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syn04types - provide clause connections
syn04types proposes and makes clause connections in a text
in consultation with the user. This program has been
designed to replace the program syn05(1) for the parsing of
clause connections once fully developed. One goal of the
development of syn04types is to have the grammatical and
lexical data on which calculations of clause types and
clause connections are based, program-external as much as
possible. For that reason the program needs special input
files with these grammatical data. During a session the
files with these data will be updated, recording the choices
made by the user.
syn04types reads a ps4(5) file or (if one wants to use
existing data of clause connections) a ps5(5) file. This is
decided by the contents of the file synnr(5). To have
access to a file with surface-text data, the program reads a
ct4(5) file (a surface-text file with clause constituent
labels). If a ct4(5) file does not exist, the program will
read the corresponding lay.asc file, made by syn04lay(1),
after completion of clause divisions by syn04(1).
If syn04types has been used before to create clause connec-
tions of a particular text, a usertab(5) file exists with
instructions for the clause types and clause tabs entered by
the user. If the program is applied to the same text again,
it will use the instructions present in this usertab.
The output of the program is a CTT(5) file (comparable to
the ctt(5) file made by the actual version of syn05(1).
This file presents the surface format of the text with the
tabs added to it and some data from the grammatical
analysis: verbal tense, blocks of direct speech in a narra-
A CTT.rev file can be made on request. It is an adaptation
of the CTT file for ctt2rtf(1).
The tabs proposed by the user are stored in the usertab(5)
For the time being the program also stores the tabs in the
format of the inn(5) file as used by syn05(1). syn04types
is also capable of reading the existing ps5 file types and
composing a usertab file from it, so that the existing ps5
data produced by syn05, can be used.
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Furthermore the program produces a typ.asc file, which is a
printout of the internal array with clause level information
used to propose clause connections. The file presents a
description of all lines (clause atoms) of the text in terms
of phrases and phrase types. The phrases are listed accord-
ing to the position they have in a more abstract model:
clause opening elements, preverbal phrases, adjectival or
verbal predicate, postverbal phrases.
As a result of the clause connections made, syn04types also
produces a px(5) file. Its format equals the format of the
ps5 files made by syn05 en syn05codes(1). syn04types calcu-
lates the three digit codes for clause connections in the
same way as syn05codes did. The px file can be read by the
program struc(1) to reformat it into a textual schema (see
The file ClFreqTot contains the frequencies of the clause
connections of all texts analysed so far. The file is
updated by addition of the statistics of the clause connec-
tions of the text being analysed in a particular session.
In interactive mode, the program accepts the following char-
acter commands, which can be combined into a single string.
Within such a string, commands have priority over their
`#' New paragraph
`+' Increase indentation
`-' Decrease indentation
`/' Parallel connection
`0..9' Clause atom number
`=' Same indentation
`B' Go back
`N' No relation; start new paragraph
`R' Clause constituent relation
`S' Stop session
`T' Absolute tab
`U' Undo
`\' Downward connection
`^' Dependent connection
`c' Casus pendens
`d' Defective clause atom
`e' Embedded clause atom
`l' Ellipsis
`m' Macrosyntactic sign
`q' Start of direct speech paragraph
`r' (Not implemented)
`v' Vocative clause atom
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File with right-to-left translitteration, which can
serve as input for ctt2rtf(1).
Input file in the absence of an *.ps4.p input file.
Record of the clause types and clause tabs supplied by
the user.
Labels of grammatical or lexical correspondences
between two clauses.
Frequencies of the clause connections of all texts
analysed so far.
This file is no longer used by the program. It has
been superseded by the library routine
ClauseLabel(3hebrew). It contains the clause type
labels used by the program. To the labels a figure is
attached, to indicate its value in the calculation of
clause connections.
Three digit clause relation codes used in the px(5)
This file is no longer used by the program. It has
been superseded by the library routine
Werkgroep Informatica Last change: 14/03/19 3
This file is no longer used by the program. The start
of a direct speech section is now detected with a dif-
ferent, probabilistic, algorithm. The file contains
sets of clause connection labels from ArgumentsList, to
determine the start of a direct speech section.
Stage file.
CTT(5), ct4(5), ctt(5), inn(5), ps4(5), ps5(5), px(5),
sch(5)), struc(1), syn04(1), syn04lay(1), syn05(1),
syn05codes(1), synnr(5), usertab(5).
The user should be aware of the fact that syn04types is
still experimental in many respects. Yet the program is
stable enough for the production of clause connections.
The following lexemes are internal to the program: >W or,
>JN/ is not, >M if, >MR[ to say, >NXNW we, >NJ I, >NKJ I,
>CR which, >T object marker, >T= you, >TH you, >TM you, >TN
you, BLTJ/ is not, DBR[ to speak, H the, HW> he, HWJ alas,
HJ> she, HJH[ to be, HM they, HMH they, HN behold, HNH
behold, HNH= they, W and, JD<[ to know, K as, KH thus, KJ
that, KL/ whole, KN thus, LKN therefore, LM<N because of, MH
what, NGD[ to report, NXNW we, <TH now, PN lest, R>H[ to
see, and CM<[ to hear.
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