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DRAGONFLY 'Live CD' README FILE This CD/DVD/USB stick boots DragonFly BSD. Basically what you get is a full base system on the media with certain critical directories, such as /tmp, remounted read-write using TMPFS. Your existing hard drive is not affected by booting this media. DragonFly 'Live CD' can be used from either CD, DVD or USB stick, in the following the media is called 'CD' for brevity (nothing is specific to the CD media). The DragonFly 'Live CD' is used for both trying out DragonFly, installing DragonFly and for emergency repair of DragonFly systems. NOTE!!! DRAGONFLY IS UNDERGOING DEVELOPMENT AND IS CONSIDERED EXPERIMENTAL! BSD RELATED EXPERIENCE IS RECOMMENDED WHEN USING THIS CD. If you just want to play with DragonFly and not mess with your hard disk, this CD boots into a fully operational console-based system, though without swap it should be noted that you are limited by available memory. It is a good idea to test your hardware for compatibility from a CD boot before spending time installing the dist on your hard disk. AUTOMATIC INSTALLATION There are currently two installation tools available - the installer, and rconfig. The installer can be run with a text-based (curses) user interface from the serial console or a VTY, and provides a straightforward method for installing DragonFly on your HD. To start it, just login with the username 'installer'. The installer can also be run with a web-based (CGI) user interface. To set this up manually is a bit of work, but much of it can be automated by writing a couple of lines into a configuration file on a floppy disk or USB pendrive, and inserting or attaching that to the computer before booting the CD. See the file /etc/defaults/pfi.conf for more info. rconfig is a client/server protocol which requires a server (typically on the same network). An example server setup can be found in /usr/share/examples/rconfig. If you have multiple machines you can setup an installation script and run rconfig on a server and then install the clients from CD boot with network connectivity (e.g. 'dhclient <if>') and then, typically, 'rconfig -a'. You can also just boot from the CD, login as 'root' to get a shell prompt, copy the sample script to /tmp, edit, and run it directly (assuming that blowing away your existing disk is ok). CONSOLE OPERATION The second stage boot (boot2) and third stage boot (loader) default to dual serial & video console I/O. You can direct the boot output to just the serial port by creating the file /boot.config with the line '-h', or to just the screen using '-V'. If you wish to leave boot2 in dual I/O mode but want the third stage to use just one or the other, you can set the 'console' environment variable in /boot/loader.conf to either 'vidconsole' or 'comconsole'. The dual serial port operation might have to be disabled if you use the serial port for things like UPSs. Also note that by default the CD will not run a login prompt on the serial port after booting is complete. This can be enabled by editing the 'ttyd0' line in /etc/ttys after installation is complete. Note that the kernel itself currently only supports one console or the other. If both are enabled, the kernel will use the video console or the last one for which input was received. MANUAL INSTALLATION Manual installation of DragonFly onto an HD involves the following sequence of commands. You must be familiar with BSD style UNIX systems to do installations manually. The primary IDE hard drive is typically 'ad0', if using AHCI, SILI or SCSI HD controller it is typically 'da0', and if using USB HD controller it is typically 'da8'. DragonFly is typically installed onto the first free slice (ad0s1 if disk is empty, ad0s2 if your first slice contains another OS, etc). Be careful to substitute the correct disk and partition name in the steps below. You need to decide which file system to use for DragonFly install: UFS or HAMMER. UFS is the classical BSD file system and HAMMER is a newer and more feature rich file system, HAMMER needs 50GB space at minimum, see 'man HAMMER'. The installation is somewhat different depending on the file system used. # OPTIONAL STEP: If your disk is already partitioned and you # have a spare primary partition on which you want to install # DragonFly, skip this step. However, sometimes old boot # blocks or cruft in the boot area can interfere with the # initialization process. A cure is to zero out the start of # the disk before running fdisk. Replace 'ad0' with the choosen disk. # # WARNING: This COMPLETELY WIPES and repartitions your hard drive. # dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/ad0 bs=32k count=16 fdisk -I ad0 fdisk -B ad0 # If you didn't zero the disk as above, but have a spare slice # whose partition type you want to change to DragonFly, use fdisk(8). # This installs boot blocks onto the HD and verifies their # installation. See note just above the 'reboot' below for # things to try if it does not boot from your HD. If you # already have a multi-OS bootloader installed you can skip # this step. # boot0cfg -B ad0 boot0cfg -v ad0 # This creates an initial label on the chosen slice of the HD. If # you have problems booting you could try wiping the first 32 blocks # of the slice with dd and then reinstalling the label. Replace # 'ad0s1' with the chosen slice. # # dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/ad0s1 bs=32k count=16 disklabel -B -r -w ad0s1 auto # Edit the label. Create various standard partitions. The typical # configuration is: # # UFS (fstype 4.2BSD): # ad0s1a 768m This will be your / # ad0s1b 4096m This will be your swap # ad0s1c (leave alone) # ad0s1d 512m This will be your /var # ad0s1e 512m This will be your /tmp # ad0s1f 8192m This will be your /usr (min 4096m) # ad0s1g * All remaining space to your /home # # HAMMER (fstype HAMMER): # ad0s1a 768m This will be your /boot; UFS # ad0s1b 4096m This will be your swap # ad0s1d * All remaining space to your /; HAMMER # # An example disklabel can be found in /etc/disklabel.ad0s1. # disklabel -e ad0s1 # Newfs (format) the various file systems. # # UFS: # Softupdates is not normally enabled on the root file system because # large kernel or world installs/upgrades can run it out of space due # to softupdate's delayed bitmap freeing code. # newfs /dev/ad0s1a newfs -U /dev/ad0s1d newfs -U /dev/ad0s1e newfs -U /dev/ad0s1f newfs -U /dev/ad0s1g # # HAMMER: newfs /dev/ad0s1a newfs_hammer -L ROOT /dev/ad0s1d # Mount the file systems. # # UFS: mount /dev/ad0s1a /mnt mkdir /mnt/var mkdir /mnt/tmp mkdir /mnt/usr mkdir /mnt/home mount /dev/ad0s1d /mnt/var mount /dev/ad0s1e /mnt/tmp mount /dev/ad0s1f /mnt/usr mount /dev/ad0s1g /mnt/home # # HAMMER: mount -t hammer /dev/ad0s1d /mnt mkdir /mnt/boot mount /dev/ad0s1a /mnt/boot # Make HAMMER pseudo file systems (PFSs), and NULL mount them. # All PFSs share all space in a HAMMER file system, but policy on how # often to make snapshots, how long to keep them and general ability to # delete them is per PFS. Also mirroring (e.g. for backup) is done # per PFS. Typical setup is: # mkdir /mnt/pfs hammer pfs-master /mnt/pfs/var hammer pfs-master /mnt/pfs/var.crash hammer pfs-master /mnt/pfs/tmp hammer pfs-master /mnt/pfs/usr hammer pfs-master /mnt/pfs/usr.obj hammer pfs-master /mnt/pfs/home mkdir /mnt/var mkdir /mnt/tmp mkdir /mnt/usr mkdir /mnt/home mount -t null /mnt/pfs/var /mnt/var mount -t null /mnt/pfs/tmp /mnt/tmp mount -t null /mnt/pfs/usr /mnt/usr mount -t null /mnt/pfs/home /mnt/home mkdir /mnt/var/crash mkdir /mnt/usr/obj mount -t null /mnt/pfs/var.crash /mnt/var/crash mount -t null /mnt/pfs/usr.obj /mnt/usr/obj # add root file system to /boot/loader.conf echo 'vfs.root.mountfrom="hammer:ad0s1d"' >> /mnt/boot/loader.conf # UFS & HAMMER: # Copy the CD onto the target. cpdup won't cross mount boundaries # on the source (e.g. the TMPFS remounts) or destination, so it takes # a few commands. # # Note that /etc contains the config files used for booting from the # CD itself, and /etc.hdd contains those for booting off a # hard disk. So it's the latter that you want to copy to /mnt/etc. # cpdup / /mnt cpdup /boot /mnt/boot cpdup /var /mnt/var cpdup /etc.hdd /mnt/etc cpdup /usr /mnt/usr # Cleanup. Also, with /tmp a partition it is usually reasonable # to make /var/tmp a softlink to /tmp. # chmod 1777 /mnt/tmp rm -rf /mnt/var/tmp ln -s /tmp /mnt/var/tmp # Edit /mnt/etc/fstab to reflect the new mounts. An example fstab # file based on the above parameters exists as /mnt/etc/fstab.example # which you can rename to /mnt/etc/fstab. # mv /mnt/etc/fstab.example /mnt/etc/fstab vi /mnt/etc/fstab # Save out your disklabel just in case. It's a good idea to save # it to /etc so you can get at it from your backups. You do intend # to backup your system, yah? :-) (This isn't critical but it's a # good idea). # disklabel ad0s1 > /mnt/etc/disklabel.ad0s1 MISC CLEANUPS BEFORE REBOOTING Once you've duplicated the CD onto your HD you have to make some edits so the system boots properly from your HD. Primarily you must remove or edit /mnt/boot/loader.conf, which exists on the CD to tell the kernel to mount the CD's root partition. # Remove or edit /mnt/boot/loader.conf so the kernel does not try # to obtain the root file system from the CD, and remove the other # cruft that was sitting on the CD that you don't need on the HD. # rm /mnt/boot/loader.conf rm /mnt/README* /mnt/autorun* /mnt/index.html /mnt/dflybsd.ico rm /mnt/boot.catalog rm -r /mnt/rr_moved At this point it should be possible to reboot. The CD may be locked since it is currently mounted. To remove the CD, type 'halt' instead of 'reboot', wait for the machine to halt, then the CD door should be unlocked. Remove the CD and hit any key to reboot. Be careful of the CD drawer closing on you if you try to remove the CD while the machine is undergoing a reboot or reset. WARNING: Do not just hit reset; the kernel may not have written out all the pending data to your HD. Either unmount the HD partitions or type halt or reboot. # halt (let the machine halt) (remove CD when convenient, be careful of the CD drawer closing on you) (hit any key to reboot) THE ACPI ISSUE You will notice in the boot menu that you can choose to boot with or without ACPI. ACPI is an infrastructure designed to allow an operating system to configure hardware devices associated with the system. Unfortunately, as usual, PC BIOS makers have royally screwed up the standard and ACPI is as likely to hurt as it is to help. Worse, some PCs cannot be booted without it, so there is no good 'default' choice. The system will use ACPI by default. You can disable it in the default boot by adding the line 'hint.acpi.0.disabled=1' in /boot/loader.conf. If you boot without hitting any menu options the system will boot without ACPI. To boot without ACPI no matter what, place 'unset acpi_load' in our /boot/loader.conf instead. This is not recommended. IF YOU HAVE PROBLEMS BOOTING FROM HD There are a couple of things to try. Try booting from the CD again and use boot0cfg to turn off packet mode (boot0cfg -o nopacket ad0). If you can select CHS or LBA mode in your BIOS, try changing the mode to LBA. Also try booting with and without ACPI (option 1 or 2 in the boot menu). Once you have a working HD based system you can clean up /etc/rc.conf to enable things like cron, sendmail, setup your networking, and so forth. If 'ifconfig' does not show your networking device you could try to kldload it from /boot/kernel. With a recognized network device you can ifconfig its IP address or, if you have a DHCP server on your network, use 'dhclient <interfacename>' to obtain an IP address from the network. USING GIT TO OBTAIN A SOURCE TREE AND DOING BUILDWORLDS Instructions on how to obtain and maintain DragonFly source code using git are in the development(7) manual page. To upgrade a DragonFly system from sources you run the following sequence: cd /usr/src make buildworld make KERNCONF=<KERNELNAME> buildkernel make KERNCONF=<KERNELNAME> installkernel make installworld You will also want to run the 'upgrade' target to upgrade your /etc and the rest of your system. The upgrade target is aware of stale files created by older DragonFly installations and should delete them automatically. make upgrade See the build(7) manual page for further information. Once you've done a full build of the world and kernel you can do incremental upgrades of either by using the 'quickworld' and 'quickkernel' targets instead of 'buildworld' and 'buildkernel'. If you have any problems with the quick targets, try updating your repo first, and then a full buildworld and buildkernel as shown above, before asking for help. OBTAINING A DPORTS TREE TO BUILD/INSTALL PACKAGES In order to obtain a reasonably current snapshot of the dports tree, use our repo: cd /usr make help make dports-create This tree can then be kept up to date with: cd /usr make dports-update EMERGENCY RECOVERY FROM THE 'Live CD' Lets say you blew up your kernel or something else in / and you need to boot the 'Live CD' to fix it. Remember that you have a fully operational system when booting the 'Live CD', but that you have to fsck and mount your hard drive (typically onto /mnt) to get at the contents of your HD. Your HD is typically an IDE hard drive, so the device is typically 'ad0', if using AHCI, SILI or SCSI HD controller it is typically 'da0', and if using USB HD controller it is typically 'da8'. Steps below will use 'ad0', be careful to substitute the correct disk name below. DragonFly is typically on the first slice, which is /dev/ad0s1. For UFS setup the root partition is always in partition 'a', which is /dev/ad0s1a. For HAMMER setup the typical setup is that boot partition is partition 'a', and root partition is partition 'd'. # UFS: # fsck root before trying to mount it. fsck /dev/ad0s1a # mount root read-write onto /mnt mount /dev/ad0s1a /mnt # # HAMMER: # fsck boot before trying to mount it. fsck /dev/ad0s1a # mount root read-write onto /mnt mount -t hammer /dev/ad0s1d /mnt # mount boot read-write onto /mnt/boot mount /dev/ad0s1a /mnt/boot # # copy files from the CD as appropriate to make it possible to boot # from your HD again. Note that /mnt/boot/kernel/kernel may be # flags-protected. chflags noschg /mnt/boot/kernel/kernel cp /boot/kernel/* /mnt/boot/kernel If you want to mount other partitions from your HD but have forgotten what they are, simply cat /mnt/etc/fstab after mounting the root partition.