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@tbfleming tbfleming cleanup 2a2a1c9 Jul 2, 2019
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Contracts Paying Transaction Costs

Simple Summary

Contracts can pay transaction costs (NET and CPU). This allows users with little or no resources to use applications without requiring those applications to cosign the original transaction.


EOSIO blockchains charge users NET and CPU costs on transactions. These costs are transient; CPU and NET replenish over a 24-hour period. A user can spend all their resources on a set of transactions, then 24 hours later do it again. Even though these costs are low on a per-user basis, they can add up quickly for application providers. e.g. if a provider wants to sponsor 1000 accounts which need Xpeek CPU and Ypeek NET, then the provider needs to stake 1000 * Xpeek CPU and 1000 * Ypeek NET. Under this model, users can use these resources for other apps, not just yours. In addition, most of this will likely go unused.

ONLY_BILL_FIRST_AUTHORIZER (Nodeos 1.8) partially addresses this by charging only the first authorizer of a transaction. This allows application providers to cover costs from a common pool by cosigning each user transaction. There is a downside: providers need to maintain automated transaction cosigning services online. This has potential cost issues and security issues.

This proposal adds a new capability: contracts can cover transaction costs without cosigning. They can also limit resource consumption to prevent abuse. Thanks to the Query Consumption and Subjective Data proposals, contracts also can track resource consumption on transactions. This proposal has the advantages of ONLY_BILL_FIRST_AUTHORIZER without the hassle of cosigning.


This consensus upgrade adds these intrinsics:

bool accept_charges(
    uint32_t max_net_usage_words,   // Maximum NET usage to charge
    uint32_t max_cpu_usage_ms       // Maximum CPU usage to charge

void get_accept_charges(
    name*     contract,
    uint32_t* max_net_usage_words,
    uint32_t* max_cpu_usage_ms,

void get_num_actions(
    uint32_t* num_actions,
    uint32_t* num_context_free_actions,

If a contract is the first one to call accept_charges during a transaction, then that contract's account will be billed for the transaction, up to the limits specified. If the transaction exceeds these limits, then it will abort. It will also abort if the contract's account doesn't have enough resources to cover the transaction. The contract may call this intrinsic multiple times, within a single action or across multiple actions; this enables the contract to adjust the limits. The original NET and CPU limits in the transaction have no effect once a contract accepts the charges.

If multiple contracts call accept_charges, then the first one is the one charged. accept_charges returns true to that contract, but false to the others. If the first one calls it multiple times, within the same action or across multiple actions, it will return true each time.

get_accept_charges queries whether any contracts have accepted charges. If a contract has accepted charges, then this fills the arguments with the details. If no contract has accepted charges, then it fills the arguments with 0.

get_num_actions returns the number of non-context-free actions and the number of context-free actions in the original transaction. This does not include any inline actions. This intrinsic helps contracts protect themselves against paying for other contracts' actions; see the example use cases in Contract Authentication for advice on how to do this check.

accept_charges has no effect and always returns false during deferred transactions.

Contract Authentication builds on this proposal to add an additional capability to accept_charges.

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