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#LyX 2.0 created this file. For more info see http://www.lyx.org/
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\begin_body
\begin_layout Title
\noindent
FFV1 Video Codec Specification
\end_layout
\begin_layout Author
by Michael Niedermayer <michaelni@gmx.at>
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
\begin_inset CommandInset toc
LatexCommand tableofcontents
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Section
Introduction
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
The FFV1 video codec is a simple and efficient lossless intra-frame only
codec.
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
The latest version of this document is available at
\begin_inset Flex URL
status collapsed
\begin_layout Plain Layout
https://raw.github.com/FFmpeg/FFV1/master/ffv1.lyx
\end_layout
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
\noindent
This document assumes familiarity with mathematical and coding concepts
such as Range coding and YCbCr colorspaces.
\end_layout
\begin_layout Section
Terms and Definitions
\end_layout
\begin_layout Labeling
\labelwidthstring 00.00.0000
ESC Escape symbol to indicate that the symbol to be stored is too large
for normal storage and a different method is used to store it.
\end_layout
\begin_layout Labeling
\labelwidthstring 00.00.0000
MSB Most significant bit, the bit that can cause the largest change in magnitude
of the symbol
\end_layout
\begin_layout Labeling
\labelwidthstring 00.00.0000
RCT Reversible Color Transform, a near linear, exactly reversible integer
transform that converts between RGB and YCbCr representations of a sample.
\end_layout
\begin_layout Labeling
\labelwidthstring 00.00.0000
VLC Variable length code
\end_layout
\begin_layout Section
General Description
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
Each frame is split in 1 to 4 planes (Y, Cb, Cr, Alpha).
In the case of the normal YCbCr colorspace the Y plane is coded first followed
by the Cb and Cr planes, if an Alpha/transparency plane exists, it is coded
last.
In the case of the JPEG2000-RCT colorspace the lines are interleaved to
improve caching efficiency since it is most likely that the RCT will immediatel
y be converted to RGB during decoding; the interleaved coding order is also
Y,Cb,Cr.
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
Samples within a plane are coded in raster scan order (left->right, top->bottom).
Each sample is predicted by the median predictor from samples in the same
plane and the difference is stored see
\begin_inset CommandInset ref
LatexCommand ref
reference "sub:Coding-of-the-sample-difference"
\end_inset
.
\end_layout
\begin_layout Subsection
Border
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
For the purpose of the predictior and context samples above the coded picture
are assumed to be 0; samples to the right of the coded picture are identical
to the closest left sample; samples to the left of the coded picture are
identical to the top right sample (if there is one), otherwise 0.
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
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\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Subsection
Median predictor
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
median(left, top, left + top - diag)
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
left, top, diag are the left, top and left-top samples
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
Note, this is also used in JPEG-LS and HuffYuv
\begin_inset CommandInset citation
LatexCommand cite
key "JPEGLS,HuffYuv"
\end_inset
.
\end_layout
\begin_layout Subsection
Context
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
\begin_inset Tabular
<lyxtabular version="3" rows="3" columns="4">
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tl
\end_layout
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\begin_inset Text
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t
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\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
tr
\end_layout
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\begin_inset Text
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L
\end_layout
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\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
l
\end_layout
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\begin_layout Plain Layout
X
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\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
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</lyxtabular>
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
The quantized sample differences L-l, l-tl, tl-t, t-T, t-tr are used as
context:
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
\begin_inset Formula $context=Q_{0}[l-tl]+\left|Q_{0}\right|(Q_{1}[tl-t]+\left|Q_{1}\right|(Q_{2}[t-tr]+\left|Q_{2}\right|(Q_{3}[L-l]+\left|Q_{3}\right|Q_{4}[T-t])))$
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
If the context is smaller than 0 then -context is used and the difference
between the sample and its predicted value is encoded with a flipped sign.
\end_layout
\begin_layout Subsection
Quantization
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
There are 5 quantization tables for the 5 sample differences, both the number
of quantization steps and their distribution are stored in the bitstream.
Each quantization table has exactly 256 entries, and the 8 least significant
bits of the sample difference are used as index:
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
\begin_inset Formula $Q_{i}[a-b]=Table_{i}[(a-b)\&255]$
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Subsection
Colorspace
\end_layout
\begin_layout Subsubsection
JPEG2000-RCT
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
\begin_inset Formula $Cb=b-g$
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
\begin_inset Formula $Cr=r-g$
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
\begin_inset Formula $Y=g+(Cb+Cr)>>2$
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
\begin_inset Formula $g=Y-(Cb+Cr)>>2$
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
\begin_inset Formula $r=Cr+g$
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
\begin_inset Formula $b=Cb+g$
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
\begin_inset CommandInset citation
LatexCommand cite
key "JPEG2000"
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Subsection
\begin_inset CommandInset label
LatexCommand label
name "sub:Coding-of-the-sample-difference"
\end_inset
Coding of the sample difference
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
Instead of coding the n+1 bits of the sample difference with Huffman-, or
Range coding (or n+2 bits, in the case of RCT), only the n (or n+1) least
significant bits are used, since this is sufficient to recover the original
sample.
In the equation below, the term
\begin_inset Quotes eld
\end_inset
bits
\begin_inset Quotes erd
\end_inset
represents bits_per_raw_sample+1 for RCT or bits_per_raw_sample otherwise:
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
\begin_inset Formula $coder\_input=\left[\left(sample\_difference+2^{bits-1}\right)\&\left(2^{bits}-1\right)\right]-2^{bits-1}$
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Subsubsection
Range coding mode
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
Early experimental versions of FFV1 used the CABAC Arithmetic coder from
H.264
\begin_inset CommandInset citation
LatexCommand cite
key "H264"
\end_inset
, but due to the uncertain patent/royality situation, as well as its slightly
worse performance, CABAC was replaced by a range coder based on an algorithm
defined by
\shape italic
G.
Nigel N.
Martin
\shape default
in 1979
\begin_inset CommandInset citation
LatexCommand cite
key "RangeCoder"
\end_inset
.
\end_layout
\begin_layout Paragraph
Binary values
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
To encode binary digits efficiently a range coder is used.
\begin_inset Formula $C_{i}$
\end_inset
is the i-th Context.
\begin_inset Formula $B_{i}$
\end_inset
is the i-th byte of the bytestream.
\begin_inset Formula $b_{i}$
\end_inset
is the i-th range coded binary value,
\begin_inset Formula $S_{0,i}$
\end_inset
is the i-th initial state, which is 128.
The length of the bytestream encoding n binary symbols is
\begin_inset Formula $j_{n}$
\end_inset
bytes.
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
\begin_inset Formula $r_{i}=\left\lfloor \frac{R_{i}S_{i,C_{i}}}{2^{8}}\right\rfloor $
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
\begin_inset Formula $\begin{array}{ccccccccc}
S_{i+1,C_{i}}=zero\_state_{S_{i,C_{i}}} & \wedge & l{}_{i}=L_{i} & \wedge & t_{i}=R_{i}-r_{i} & \Longleftarrow & b_{i}=0 & \Longleftrightarrow & L_{i}<R_{i}-r_{i}\\
S_{i+1,C_{i}}=one\_state_{S_{i,C_{i}}} & \wedge & l_{i}=L_{i}-R_{i}+r_{i} & \wedge & t_{i}=r_{i} & \Longleftarrow & b_{i}=1 & \Longleftrightarrow & L_{i}\geq R_{i}-r_{i}
\end{array}$
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
\begin_inset Formula $\begin{array}{ccc}
S_{i+1,k}=S_{i,k} & \Longleftarrow & C_{i}\neq k\end{array}$
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
\begin_inset Formula $\begin{array}{ccccccc}
R_{i+1}=2^{8}t_{i} & \wedge & L_{i+1}=2^{8}l_{i}+B_{j_{i}} & \wedge & j_{i+1}=j_{i}+1 & \Longleftarrow & t_{i}<2^{8}\\
R_{i+1}=t_{i} & \wedge & L_{i+1}=l_{i} & \wedge & j_{i+1}=j_{i} & \Longleftarrow & t_{i}\geq2^{8}
\end{array}$
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
\begin_inset Formula $R_{0}=65280$
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
\begin_inset Formula $L_{0}=2^{8}B_{0}+B_{1}$
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
\begin_inset Formula $j_{0}=2$
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Paragraph
Non binary values
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
\begin_inset CommandInset label
LatexCommand label
name "sub:Non-binary-values"
\end_inset
To encode scalar integers it would be possible to encode each bit separately
and use the past bits as context.
However that would mean 255 contexts per 8-bit symbol which is not only
a waste of memory but also requires more past data to reach a reasonably
good estimate of the probabilities.
Alternatively assuming a Laplacian distribution and only dealing with its
variance and mean (as in Huffman coding) would also be possible, however,
for maximum flexibility and simplicity, the chosen method uses a single
symbol to encode if a number is 0 and if not encodes the number using its
exponent, mantissa and sign.
The exact contexts used are best described by the following code, followed
by some comments.
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
void put_symbol(RangeCoder *c, uint8_t *state, int v, int is_signed) {
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
int i;
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
put_rac(c, state+0, !v);
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
if (v) {
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
int a= ABS(v);
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
int e= log2(a);
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
for (i=0; i<e; i++)
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
put_rac(c, state+1+MIN(i,9), 1); //1..10
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
put_rac(c, state+1+MIN(i,9), 0);
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
for (i=e-1; i>=0; i--)
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
put_rac(c, state+22+MIN(i,9), (a>>i)&1); //22..31
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
if (is_signed)
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
put_rac(c, state+11 + MIN(e, 10), v < 0); //11..21
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
}
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
}
\end_layout
\begin_layout Paragraph
Initial values for the context model
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
At keyframes all range coder state variables are set to their initial state.
\end_layout
\begin_layout Paragraph
State transition table
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset Newline newline
\end_inset
\begin_inset Formula $one\_state_{i}=default\_state\_transition_{i}+state\_transition\_delta_{i}$
\end_inset
\begin_inset Newline newline
\end_inset
\begin_inset Formula $zero\_state_{i}=256-one\_state_{256-i}$
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Paragraph
default_state_transition
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 56, 57,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
74, 75, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99,100,101,102,103,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
104,105,106,107,108,109,110,111,112,113,114,114,115,116,117,118,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
119,120,121,122,123,124,125,126,127,128,129,130,131,132,133,133,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
134,135,136,137,138,139,140,141,142,143,144,145,146,147,148,149,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
150,151,152,152,153,154,155,156,157,158,159,160,161,162,163,164,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
165,166,167,168,169,170,171,171,172,173,174,175,176,177,178,179,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
180,181,182,183,184,185,186,187,188,189,190,190,191,192,194,194,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
195,196,197,198,199,200,201,202,202,204,205,206,207,208,209,209,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
210,211,212,213,215,215,216,217,218,219,220,220,222,223,224,225,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
226,227,227,229,229,230,231,232,234,234,235,236,237,238,239,240,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
241,242,243,244,245,246,247,248,248, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
\end_layout
\begin_layout Paragraph
alternative state transition table
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
The alternative state transition table has been build using iterative minimizati
on of frame sizes and generally performs better than the default.
To use it, the coder_type has to be set to 2 and the difference to the
default has to be stored in the header.
The reference implemenation of FFV1 in FFmpeg uses this table by default
at the time of this writing when Range coding is used.
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
0, 10, 10, 10, 10, 16, 16, 16, 28, 16, 16, 29, 42, 49, 20, 49,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
59, 25, 26, 26, 27, 31, 33, 33, 33, 34, 34, 37, 67, 38, 39, 39,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
40, 40, 41, 79, 43, 44, 45, 45, 48, 48, 64, 50, 51, 52, 88, 52,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
53, 74, 55, 57, 58, 58, 74, 60,101, 61, 62, 84, 66, 66, 68, 69,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
87, 82, 71, 97, 73, 73, 82, 75,111, 77, 94, 78, 87, 81, 83, 97,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
85, 83, 94, 86, 99, 89, 90, 99,111, 92, 93,134, 95, 98,105, 98,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
105,110,102,108,102,118,103,106,106,113,109,112,114,112,116,125,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
115,116,117,117,126,119,125,121,121,123,145,124,126,131,127,129,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
165,130,132,138,133,135,145,136,137,139,146,141,143,142,144,148,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
147,155,151,149,151,150,152,157,153,154,156,168,158,162,161,160,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
172,163,169,164,166,184,167,170,177,174,171,173,182,176,180,178,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
175,189,179,181,186,183,192,185,200,187,191,188,190,197,193,196,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
197,194,195,196,198,202,199,201,210,203,207,204,205,206,208,214,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
209,211,221,212,213,215,224,216,217,218,219,220,222,228,223,225,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
226,224,227,229,240,230,231,232,233,234,235,236,238,239,237,242,
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
241,243,242,244,245,246,247,248,249,250,251,252,252,253,254,255,
\end_layout
\begin_layout Subsubsection
Huffman coding mode
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
This coding mode uses golomb rice codes.
The VLC code is split into 2 parts, the prefix stores the most significant
bits, the suffix stores the k least significant bits or stores the whole
number in the ESC case.
The end of the bitstream (of the frame) is filled with 0-bits so that the
bitstream contains a multiple of 8 bits.
\end_layout
\begin_layout Paragraph
Prefix
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
\begin_inset Tabular
<lyxtabular version="3" rows="6" columns="2">
<features tabularvalignment="middle">
<column alignment="center" valignment="top" width="0">
<column alignment="center" valignment="top" width="0">
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
bits
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
value
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
1
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
0
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
01
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
1
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
...
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
...
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
0000 0000 0001
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
11
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
0000 0000 0000
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
ESC
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
</lyxtabular>
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Paragraph
Suffix
\end_layout
\begin_layout Labeling
\labelwidthstring 00.00.0000
non
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
ESC the k least significant bits MSB first
\end_layout
\begin_layout Labeling
\labelwidthstring 00.00.0000
ESC the value - 11, in MSB first order, ESC may only be used if the value
cannot be coded as non ESC
\end_layout
\begin_layout Paragraph
Examples
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
\begin_inset Tabular
<lyxtabular version="3" rows="7" columns="3">
<features tabularvalignment="middle">
<column alignment="center" valignment="top" width="0">
<column alignment="center" valignment="top" width="0">
<column alignment="center" valignment="top" width="0">
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
k
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
bits
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
value
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
0
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
1
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
0
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
0
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
001
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
2
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
2
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
1 00
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
0
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
2
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
1 10
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
2
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
2
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
01 01
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
5
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
any
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
000000000000 10000000
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
139
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
</lyxtabular>
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Paragraph
Run mode
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
Run mode is entered when the context is 0, and left as soon as a non-0 differenc
e is found, the level is identical to the predicted one, the run and the
first different level is coded.
\end_layout
\begin_layout Paragraph
Run length coding
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
TODO
\end_layout
\begin_layout Paragraph
Level coding
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
Level coding is identical to the normal difference coding with the exception
that the 0 value is removed as it cannot occur:
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
if(diff>0) diff--;
\end_layout
\begin_layout LyX-Code
encode(diff);
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
Note, this is different from JPEG-LS, which doesn't use prediction in run
mode and uses a different encoding and context model for the last difference
On a small set of test samples the use of prediction slightly improved
the compression rate.
\end_layout
\begin_layout Section
Bitstream
\end_layout
\begin_layout Labeling
\labelwidthstring 00.00.0000
b Range Coded 1-bit symbol
\end_layout
\begin_layout Labeling
\labelwidthstring 00.00.0000
v unsigned scalar symbol coded with the method described in
\begin_inset CommandInset ref
LatexCommand ref
reference "sub:Non-binary-values"
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Labeling
\labelwidthstring 00.00.0000
s signed scalar symbol coded with the method described in
\begin_inset CommandInset ref
LatexCommand ref
reference "sub:Non-binary-values"
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Labeling
\labelwidthstring 00.00.0000
24BE 24bit big endian integer
\end_layout
\begin_layout Labeling
\labelwidthstring 00.00.0000
32BE 32bit big endian integer
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
The same context which is initialized to 128 is used for all fields in the
header.
\end_layout
\begin_layout Subsection
Frame
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
\begin_inset Tabular
<lyxtabular version="3" rows="9" columns="2">
<features tabularvalignment="middle">
<column alignment="left" valignment="top" width="0">
<column alignment="center" valignment="top" width="0">
<row>
<cell alignment="left" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
Frame {
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
type
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
keyframe
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
b
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="left" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
if (keyframe) {
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
if(version<2)
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="left" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
FrameHeader01
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
}
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
for(i=0; i<slice_count; i++)
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
Slice(i)
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
}
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" bottomline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
</lyxtabular>
\end_inset
\end_layout
\begin_layout Subsection
Slice
\end_layout
\begin_layout Standard
\begin_inset Tabular
<lyxtabular version="3" rows="36" columns="2">
<features tabularvalignment="middle">
<column alignment="left" valignment="top" width="0">
<column alignment="center" valignment="top" width="0">
<row>
<cell alignment="left" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
Slice(i) {
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
type
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
if(version>2) {
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
slice_x
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
v
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
slice_y
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
v
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
slice_width-1
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
v
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
\begin_inset space ~
\end_inset
slice_height-1
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" rightline="true" usebox="none">
\begin_inset Text
\begin_layout Plain Layout
v
\end_layout
\end_inset
</cell>
</row>
<row>
<cell alignment="center" valignment="top" topline="true" leftline="true" usebox="none">
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\begin_inset space ~
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\begin_inset space ~
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\begin_inset space ~
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\begin_inset space ~
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\begin_inset space ~
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\begin_inset space ~
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\begin_inset space ~
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\begin_inset space ~
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\begin_inset space ~
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\begin_inset space ~
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32BE
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</lyxtabular>
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\begin_layout Labeling
\labelwidthstring 12345678901234567890
slice_size Size of the slice in bytes, this allows finding the start of
slices before previous slices have been fully decoded.
And allows this way parallel decoding as well as error resilience.
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\begin_layout Labeling
\labelwidthstring 12345678901234567890
error_status 0(no error), 1(slice contained a correctable error), 2(slice
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Header
\end_layout
\begin_layout Subsubsection
Version 0 and 1
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<features tabularvalignment="middle">
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FrameHeader01 {
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