier to avoid the use of
+large value electrolytic capacitors, since they tend to be leaky. Otherwise, tantalum or mylar types should be
+used. (For noise immunity on most timer circuits I recommend a 0.01uF (10nF) ceramic capacitor between pin 5 and
+ground.) In all circuit diagrams below I used the LM555CN timer IC from National, but the NE555 and others should
+not give you any problems.<br>
+<br>
+
+<img src="555_files/555ex1.gif" alt="Dark Detector" border="1" height="214" width="232">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
+<img src="555_files/555ex2.gif" alt="Power Alarm" border="1" height="220" width="298"><br>
+<br>
+<img src="555_files/555ex3.gif" alt="Tilt Switch" border="1" height="221" width="231">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
+<img src="555_files/555ex4.gif" alt="Elec-Eye Alarm" border="1" height="228" width="294"><br>
+<br>
+<img src="555_files/555ex5.gif" alt="Metronome" border="1" height="211" width="264">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
+<img src="555_files/555ex6.gif" alt="CW Keyer" border="1" height="209" width="255"><br>
+<br>
+<img src="555_files/555ex7.gif" alt="Contineous Wave (CW) Monitor" border="1" height="221" width="255">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
+<img src="555_files/555ex8.gif" alt="10-Min. Timer" border="1" height="227" width="233"><br>
+<br>
+<img src="555_files/555ex9.gif" alt="Schmitt Trigger" border="1" height="198" width="229">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
+<img src="555_files/555ex10.gif" alt="Better Timing" border="1" height="241" width="200"><br>
+<br>
+<img src="555_files/mispulse.gif" alt="Missing Pulse" border="1" height="353" width="332"><br>
+<br>
+
+<font color="#0000FF" size="4"><b><u>Circuits 1 to 10a:</u></b></font><br>
+Play with different indicating devices such as bells, horns, lights, relays, or whatever (if possible).
+Try different types of LDR's. If for any reason you get false triggering, connect a ceramic 0.01uF (=10nF)
+capacitor between pin 5 (555) and ground. Keeping the basic rules of the 555 timer, try different values for
+Ct and Rt (or the C &amp; R over pins 2, 6 &amp; 7) Replace Rt with a 1 megohm potentiometer if you wish. Make notes
+of the values used and use the formulas to calculate timing. Verify your calculations with your timing.<br>
+<br>
+
+<fontcolor="#ff00ff"><b>Fig. 1, Dark Detector: </b></fontcolor="#ff00ff"></font>It will sound an alarm if it gets too dark all
+over sudden. For example, this circuit could be used to notify when a lamp (or bulb) burns out. The detector used
+is a regular cadmium-sulphide Light Dependent Resistor or <i><b>LDR</b></i>, for short, to sense the absence of
+light and to operate a small speaker. The LDR enables the alarm when light falls below a certain level.<br>
+<br>
+
+<font color="#FF00FF"><b>Fig. 2, Power Alarm: </b></font>This circuit can be used as a audible 'Power-out
+Alarm'. It uses the 555 timer as an oscillator biased off by the presence of line-based DC voltage. When the line
+voltage fails, the bias is removed, and the tone will be heard in the speaker. R1 and C1 provide the DC bias that
+charges capacitor Ct to over 2/3 voltage, thereby holding the timer output low (as you learned previously). Diode
+D1 provides DC bias to the timer-supply pin and, optionally, charges a rechargeable 9-volt battery across D2. And
+when the line power fails, DC is furnished to the timer through D2.<br>
+<br>
+
+<font color="#FF00FF"><b>Fig. 3 Tilt Switch: </b></font>Actually really a alarm circuit, it shows how to
+use a 555 timer and a small glass-encapsulated mercury switch to indicate 'tilt'.<br> The switch is mounted in
+its normal 'open' position, which allows the timer output to stay low, as established by C1 on startup. When S1
+is disturbed, causing its contacts to be bridged by the mercury blob, the 555 latch is set to a high output level
+where it will stay even if the switch is returned to its starting position. The high output can be used to enable
+an alarm of the visual or the audible type. Switch S2 will silent the alarm and reset the latch. C1 is a ceramic
+0.1uF (=100 nano-Farad) capacitor.<br>
+<br>
+
+<font color="#FF00FF"><b>Fig. 4, Electric Eye Alarm: </b></font>The Electric-Eye Alarm is actually a
+similar circuit like the Dark Detector of Fig. 1. The same type of LDR is used. The pitch for the speaker can
+be set with the 500 kilo-ohm potentiometer. Watch for the orientation of the positive (+) of the 10uF capacitor.
+The '+' goes to pin 3.<br>
+<br>
+
+<font color="#FF00FF"><b>Fig. 5, Metronome: </b></font>A Metronome is a device used in the music industry.
+It indicates the rhythm by a 'toc-toc' sound which speed can be adjusted with the 250K potentiometer. Very handy if
+you learning to play music and need to keep the correct rhythm up.<br>
+Error fixed with thanks to <font color="maroon"><i><b>Grant Fair</b></i></font> in regards to the two resistors.
+(Grant also added a PNP power transistor to increase the volume and a led for visual as well as audio output).<br>
+<br>
+
+<font color="#FF00FF"><b>Fig. 6, CW Practice Oscillator: </b></font>CW stands for <i>'Continuous Wave'</i>
+or Morse-Code. You can practice the morse-code with this circuit. The 100K potmeter is for the 'pitch' and the
+10K for the speaker volume. The "Key" is a morse code key.<br>
+<br>
+
+<font color="#FF00FF"><b>Fig. 7, CW Monitor: </b></font>This circuit monitors the morse code 'on-air' via
+the tuning circuit hookup to pin 4 and the short wire antenna. The 100K potmeter controls the tone-pitch.<br>
+<br>
+
+<font color="#FF00FF"><b>Fig. 8, Ten-Minute Timer: </b></font>Can be used as a time-out warning for Ham
+Radio. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) requires the ham radio operator to identify his station by
+giving his call-sign at least every 10 minutes. This can be a problem, especially during lengthy conversations
+when it is difficult to keep track of time. The 555 is used as a one-shot so that a visual warning indicator
+becomes active after 10-minutes. To begin the cycle, the reset switch is pressed which causes the <i>'Green'</i>
+led to light up. After 10 minutes, set by the 500K potentiometer R1, the <i>'Red'</i> led will light to warn the
+operator that he must identify.<br>
+<br>
+
+<font color="#FF00FF"><b>Fig. 9, Schmitt Trigger: </b></font>A very simple, but effective circuit. It
+cleans up any noisy input signal in a nice, clean and square output signal. In radio control (R/C) it will clean
+up noisy servo signals caused by rf interference by long servo leads. As long as R1 equals R2, the 555 will
+automatically be biased for any supply voltage in the 5 to 16 volt range. (Advanced Electronics: It should be
+noted that there is a 180-degree phase shift.) This circuit also lends itself to condition 60-Hz sine-wave
+reference signal taken from a 6.3 volt AC transformer before driving a series of binary or divide-by-N counters.
+The major advantage is that, unlike a conventional multivibrator type of squares which divides the input frequency
+by 2, this method simply squares the 60-Hz sine wave reference signal without division.<br>
+<br>
+
+<font color="#FF00FF"><b>Fig. 10, Better Timing: </b></font>Better and more stable timing output is created
+with the addition of a transistor and a diode to the R-C timing network. The frequency can be varied over a wide range
+while maintaining a constant 50% duty-cycle. When the output is <b>high</b>, the transistor is biased into saturation
+by R2 so that the charging current passes through the transistor and R1 to C. When the output goes <b>low</b>, the
+discharge transistor (pin 7) cuts off the transistor and discharges the capacitor through R1 and the diode. The high
+&amp; low periods are equal. The value of the capacitor (C) and the resistor (R1 or potmeter) is not given. It is a mere
+example of how to do it and the values are pending on the type of application, so choose your own values. The diode
+can be any small signal diode like the NTE519, 1N4148, 1N914 or 1N3063, but a high conductance Germanium or Schottky
+type for the diode will minimize the diode voltage drops in the transistor and diode. However, the transistor should
+have a high beta so that R2 can be large and still cause the transistor to saturate. The transistor can be a TUN
+(europe), NTE123, 2N3569 and most others.<br>
+<br>
+<font color="#FF00FF"><b>Fig. 10a, Missing Pulse Detector (Basic): </b></font>This transistor can be replaced
+with a ECG or NTE159. This is just a basic model but works. Experiment with the values of Resistor and Capacitor.
+A good example would be the <a href="http://www.uoguelph.ca/%7Eantoon/gadgets/locator.htm"> <b>'Crashed Aircraft
+Locator'</b></a> beacon used in radio control. If there is no signal it sees it as a missing pulse and sounds buzzer.<br>
+<br><br><br>
+<!--The following lines contain combination circuits with the 555-->
+
+<center><hr noshade="noshade"></center>
+The following circuits are examples of how a 555 timer IC assist in combination with another <b>I</b>ntegrated <b>
+C</b>ircuit. Again, don't be afraid to experiment. Unless you circumvent the min and max parameters of the 555, it
+is very hard to destroy. Just have fun and learn something doing it.<br>
+<center><hr noshade="noshade"></center>
+<br>
+
+<center><img src="555_files/555ex11.gif" alt="555 Two-tone experiment" border="1" height="257" width="441"></center><br>
+<br>
+<img src="555_files/555ex12.gif" alt="555 Recorder Beep" align="left" border="1" height="221" width="280"><br>&nbsp;
+<img src="555_files/555ex13.gif" alt="Coin Toss" border="1" height="200" width="300"><br>
+<br>
+<img src="555_files/555ex14.gif" alt="555 Logic Probe
+with Pulse" border="1" height="365" width="579"><br>
+<br><br><br>
+<img src="555_files/7400.gif" align="left"><font color="#0000FF" size="4"><b><u>Circuits 11
+to 14:</u></b></font><br>
+Play with different indicating devices such as bells, horns, lights, relays, or whatever (if possible). Try
+different types of LDR's. If for any reason you get false triggering, connect a ceramic 0.01uF (=10nF) capacitor
+between pin 5 (555) and ground. In all circuit diagrams below I used the LM555CN timer IC from National. The 555
+timer will work with any voltage between 3.5 and 15volt. A 9-volt battery is usually a general choice. Keeping
+notes is an important aspect of the learning process.<br>
+<br>
+<font color="#FF00FF"><b>Fig. 11, Two-Tones: </b></font> The purpose of this experiment is to wire two 555
+timers together to create a 2-note tone. If you wish, you can use the dual 556 timer ic.<br>
+<br>
+<font color="#FF00FF"><b>Fig. 12, Recording Beep: </b></font> This circuit is used to keep recording of
+telephone conversations legal. As you may know, doing otherwise without consent of the other party is illegal.
+The output of IC1 is fed to the 2nd 555's pin 3 and made audible via C2 and the speaker. Any 8-ohm speaker will
+do.<br>
+<br>
+<font color="#FF00FF"><b>Fig. 13, Coin Toss: </b></font> Electronic 'Heads-or-tails' coin toss circuit.
+Basically a <b>Yes</b> or <b>No</b> decision maker when you can't make up your mind yourself. The 555 is wired as a
+Astable Oscillator, driving in turn, via pin 3, the <a href="http://www.sentex.ca/%7Emec1995/circ/7473.gif"><b>7473</b></a> flip-flop. When
+you press S1 it randomly selects the 'Heads' or 'Tails' led. The leds flashrate is about 2Khz (kilo-Hertz), which
+is much faster than your eyes can follow, so initially it appears that both leds are 'ON'. As soon as the switch is
+released only one led will be lit.<br>
+<br>
+<font color="#FF00FF"><b>Fig. 14, Logic Probe: </b></font> Provides you with three visible indicators;
+"Logic 1" (+, red led), "Logic 0" (-, green led), and "Pulse" (yellow led). Good for TTL and CMOS.
+The yellow or 'pulse' led comes on for approximately 200 mSec to indicate a pulse without regards to its width.
+This feature enables one to observe a short-duration pulse that would otherwise not be seen on the logic 1 and 0
+led's. A small switch (subminiature slide or momentary push) across the 20K resistor can be used to keep this
+"pulse" led on permanently after a pulse occurs.<br>
+In operation, for a logic 0 input signal, both the '0' led and the pulse led will come 'ON', but the 'pulse' led
+will go off after 200 mSec. The logic levels are detected via resistor R1 (1K), then amplified by T1 (NPN, Si-AF
+Preamplifier/Driver), and selected by the 7400 IC for what they are. Diode D1 is a small signal diode to protect
+the <a href="http://www.uoguelph.ca/%7Eantoon/circ/7400.gif"><b>7400</b></a> and the leds from excessive inverse voltages during capacitor
+discharge.<br>
+For a logic '1' input, only the logic '1' led (red) will be 'ON'. With the switch closed, the circuit will indicate
+whether a negative-going or positive-going pulse has occurred. If the pulse is positive-going, both the '0' and
+'pulse' led's will be on. If the pulse is negative-going, the '1' and 'pulse' led's will be on.<br>
+<br>
+
+<img src="555_files/555i-o.gif" alt="Table 2, variations in manufacturer" align="left" border="0" height="387" width="351"><br><br><br><br><br><br> Check
+the listing in Table 2. It shows some variations in the 555 manufacturing process by two different manufacturers,
+National Semiconductor and Signetics Corporation. Since there are other manufacturers then those two I suggest
+when you build a circuit to stick with the particular 555 model they specify in the schematic. Meaning, the LM555
+and NE555 have minor differences the way they operate. In general you can use one for the other. However, on some
+occasion, the NE555 will not work in your circuit but the LM555 does and vice versa. So, when a certain schematic
+calls for a NE555, uA555, LM555 or a MC1455 try to obtain that specific type if things don't work out.<br>
+<br>
+<br><br><br>
+<br><br><br>
+<br>
+<br>
+<br>
+
+The absolute <font color="#ff0000">maximum</font> ratings (in free air) for NE/SA/SE types are:<br>
+<pre> Vcc, supply voltage: 18V
+Input voltage (CONT, RESET, THRES, TRIG): Vcc
+ Output current: 225mA (approx)
+ Operating free-air temp. range: NE555........... 0°C - 70°C
+ SA555........... -40°C - 85°C
+ SE555, SE555C... -55°C - 125°C
+ Storage temperature range: -65°C - 150°C
+Case temperature for 60sec. (FK package): 260°C
+</pre>
+<font color="#0000FF"><b><u>Suggested Reading:</u></b></font><br>
+<b><font size="2"><br>
+1. 555 Timer IC Circuits. Forrest M. Mims III, Engineer's Mini Notebook. Radio Shack Cat. No: 62-5010.<br>
+ "Create &amp; experiment with pulse generators, oscillators, and time delays."<br>
+<br>
+2. IC Timer Cookbook. Walter G. Jung. Published by Howard W. Sams &amp; Co., Inc. ISBN: 0-672-21932-8.<br>
+ "A reference 'must' for hobby, technicians, and engineers."<br>
+<br>
+3. The 555 Timer Applications Sourcebook. Howard M. Berlin. Published by Sams Inc. ISBN: 0-672-21538-1.<br>
+ "Learn how to connect the 555, perform 17 simple experiments."<br>
+<br>
+4. Other good 555 timer/oscillator tutorials can be found here also:
+<pre><font size="2"> <a href="http://www.doctronics.co.uk/555.htm"><b>Doctronics</b></a>
+ <a href="http://www.williamson-labs.com/555-circuits.htm"><b>Williams Lab</b></a>
+ <a href="http://home.cogeco.ca/%7Erpaisley4/LM555.html"><b>LM555 and LM556 Timer Circuits</b></a>
+</font>
+</pre>
+
+</font></b>
+<hr noshade="noshade">
+<br>
+<font size="2">Copyright <font color="red">©</font> 1995 - Tony van Roon (VA3AVR). ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.</font><br>
+<font color="#0000FF" size="2">Last updated: September 26, 2010</font>
+
+</font></font></font></body></html>
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578 7152.0.learnbasicelectronics
@@ -0,0 +1,578 @@
+<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN">
+
+<html>
+
+<head>
+
+<title>Introduction To Basic Electronics - Basic Electronics Tutorial</title>
+
+<META name="description" CONTENT="There are two ways to learn basic electronics, the old long stodgy boring way or my fresh new hands-on meat and potatoes way.">
+<META name="keywords" CONTENT="learn basic electronics,home study basic electronics course,basic electronics,basics of electronics,basic electronics tutorial, basic electronics mini course">
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+
+</script>
+
+</head>
+
+
+<body style="background: #4C86BA;">
+
+<center>
+
+<div style="width:87%; background:#4C86BA; border:0px solid; padding:12px;">
+
+<div style="width:83%; background:#ffffff; border:1px solid; padding:12px;">
+<font face="arial" size="2">
+<b>**</b>The special offer on this page is ending soon.</font>
+<br />
+<div style="width:78%; ">
+<p align="left"><font face="arial" size="3">
+<b>If you are interested in learning some basic electronics you need to read this page...
+ </b>
+</p></font>
+</div>
+<div style="width:83%; ">
+
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/wouldyoulike.png" width="98%" alt="Would You Like To Learn Enough Basic Electronics in 1 Jam-Packed-Package To Keep Your Fears About Not Understanding Basic Electronics From Ever Holding YOU Back?">
+
+<br /><br />
+<font face="verdana" size="4">
+FINALLY, Learn Simple Basic Electronics The Easy Way <br />At Home And At Your Own Speed</font>
+</p>
+<p align="left">
+<font face="tahoma" size="3">
+<b>Designed To Be Very Easy - <i><u>No Prior Knowledge Of Electronics Is Required</u></b></i>
+</font></p><br />
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/image/itbe500.png" width="44%">
+</div>
+
+
+
+
+<div style="width:92%; background:#ffffff; ">
+<font face="tahoma" size="5"><b>Would <u>You</u> Benefit From Learning Some Basic Electronics?</b></font>
+<p align="left"><font face="arial"><font size="3">
+<b>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
+ <font color="green"><img src="images/checkmark-sq.gif">
+<i><u>YES</u></i></font> - <font size="3">You'll better understand electronic components like resistors, capacitors, inductors, and transistors.</font><br /><br />
+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<img src="images/checkmark-sq.gif"> <font color="green"><i><u>YES</u></i></font> - <font size="3">You could start looking for a higher paying job and be hired first. There are many employers looking for people with some basic electronics background.</font><br /><br />
+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<img src="images/checkmark-sq.gif"> <font color="green"><i><u>YES</u></i></font> - <font size="3">You be able to take any beginning electronics class and have a strong head start over the other students.</font><br /><br />
+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<img src="images/checkmark-sq.gif"> <font color="green"><i><u>YES</u></i></font> - <font size="3">You'll be able to really start enjoying electronics as a fun hobby. Being able to build kits and circuits and having a better idea of how they work is a lot of fun.</font><br /><br />
+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<img src="images/checkmark-sq.gif"> <font color="green"><i><u>YES</u></i></font> - <font size="3">Because almost everything we do depends on electronics, a knowledge of basic electronics is something everyone needs.<br /><br /></font>
+</b>
+
+</font></p></div>
+<br />
+
+<font face="tahoma" size="6" color="blue"><i>
+THIS ALL NEW AND SIMPLIFIED BASIC ELECTRONICS TUTORAL<br />IS AN EASY LEARNING PROGRAM!</i></font>
+
+<br /><br />
+
+<p>
+<div style="width:710; height:370; background:black; ">
+<br />.....
+<div><iframe scrolling="no" width="480" height="320" src="http://1-2-3problemsolved.com/custom-video-player?v=ZHZBQlJ5MEhrVDB8OXx8fDEwMTAwMTB8aHR0cDovL3d3dy5ncmVnc2Jhc2ljZWxlY3Ryb25pY3MuY29tL2ltYWdlcy9pdGJlLWNyb3AuZ2lmLCw2MCw5MCx0bCw3LDEwfGh0dHA6Ly93d3cuZ3JlZ3NiYXNpY2VsZWN0cm9uaWNzLmNvbS9sZWFybmJhc2ljZWxlY3Ryb25pY3Mv" frameborder="0"></iframe></div></div>
+</p>
+
+<font face="tahoma" size="6" color="#FF0000" size="6">
+<u>Introduction</u> <u>To</u> <u>Basic</u> <u>Electronics</u></font><br /><font face="tahoma" size="5">
+At Last YOU Can Learn Simple Electronics The Easy Way <br />At Home And At Your Own Speed</font>
+
+
+<br clear="left">
+<br /><br />
+<div style="width:86%; ">
+<p align="left">
+<font size="4">
+Over the years I have often met people who are interested in electronics and really want to learn it but are not sure if they want to invest the time or the money to take a full electronics course at a college or university.
+<br />
+<br />
+My course "<u>Introduction To Basic Electronics</u>" has inspired many people all over the world to continue on learning electronics, some eventually have even received their degree in electronic engineering. Could this be you in the future?
+</font>
+</div>
+
+<br /><br />
+<font face="helvetica">
+<font size="6"><b>An Introduction To Basic Electronics</b></font><br /><br />
+
+
+
+<div style="width:95%; background:#ffffff; padding:10px;">
+
+
+<p align="left">
+
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/image/itbe500.png" align="left" width="35%">
+<br /><br />
+<br />
+<font size="5" color="red"><b>Exactly What Will You Will Find Inside This Jam-Packed, Really Unusual, <u>Totally Downloadable</u>, Beginning Basic Electronics Tutorial?</b></font>
+<br />
+</p></b>
+</div>
+<br clear="left">
+
+
+
+<br /><br /><br />
+
+
+<div style="width:93%; background:#ffffff;padding:10px;">
+
+
+
+
+<font face="helvetica"><font size="6"><b>Your Journey Starts With This One eBook<br /><br />
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/introto.gif">
+<br />"<i>Introduction To Basic Electronics</i>"</b> </font><br />
+
+<p align="left"><font size="4"><br />
+This Is Where I Will Introduce You To All The <u>Basic Circuit Elements</u>. You Will Learn About...</font></p>
+
+
+<p align="left">
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/checkboxgreen.png" align="left">
+<font color="#002200"><b>1... <big><u><i>Current and Voltage</i></u></big></b></font><br />See what it takes to get electrons moving in a circuit.
+<br /><br />
+ <img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/checkboxgreen.png" align="left"><font color="#002200"><b>2... <big> <u><i> Resistance and Resistors</i></u></big></b></font><br />
+Discover which materials can control the flow of those amazing little electrons.
+<br /><br />
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/checkboxgreen.png" align="left"><font color="#002200"><b>3... <big> <u><i>Capacitance and Capacitors</i></u></big></b></font><br />
+This explains how the strange Electric Field can be contained in a box.
+<br /><br />
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/checkboxgreen.png" align="left"><font color="#002200"><b>4... <big> <u><i>Inductance and Coils</i></u></big></b></font><br />
+Find out what happens when a Magnetic Field and a Coil of Wire come together.
+<br /><br />
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/checkboxgreen.png" align="left"><font color="#002200"><b>5... <big><u><i>Alternating Current</i></u></big></b></font><br />
+Here find out why it's so important to shuttle those electrons back and forth.
+<br /><br />
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/checkboxgreen.png" align="left"><font color="#002200"><b>6...<big><u><i>Transformers</i></u></big></b></font><br />
+See how transformers change something into something that looks like something else
+<br /><br />
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/checkboxgreen.png" align="left"><font color="#002200"><b>7... <big><u><i>Reactance</i></u></big></b></font><br />
+Learn about a weird type of resistance that consumes zero power.
+<br /><br />
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/checkboxgreen.png" align="left"><font color="#002200"><b>8... <big><u><i>Impedance</i></u></big></b></font><br />
+This is what happens when you combine resistance with reactance.
+<br /><br />
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/checkboxgreen.png" align="left"><font color="#002200"><b>9... <big><u><i> Semiconductors - Transistors and Diodes</i></u></big></b></font><br />
+Discover the secrets to understanding these components.
+
+<p align="center">
+<br /><br />
+<font size="5"><span style="background-color:#FFFF00;"><b>Most Other Basic Electronics Courses End Here...</b></span></font><br />
+----------------------------------------------------------
+</p>
+<p align="left">
+<font size="6"><b>But Wait...</b></font>
+<font face="tahoma" size="4" color="#ff3333"><b>Now Along Comes Chapter 10!</b></font><br /><br />
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/checkboxgreen.png" align="left"><font color="#002200"><b>10... <big><u><i>Building Simple Circuits And Soldering Techniques</i></u></big></b></font><br />
+
+Chapter 10 is huge! It's where you start to put to use what you have learned so far.
+<br />It's the Hands-On learning section! This is where things really start to get interesting. Included are <u>videos</u> of me soldering these circuits so you see exactly how it's done.<br /><br />
+Many people memorize the theory but have very little hands on experience actually working with these circuits on their own. This experience is what will separate YOU from those who have only memorized enough theory to pass an exam or a class.
+</ul>
+
+<br clear="left" />
+<br /><br />
+<font size="4"><b>
+At the end of each chapter, one through nine, I've made you a list of all the important points covered in that chapter. This helps makes it even easier to learn.</b><br /><br />
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/image/audiocd.png" align="left" width="15%" hspace="15">
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/circuits/image/small-tv.png" align="left" width="10%" hspace="15">
+<br /><font size="2">To make things easier still, I've made all those chapter notes into 9 audios that you can download and listen to on a mobile device at your convenience. I also made them into 9 separate videos, all downloadable. </font><br />Flash or mp4 formats.
+</font></div>
+
+<br clear="left" />
+
+
+
+<br />
+<div style="width:85%; background:lightyellow; border:1px dashed #008800; padding:16px;">
+
+<p align="left"><font face="helvetica" size="3">
+
+<font size="4" face="arial" color="darkgreen">"<i>The real 'magic' in all of this is that my explanations are simple enough that a smart kid can easily understand them yet they offer a strong, solid understanding of entry level basic electronics.</i>"
+<br /><br />
+<font color="black">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Now isn't that what you're really looking for?</font>
+
+
+<br />
+<div style=width:99%;">
+<p align="left">
+Or else you could end up with some long stodgy boring drawn out explainations that are almost guaranteed to put you to sleep as they go on and on! </font></div></div>
+<br />
+
+
+<br /><br />
+<p><font size="5" font color="red" font face="tahoma"><i><b>A Totally Fresh Different Approach <br />
+And What It Will Do For You</b></i></font></p>
+<br />
+<div style="width:86%; ">
+<font face="helvetica"><font size="3">
+<p align="left">
+I teach basic electronics using a different, laid back approach. Can you tell? Starting at the very beginning, so <u>no prior knowledge of electronics is required</u>, I break everything down into small bite size topics, kind of like my breakfast.
+<br /><br />
+Now you get to take all the time you
+need to do an experiment yourself. Not like lab class at school where you have to get it all done in an hour or two. </p>
+<p align="left">
+For example, after I explain the relationship between voltage and resistance I give you a
+diagram and step by step pictures for a simple circuit that shows how this principle works in real life.</p>
+<p align="left">
+There's no pressure from me, from other students or teachers, nor are there any time limits or even any clocks!
+(except for your own of course)
+<br /><br />
+I show you how do it on your own, you will be using your own work area, your own tools and doing it all in your own home.</p>
+</div>
+<br />
+
+<h2 align="center"><font color=#FF0000" size="5">
+Now Learn Simple Basic Electronics The Best Way <br />At Home And At Your Own Speed</font></h2>
+
+
+<div style="width:86%; ">
+<p align="left"><img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/lightbulb.gif" align="left">
+With my "<u>Introduction To Basic Electronics</u>" starter course
+you'll find yourself saying <br /><b><i>"yes... I see how this works"</i></b>
+
+over and over again as we go through each part of this mini basic electronics course.
+<br /><br />
+At the end you will have a good working
+understanding of simple basic electronics plus you will be able to put together some basic circuits. You'll be able to solder electronic
+ components without damaging them and understand more of how it all works because you will now have all this new "hands on" experience with electronic parts.</p>
+</font>
+</div>
+<br /><br />
+<div style="width:85%; background:#ffffff; border:0px dashed #008800; padding:6px;">
+<br /><font size="6">PLUS...</font>
+<font face="helvetica"><font size="5" color="teal"><i><b>THIS INTRODUCTION TO BASIC ELECTRONICS STARTER COURSE ALSO INCLUDES ALL OF THESE HELPFUL EXTRAS</b></i>...</font>
+<p align="left"><font size="4" color="#004400">
+<br /><br />
+<img src="images/abc-radiowaves-antennas.png" width="100" align="left">
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/checkmark-sq.gif" align="left"><b>ABC's Of Radio Waves And Antennas</b></font>
+<br /><br />
+<font size="2"><i><b>In This Book You'll Get A Good Introduction To Radio Frequency Circuits Which Is Missing In Most Basic Electronics Programs</b></i><br /> It contains a basic but solid understanding of
+radio waves, antennas, and transmission lines plus I've included plenty of illustrations plus some little known information not often found in other books on the subject. Since we live in a wireless world a basic understanding of R.F. circuits is a must.</font></p>
+<br clear="left">
+<p align="left"><font size="4" color="#004400">
+
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/concise-sml.gif" width="100" align="left"><img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/checkmark-sq.gif" align="left"><b>The Concise Glossary of Electronic Terms</b></font>
+<br /><br />
+<font size="2"><i><b>A Book That Covers Everything From Absorption Wave Meters To Zeppelin Antennas.</b></i> Electronic Terms You Need To Know From A to Z.
+
+Electronics has a language all its own, it's a special vocabulary which helps make it easier to describe, explain and discuss ideas and equipment, and this 66 page "The Concise Glossary of Electronic Terms" covers everything from absorption wave meters to zeppelin antennas, with quick concise definitions you'll find helpful. </font></p>
+<br /><br />
+<br clear="left"><p align="left"><font size="4" color="#004400"><img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/soldering-1.png" align="left" width="85" hspace=10>
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/checkmark-sq.gif" align="left"><b>Soldering Tips Part 1 And Part 2</font></b><br />
+<font size="2"><i><b>This Introduction To Basic Electronics Course Also INCLUDES
+These Two Special Reports On Soldering
+</b></i>
+<br clear="left">
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/soldering-2.png" align="left" width="85" hspace=10>
+
+Soldering is one of those things you have to do in order to learn it. So many people have no real experience with soldering. These two reports will give you my tips and special techniques, I'll show you exactly how to do it.
+<font size="2"><i><b> - Again Something That Is Often Missing In Most Basic Electronics Programs.</b></i></font></p>
+<br clear="left">
+<p align="left"><font size="4" color="#004400"><img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/ohmslawsecret.gif" width="100" align="left">
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/checkmark-sq.gif" align="left"><b>Lost Secrets To Learning Ohms Law</b></font>
+<br /><br />
+<font size="2"><i><b>This Book Contains A Special Teaching Method Which Makes It A Valuable Addition To Any Basic Electronics Study Course.</b></i> Learning Ohms Law seems to be a bit of an issue when it comes to learning basic electronics.
+
+Over the years I have developed a special method to teach basic Ohms Law to anyone who understands 5th grade maths, in just 15 minutes! This book contains that special method which makes it a valuable addition to any basic electronics course.
+</font></p>
+
+
+
+<br clear="left" /><br />
+<p align="left"><font size="4" color="#004400"><img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/crystalsetcover.png" align="left" width="100">
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/checkmark-sq.gif" align="left"><b>Special Book On The Crystal Set Radio</b> </font>
+<br /><br />
+<font size="2"><i><b>This Old Time Radio Will Help You to Futher Understand RF Theory And That's A Good Thing To Know In Todays Wireless World.</b></i> Today almost everything around has become wireless and contains a transmitter and receiver. This means that you must have some radio frequency skills and the best to start is at the beginning. </font></li>
+<br clear="left"><br /><br />
+<p align="left"><font size="4" color="#004400"><img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/funelectronicprojects.png" align="left" width="100">
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/checkmark-sq.gif" align="left"><b>Fun Electronic Projects </b></font>
+<br /><br />
+<font size="2"><i><b>Once you Have Learned Some Basic Electronics You Will Want To Build Something So There's 7 Easy To Build Circuits Included In This Home Mini Electronics Course.</b></i>
+
+After you have gone through the mini course you'll be able to build all these simple electronic projects.
+</font></p>
+
+</div>
+<br /><br /><br />
+<div style="width:86%; ">
+<p align="left"><font size="4">
+<b>From Now On...</b></font></p>
+<font face="arial" size="3">
+<p align="left">
+The next time you order a simple electronic kit or find a project you want to build you will know a lot more about what you are doing and how it works. You might even see ways to improve it or make it do different things and as time goes by you will get better and better at this as your "hands-on" experience grows and grows.
+</p>
+
+
+
+<p align="left"><br /><font size="4">
+<b>Looking For A New Or Better Job?</b></font></p>
+<p align="left">
+ After completing my basic electronics hands-on meat and potatoes home mini course you should be able to ace the basic electronics exam employers in the electronics field give prospective employees, and you just might find yourself hired with a higher starting pay as well. </p>
+<p align="left"><br /><img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/smiley1.gif" align="left">
+<b>If you have any desire to start learning electronics, even if it's for the second time, or just for a hobby, then my beginning basic electronics hands-on mini course could be just perfect for you. </b></p>
+<p align="left">
+The hands-on part means you gain practical experience with actual resistors, diodes, capacitors, transistors and it's laid back so you feel no pressure to learn and can take your time to experiment and try different things, to actually get your mind around it.</p><br />
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/checkmark.gif" alt="60 day money back guarantee" align="left">My basic electronics hands-on mini course also comes with a <br /><b><u>60 day money back guarantee</u></b>. So if you feel you didn't learn anything <br />from this course you can get your money back with no problems.</p>
+<p align="left"><br /><br /><font size="5">
+<b><u>Bottom Line</u> - How Much Does All This Cost?</b></font></p>
+<p align="left"><b>
+This entire "Introduction To Basic Electronics" course is easily worth $75 but I'm not asking that, because
+right now people don't have a ton of money to spend on things, even on important things like this type of education that can help them in so many different ways. So...
+<br /><br /><br /><img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/image/shinyarrow-redsm.jpg" align="left">
+I'm offering the entire <u>"<i>Introduction To Basic Electronics</i>"</u> course to you right now for the discount price of
+<a href="http://1.123solved.pay.clickbank.net" target="cb">only $29.97</a> but don't wait to take me up on this offer because if you wait the offer may be gone, and you might never get around to learning simple basic electronics the way you can right now.</b></p> </big>
+<br /><br />
+</div>
+
+<p align="center"><font size="6" font color="red" font face="tahoma"><a href="http://1.123solved.pay.clickbank.net" target="cb"><b><u>Special Basic Electronics Home Course</u> <br />Total Package $29.97</b></font><br />
+<br />
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/images/instantaccess.png" border=0></a></p>
+
+<p align="center"><font face="tahoma" color="green" size="4"><b><u>Download</u> This Special Basic Electronics Home Course Package<br />
+while it's still priced ridiculously low And <span style="background-color:#FFFF00;">
+<font color="black"><u><i>SAVE </i>$$$</u></font></span></b></font>
+
+<br />
+<br />
+
+<div style="width:88%;">
+<p align="left">
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/checkmark-green2.png" border="0"><font size="5">
+<b>Remember This New Hands-On Home Basic Electronics Course Now Includes...</b></font>
+
+<div style="width:88%; background:white; border: 0px dashed #FF0000">
+<p align="left"><font color="teal" font size="5"><img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/red-dot.gif" align="left"><b><i><u>Introduction To Basic Electronics</u></i></b></font> ..
+<br /><b>
+This Is The <u>Complete</u> Introduction To Basic Electronics Home Course <br />Including All The Special Hands On Projects. </b><br /><br />
+
+
+<font color="teal" font size="5"><img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/red-dot.gif" align="left"><b><i>ABC's Of Radio Waves And Antennas</i></b></font> ..
+<br /><b>
+Easy understanding of radio waves, antennas, and simple transmission lines. <br />
+Very important information to know in todays wireless world.</b>
+
+
+<br /><br />
+
+<font color="teal" font size="5"><img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/red-dot.gif" align="left"><b><i>The Lost Secret To Learning Ohms Law</i></b></font> ..
+<br />
+<b>Learn my secret to teaching Ohms Law to my students and how you can learn Ohm's Law in 20 minutes or LESS!</b>
+
+<br /><br />
+<font color="teal" font size="5"><img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/red-dot.gif" align="left"><b><i>Concise Glossary Of Electronic Terms</i></b></font> ..
+<br />
+<b>Electronics has a language all its own, a special vocabulary which helps make it easier to describe, explain and discuss ideas and equipment, and this 66 page "Concise Glossary of Electronic Terms" covers everything from absorption wave meters to zeppelin antennas!</b>
+</div>
+
+<br />
+<p align="left">
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/checkmark-green2.png" border="0"><font size="5">
+<b>PLUS This Introduction To Basic Electronics Tutorial Also Includes...</b></font><br /><br />
+<p align="left">
+<font color="teal" font size="5"><img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/red-dot.gif" align="left" width="5%"><b>The Old Crystal Set Radio</b></font> .. <br /><b>Written to help you to master modern
+<u>Radio Frequency Circuits</u> using an old simple method.</b><br />
+
+<br /><font color="teal" font size="5"><img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/red-dot.gif" align="left" width="5%"><b>Fun Electronic Projects</b></font> .. <br /><b>When you're ready, you'll want to build a few simple circuits. So I've included these simple fun and easy weekend electronic projects</b><br />
+</p>
+
+</div>
+<br /><br />
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/checkmark-green2.png" border="0"><font size="4"><b>AND
+To Help You Learn To Solder Correctly I Have Included...</b></font><br />
+<div style="width:64%; background:white;">
+<p align="left">
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/solder1-special.png" align="left" alt="simple soldering">
+<font color="brown"><b>Basic Soldering Techniques Part 1</b><br />
+<br />
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/solder2-special.png" align="left">
+<b>Basic Soldering Techniques Part 2</b></font></p>
+</div>
+<br />
+<br clear="left">
+<br /><br />
+<hr width="80%" />
+
+<br /><br />
+
+<p align="center"><font size="5" face="tahoma" color="red"><b>The Deluxe Basic Electronics Special Package Only $29.97</b></font><br />
+</p>
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/image/itbe500.png" align="left" width="38%" alt="basic electronics tutorial">
+
+
+
+<p align="center"></p>
+<br />
+<p align="left"><font size="4"><b>
+<i><u>NOW THIS IS YOUR CHANCE...</u></i><br /><br />
+
+Are You Willing To Follow 10 Jam Packed Chapters To Better Understand How Basic Electronic Components And Circuits Work?
+
+
+</b><br /></font><font size="4"><br /><b>If you <u>DOWNLOAD</u> this entire basic electronics hands-on home course right now you can start learning basic electronics <u>your way</u> and at <u>your pace</u> starting today.</b><br /></font></b><br />
+</p>
+<br clear="left">
+
+<br /><br />
+
+<b>Now's The Time To Learn <u>Simple Basic Electronics</u> The Easy Way<br /> And Then Start Using And Enjoying Your New Skills In Electronics.</b>
+
+<p align="center">
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/abc-special.png" align="left">
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/lost-special.png" align="left">
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/concise-special.gif" align="left">
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/introto.gif" align="left" width="180">
+
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/solder1-special.png" align="left">
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/solder2-special.png" align="left"><br />
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/crystal-special.png" align="left">
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/fun-special.png" align="left">
+</p>
+<br clear="all" />
+
+<div style="width:80%">
+
+<p align="left">
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/image/audiocd.png" align="left" width="25%">
+<br />
+<b>Your basic electronics package includes video and audio review notes for each chapter.</b> <br />
+<br clear="left">
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/circuits/image/small-tv.png" align="left" width="18%">
+<br /><br />
+<br /><b>And don't forget... this download package also includes the construction videos
+for all the "hands on" projects.</b><br /><br />
+
+
+</p>
+</div>
+<br clear="left"><br />
+<p>
+<font face="helvetica"><font size="5" color="red" face="tahoma"><b><u>Here's How To Get Your Complete Basic Electronics Package Download At This Special $29.97 Price</u></b></font> <br/><br />
+<big><b>Click On The Link Below To The Secure Order Page <br /> Then
+Order And <u>Download</u></b></big></p><br />
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/image/arrowdown.gif"><br />
+
+<div style="width:85%; background:#ffffff;">
+
+<font size="5"><b>
+<a href="http://1.123solved.pay.clickbank.net" target="cb">Introduction To Basic Electronics Home Course</a></b></font>
+<br /><a href="http://1.123solved.pay.clickbank.net" target="cb"><img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/creditcards.jpg" border="0"></a></p> <p align="right"><a href="http://1.123solved.pay.clickbank.net" target="cb">
+
+<br />
+<p align="center"><b>Right Now Still Only $29.97</b></a> <br /> Go Ahead, make a difference in your life! <br /><b>I'm Cheering For You!</b></p>
+<br />This is what the secure order page looks like.
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+Instant Access - 24 Hours A Day - 7 Days A Week - 365 Days A Year!</b></p>
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+
+
+
+
+<br clear="left"><img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/cb-1.png">
+<p>&nbsp;<br /><font size="2">ClickBank is a registered trademark of Keynetics Inc., a Delaware corporation<br />This beginning basic electronics hands-on course contains downloadable eBooks.<br /> This is not a physical product.</font>
+
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+<hr width="90%" align="center"/><br />
+
+<img src="http://www.gregsbasicelectronics.com/learnbasicelectronics/images/flags.jpg">
+<br />
+<b>My simple basic electronics course has helped students in many countries. <br />It can also help you!</b>
+<br />
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+<font size="2" face="verdana">
+<p align="left">
+The basic electronics hands-on course contains downloadable eBooks.
+All my eBooks are formated in PDF format and will open with any PDF reader in either a MAC or PC computer. A good PDF reader like Adobe Acrobat is almost 100% likely already installed on your computer. If not you can get
+
+<a href="http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html" target="_blank"><b>Adobe
+ Acrobat Reader</b></a> here for free.
+</p>
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+<font face="Arial" size="2" color="#555555">Greg's Basic Electronics ... Learn Basic Electronics The Easy Way<br /><br />
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+<p align="center"><font color="gold" face="tahoma" size="5"><b>Resistors and Resistor Color Codes</b></font></p>
+</div>
+<br clear="left">
+
+<div style="width:90%; background:#ffffff; padding:12px;">
+
+<font face="helvetica"><font size="3">
+<img src=image/res1.jpg align="right" border="1" alt="1/4 watt resistor" hspace="8">
+
+
+
+<p align="left">
+A resistor is a current limiting, power dissipating, device designed to limit the flow of electrons to a known controlled value.
+Resistors come in all sizes and shapes, but as far as the leaded types go<b> (ones with wire leads)</b>
+the most common by far is the 1/4 watt metal film type.
+</p>
+<div style="width:178px; float:left;">
+<script type="text/javascript"><!--
+google_ad_client = "pub-4974925602229874";
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+</div>
+<p align="left">To the right is a picture of several small
+resistors all of the same wattage (1/4 watt) but different values of resistance.
+</p>
+<br />
+<p align="left">
+Next is a picture of resistors of the same value of resistance but with different power ratings.
+</p>
+<img src="image/res2.jpg" align="right" border="1" alt="resistors have different power ratings" hspace="8">
+<p align="left">
+The largest one in this picture
+has a rating of 10 watts. Here is some insider information, for many years now resistors of the
+metal film type have been popular
+because of their temperature stability and low noise.
+</p>
+<p align="left">
+The older resistors were made of carbon and
+their resistance would tend to
+increase over the years due to a number of reasons but the main one being moisture absorption.
+</p><p align="left">When you come across a older carbon resistor be sure to
+measure it's value with an ohmmeter to be sure it's still what it says it is.
+</p><p align="left">
+<b>So how do you know what the resistance of a resistor is?</b> The value of resistance is color coded on the unit.
+Colored bands
+are used to denote the ohmic value.<br /><br />
+
+<div style="width:58%;"><img src="image/resband.jpg" border="1" alt="resistor color code
+bands">
+
+
+<center>
+
+
+<div style="width:40%; background:white;"><font face="helvetica"><font size="2" color=green><b>
+<p align="left">A-First significant number </p>
+<p align="left">B-Second significant number</p>
+<p align="left">C-Decimal multiplier</p>
+<p align="left">D-Tolerance in percent.</p></b></font>
+</div></center></div>
+<br clear="left"><p>
+Here is the resistor color code chart for the bands.
+<br />These colors have been used since the beginning of electronics, almost a hundred years.
+</p>
+<p><center><img src="image/code.jpg" border="1" alt="Resistor Color Code Chart"></center></p>
+<p><font size=3><br /><br />
+<b>Let's look at an example below to see how this all works.</b></p><p align="left"><img src=image/res10k.jpg align="left" border="0" alt="1/2 watt
+carbon resistor">
+The first band (A) is brown
+so looking at the chart above we see that it equals 1. The next band (B) is black and equals 0. So far we have 10.
+The next band (C) is orange
+which equals 3 so we multiply 10 by 1000 The resistors value is 10,000 ohms.