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package Date::Holidays::DE;
use strict;
use warnings;
# Stock modules
use Time::Local;
use POSIX qw(strftime);
# Prerequisite
use Date::Calc 5.0 qw(Add_Delta_Days Easter_Sunday Day_of_Week This_Year);
require Exporter;
our @ISA = qw(Exporter);
our @EXPORT_OK = qw(holidays);
our $VERSION = '1.4';
sub holidays{
my %parameters = (
YEAR => This_Year(),
WHERE => ['common'],
FORMAT => "%s",
# Easter is the key to everything
my ($year, $month, $day) = Easter_Sunday($parameters{'YEAR'});
# Aliases for holidays
# neuj = Neujahr
# hl3k = Dreikoenigstag
# romo = Rosenmontag
# fadi = Faschingsdienstag
# asmi = Aschermittwoch
# grdo = Gruendonnerstag
# karf = Karfreitag
# kars = Karsamstag
# osts = Ostersonntag
# ostm = Ostermontag
# pfis = Pfingstsonntag
# pfim = Pfingstmontag
# himm = Himmelfahrtstag
# fron = Fronleichnam
# 1mai = Maifeiertag
# 17ju = Tag der deutschen Einheit (>= 1954, <= 1990)
# frie = Augsburger Friedensfest
# mari = Mariae Himmelfahrt
# 3okt = Tag der deutschen Einheit (>= 1990)
# refo = Reformationstag
# alhe = Allerheiligen
# buss = Buss- und Bettag
# votr = Volkstrauertag
# toso = Totensonntag
# adv1 = 1. Advent
# adv2 = 2. Advent
# adv3 = 3. Advent
# adv4 = 4. Advent
# heil = Heiligabend
# wei1 = 1. Weihnachtstag
# wei2 = 2. Weihnachtstag
# silv = Silvester
# Aliases for German federal states
# See
# bw = Baden-Wuerttemberg
# by = Freistaat Bayern
# be = Berlin
# bb = Brandenburg
# hb = Freie Hansestadt Bremen
# hh = Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg
# he = Hessen
# mv = Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
# ni = Niedersachsen
# nw = Nordrhein-Westfalen
# rp = Rheinland-Pfalz
# sl = Saarland
# sn = Freistaat Sachsen
# st = Sachsen-Anhalt
# sh = Schleswig-Holstein
# th = Freistaat Thueringen
# Sort out who has which holidays
my %holidays;
# Common holidays througout Germany
# 17ju/3okt are added to the list later, during date calculation
@{$holidays{'common'}} = qw(neuj karf ostm 1mai
pfim himm wei1 wei2);
# Now the extra holidays for the federal states.
# As if things weren't bad enough, some holidays are only valid
# in certain parts of single states. These will have to be
# specified through the ADD parameter.
# Extras for Baden-Wuerttemberg
@{$holidays{'bw'}} = qw(hl3k fron alhe);
# Extras for Bayern
@{$holidays{'by'}} = qw(hl3k fron alhe);
# Extras for Berlin
@{$holidays{'be'}} = qw();
# Extras for Brandenburg
@{$holidays{'bb'}} = qw(osts pfis refo);
# Extras for Bremen
@{$holidays{'hb'}} = qw();
# Extras for Hamburg
@{$holidays{'hh'}} = qw();
# Extras for Hessen
@{$holidays{'he'}} = qw(fron);
# Extras for Meck-Pomm
@{$holidays{'mv'}} = qw(refo);
# Extras for Niedersachsen
@{$holidays{'ni'}} = qw();
# Extras for Nordrhein-Westfalen
@{$holidays{'nw'}} = qw(fron alhe);
# Extras for Rheinland-Pfalz
@{$holidays{'rp'}} = qw(fron alhe);
# Extras for Saarland
@{$holidays{'sl'}} = qw(fron mari alhe);
# Extras for Sachsen
@{$holidays{'sn'}} = qw(refo buss);
# Extras for Sachsen-Anhalt
@{$holidays{'st'}} = qw(hl3k refo);
# Extras for Schleswig-Holstein
@{$holidays{'sh'}} = qw();
# Extras for Thueringen
@{$holidays{'th'}} = qw(refo);
# Fixed-date holidays
my %holiday;
# New year's day Jan 1
$holiday{'neuj'} = _date2timestamp($year, 1, 1);
# Heilige 3 Koenige Jan 6
$holiday{'hl3k'} = _date2timestamp($year, 1, 6);
# First of May
$holiday{'1mai'} = _date2timestamp($year, 5, 1);
# Christmas eve and Christmas Dec 24-26
$holiday{'heil'} = _date2timestamp($year, 12, 24);
$holiday{'wei1'} = _date2timestamp($year, 12, 25);
$holiday{'wei2'} = _date2timestamp($year, 12, 26);
# Augsburger Friedensfest
$holiday{'frie'} = _date2timestamp($year, 8, 8);
# Assumption day Aug 15
$holiday{'mari'} = _date2timestamp($year, 8, 15);
# Reunion day Jun 17 (1954-1990)
if (($year <= 1990) and ($year >= 1954)){
$holiday{'17ju'} = _date2timestamp($year, 6, 17);
push @{$holidays{'common'}}, '17ju';
# Reunion day Oct 3 (since 1990)
if ($year >= 1990){
$holiday{'3okt'} = _date2timestamp($year, 10, 3);
push @{$holidays{'common'}}, '3okt';
# Reformation day Oct 31
$holiday{'refo'} = _date2timestamp($year, 10, 31);
# All Hallows Nov 1
$holiday{'alhe'} = _date2timestamp($year, 11, 1);
# New Years Eve Dec 31
$holiday{'silv'} = _date2timestamp($year, 12, 31);
# Holidays relative to Easter
# Carnival Monday = Easter Sunday minus 48 days
my ($j_romo, $m_romo, $t_romo) =
Date::Calc::Add_Delta_Days($year, $month, $day, -48);
$holiday{'romo'} = _date2timestamp($j_romo, $m_romo, $t_romo);
# Shrove Tuesday = Easter Sunday minus 47 days
my ($j_fadi, $m_fadi, $t_fadi) =
Date::Calc::Add_Delta_Days($year, $month, $day, -47);
$holiday{'fadi'} = _date2timestamp($j_fadi, $m_fadi, $t_fadi);
# Ash Wednesday = Easter Sunday minus 46 days
my ($j_asmi, $m_asmi, $t_asmi) =
Date::Calc::Add_Delta_Days($year, $month, $day, -46);
$holiday{'asmi'} = _date2timestamp($j_asmi, $m_asmi, $t_asmi);
# Maundy Thursday = Easter Sunday minus 3 days
my ($j_grdo, $m_grdo, $t_grdo) =
Date::Calc::Add_Delta_Days($year, $month, $day, -3);
$holiday{'grdo'} = _date2timestamp($j_grdo, $m_grdo, $t_grdo);
# Good Friday = Easter Sunday minus 2 days
my ($j_karf, $m_karf, $t_karf) =
Date::Calc::Add_Delta_Days($year, $month, $day, -2);
$holiday{'karf'} = _date2timestamp($j_karf, $m_karf, $t_karf);
# Holy Saturday = Easter Sunday minus 1 day
my ($j_kars, $m_kars, $t_kars) =
Date::Calc::Add_Delta_Days($year, $month, $day, -1);
$holiday{'kars'} = _date2timestamp($j_kars, $m_kars, $t_kars);
# Easter Sunday is just that
$holiday{'osts'} = _date2timestamp($year, $month, $day);
# Easter Monday = Easter Sunday plus 1 day
my ($j_ostm, $m_ostm, $t_ostm) =
Date::Calc::Add_Delta_Days($year, $month, $day, 1);
$holiday{'ostm'} = _date2timestamp($j_ostm, $m_ostm, $t_ostm);
# Whit Sunday = Easter Sunday plus 49 days
my ($j_pfis, $m_pfis, $t_pfis) =
Date::Calc::Add_Delta_Days($year, $month, $day, 49);
$holiday{'pfis'} = _date2timestamp($j_pfis, $m_pfis, $t_pfis);
# Whit Monday = Easter Sunday plus 50 days
my ($j_pfim, $m_pfim, $t_pfim) =
Date::Calc::Add_Delta_Days($year, $month, $day, 50);
$holiday{'pfim'} = _date2timestamp($j_pfim, $m_pfim, $t_pfim);
# Ascension Day = Easter Sunday plus 39 days
my ($j_himm, $m_himm, $t_himm) =
Date::Calc::Add_Delta_Days($year, $month, $day, 39);
$holiday{'himm'} = _date2timestamp($j_himm, $m_himm, $t_himm);
# Corpus Christi = Easter Sunday plus 60 days
my ($j_fron, $m_fron, $t_fron) =
Date::Calc::Add_Delta_Days($year, $month, $day, 60);
$holiday{'fron'} = _date2timestamp($j_fron, $m_fron, $t_fron);
# Only one holiday is relative to Christmas
# Penance day = Sunday before christmas minus 32 days
# Find sunday before christmas
my $tempdate;
for ($tempdate = 24; $tempdate > 16; $tempdate--){
my $dow = Day_of_Week($year, 12, $tempdate);
# 7 is Sunday
last if (7 == $dow);
# $tempdate now holds the last sunday before christmas.
# subtract 32 days from the Dec day stored in $tempdate
my ($j_buss, $m_buss, $t_buss) =
Date::Calc::Add_Delta_Days($year, 12, $tempdate, -32);
$holiday{'buss'} = _date2timestamp($j_buss, $m_buss, $t_buss);
# store the sundays in advent and the two sundays before
my $sc=0;
foreach my $name ("adv4", "adv3", "adv2", "adv1", "toso", "votr") {
$holiday{$name} = _date2timestamp(
Date::Calc::Add_Delta_Days($year, 12, $tempdate, 7*$sc--)
# Build list for returning
my %holidaylist;
# See what holidays shall be printed
my $wantall = 0;
foreach (@{$parameters{'WHERE'}}){
if ($_ eq 'all'){
$wantall = 1;
if (1 == $wantall){
# All holidays if 'all' is in the WHERE parameter list.
%holidaylist = %holiday;
# Only specified regions
foreach my $scope (@{$parameters{'WHERE'}}){
foreach my $alias(@{$holidays{$scope}}){
$holidaylist{$alias} = $holiday{$alias};
# Add the most obscure holidays that were requested through
# the ADD parameter
if ($parameters{'ADD'}){
foreach my $add(@{$parameters{'ADD'}}){
$holidaylist{$add} = $holiday{$add};
# If WEEKENDS => 0 was passed, weed out holidays on weekends
unless (1 == $parameters{'WEEKENDS'}){
# Walk the list of holidays
foreach my $alias(keys(%holidaylist)){
# Get day of week. Since we're no longer
# in Date::Calc's world, use localtime()
my $dow = (localtime($holiday{$alias}))[6];
# dow 6 = Saturday, dow 0 = Sunday
if ((6 == $dow) or (0 == $dow)){
# Kick this day from the list
delete $holidaylist{$alias};
# Sort values stored in the hash for returning
my @returnlist;
# Not all platforms have strftime(%s).
# Therefore, inject seconds manually into format string.
my $formatstring = $parameters{'FORMAT'};
$formatstring =~ s/%{0}%s/$holidaylist{$_}/g;
# Inject the holiday's alias name into the format string
# if it was requested by adding %#.
$formatstring =~ s/%{0}%#/$_/;
push @returnlist,
strftime($formatstring, localtime($holidaylist{$_}));
return \@returnlist;
sub _date2timestamp{
# Turn Date::Calc's y/m/d format into a UNIX timestamp
my ($y, $m, $d) = @_;
my $timestamp = timelocal(0,0,0,$d,($m-1),$y);
return $timestamp;
=head1 NAME
Date::Holidays::DE - Determine German holidays
use Date::Holidays::DE qw(holidays);
my $feiertage_ref = holidays();
my @feiertage = @$feiertage_ref;
This module exports a single function named B<holidays()> which returns a list of
German holidays in a given year.
The module knows about the following holidays:
neuj Neujahr New Year's day
hl3k Hl. 3 Koenige Epiphany
romo Rosenmontag Carnival monday
fadi Faschingsdienstag Shrove tuesday
asmi Aschermittwoch Ash wednesday
grdo Gruendonnerstag Maundy Thursday
karf Karfreitag Good friday
kars Karsamstag Holy Saturday
osts Ostersonntag Easter sunday
ostm Ostermontag Easter monday
pfis Pfingstsonntag Whit sunday
pfim Pfingstmontag Whit monday
himm Himmelfahrtstag Ascension day
fron Fronleichnam Corpus christi
1mai Maifeiertag Labor day, German style
17ju Tag der deutschen Einheit Reunion day (>= 1954, <= 1990)
frie Augsburger Friedensfest Augsburg peace day
mari Mariae Himmelfahrt Assumption day
3okt Tag der deutschen Einheit Reunion day (>= 1990)
refo Reformationstag Reformation day
alhe Allerheiligen All hallows day
buss Buss- und Bettag Penance day
votr Volkstrauertag Remembrance Day, German Style
toso Totensonntag Sunday in commemoration of the dead
adv1 1. Advent 1st sunday in advent
adv2 2. Advent 2nd sunday in advent
adv3 3. Advent 3rd sunday in advent
adv4 4. Advent 4th sunday in advent
heil Heiligabend Christmas eve
wei1 1. Weihnachtstag Christmas
wei2 2. Weihnachtstag Christmas
silv Silvester New year's eve
Please refer to the module source for detailed information about how every
holiday is calculated. Too much detail would be far beyond the scope of this
document, but it's not particularly hard once you've found the date for
=head1 USAGE
The list returned by B<holidays()> consists of UNIX-Style timestamps in seconds
since The Epoch. You may pass a B<strftime()> style format string to get the
dates in any format you desire:
my $feiertage_ref = holidays(FORMAT=>"%d.%m.%Y");
Here are a few examples to get you started:
FORMAT=>"%d.%m.%Y" 25.12.2001
FORMAT=>"%Y%m%d" 20011225
FORMAT=>"%a, %B %d" Tuesday, December 25
Please consult the manual page of B<strftime()> for a complete list of available
format definitions.
There is, however, one "proprietary" extension to the formats of B<strftime()>:
The format definition I<%#> will print the internal abbreviation used for each
FORMAT=>"%#:%d.%m" wei1:25.12.
As the module doesn't want to deal with i18n
issues, you'll have to find your own way to translate the aliases into your
local language. See the I<example/> script included in the
distribution to get the idea. This was added in version 0.6.
The module also knows about different regulations throughout Germany.
When calling B<holidays()>, the resulting list by default contains the list of
Germany-wide holidays.
You can specify one ore more of the following federal states to get the list of
holidays local to that state:
bw Baden-Wuerttemberg
by Freistaat Bayern
be Berlin
bb Brandenburg
hb Freie Hansestadt Bremen
hh Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg
he Hessen
mv Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
ni Niedersachsen
nw Nordrhein-Westfalen
rp Rheinland-Pfalz
sl Saarland
sn Freistaat Sachsen
st Sachsen-Anhalt
sh Schleswig-Holstein
th Freistaat Thueringen
For example,
my $feiertage_ref = holidays(WHERE=>['by', 'bw']);
returns the list of holidays local to Bayern or Baden-Wuerttemberg.
To get the list of local holidays along with the default list of common
German holidays, use the following:
my $feiertage_ref = holidays(WHERE=>['common', 'bw']);
returns the list of common German holidays merged with the list of holidays
specific to Baden-Wuerttemberg.
You can also request a list containing all holidays this module knows about:
my $feiertage_ref = holidays(WHERE=>['all']);
will return a list of all known holidays. This was added in version 0.6.
There are a number of holidays that aren't really holidays, e.g. New Year's Eve
and Christmas Eve. These aren't contained in the I<common> set of holidays
returnd by the B<holidays()> function. The aforementioned I<silv> and I<heil>
are probably the most likely ones that you'll need. If you live in Koeln, you'll
probably want to include I<romo> and I<fadi>, too. ;-)
As if things weren't bad enough already, there even are Holidays that aren't
valid in an entire state. This refers to I<fron>, I<alhe> and I<mari> in
If you want one or several of them to appear in the output from B<holidays()>,
use the following:
my $feiertage_ref = holidays(ADD=>['heil', 'silv']);
By default, B<holidays()> returns the holidays for the current year. Specify
a year as follows:
my $feiertage_ref = holidays(YEAR=>2004);
By default, B<holidays()> includes Holidays that occur on weekends in its
To disable this behaviour, set the I<WEEKENDS> option to 0:
my $feiertage_ref = holidays(WEEKENDS=>0);
Get all holidays for Germany and Bayern in 2004, count New Year's Eve and
Christmas Eve as Holidays. Also, we live in a catholic region where Assumption
day is a holiday, too. Exclude weekends and return the date list in human
readable format:
my $feiertage_ref = holidays( WHERE => ['common', 'he'],
FORMAT => "%a, %d.%m.%Y",
YEAR => 2004,
ADD => ['heil', 'silv', 'mari']);
Uses B<Date::Calc 5.0> for all calculations. Makes use of the B<POSIX> and
B<Time::Local> modules from the standard Perl distribution.
If you run into a miscalculation, need some sort of feature or an additional
holiday, or if you know of any new changes to our funky holiday situation,
please drop the author a note.
Patches are welcome. If you can, please fork the project on I<github> to
submit your change:
I<Tag der Deutschen Einheit> was moved from June 17th to October 3rd in 1990
and is therefore listed twice when calculating holidays for 1990. This is
not a bug. Awareness for this was introduced in Version 1.1.
The German Federal Ministry of the Interior used to publish a comprehensive
list of holiday dates. This does currently not appear to be the case.
A list of holidays per state is available at:
B<Date::Calc> works with year, month and day numbers exclusively. Even though
this module uses B<Date::Calc> for all calculations, it represents the calculated
holidays as UNIX timestamps (seconds since The Epoch) to allow for more
flexible formatting. This limits the range of years to work on to
the years from 1972 to 2037.
Historic regulations for I<Buss- und Bettag> are still not implemented.
B<Date::Holidays::DE> is not configurable. Holiday changes don't come over
night and a new module release can be rolled out within a single day.
=head1 AUTHOR
Martin Schmitt E<lt>mas at scsy dot deE<gt>
=head1 SEE ALSO
L<perl>, L<Date::Calc>.
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