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The GEDCOM X Conceptual Model

Status

This document specifies a standard conceptual model for exchanging genealogical data, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements.

Copyright Notice

Copyright 2011-2012 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.

License

This document is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike license. For details, see:

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

1. Introduction

The GEDCOM X conceptual model is a specification of formal concepts and types that are used to provide a standard model and vocabulary for describing genealogical data. Genealogical data is structured by data types such as persons, relationships, and sources.

1.1 Identifier and Version

The identifier for this specification is:

http://gedcomx.org/conceptual-model/v1

For convenience, the GEDCOM X conceptual model may be referred to as "GEDCOM X 1.0". This specification uses "GEDCOM X" internally.

1.2 Notational Conventions

This specification uses the term "data type" to refer to a formal description of a data structure, including the properties that define valid instances of the data type. For example, information about a person might be contained within a data structure that supplies the person's name, birth date, and gender. A "data type" defines the formal properties of the data structure.

When a property of a data type is specified as being of a particular data type, the property inherits the corresponding requirements from that data type's definition. When a data type is specified as an extension of another data type, the extending data type inherits the corresponding requirements from the extended data type's definition.

Data types are defined by the following sections:

  1. The identifier for the data type, which takes the form of a URI.
  2. The extension of the data type (if any) which specifies which data type is extended by the data type.
  3. The properties of the data type, which define the information the data type encapsulates.

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC2119, as scoped to those conformance targets.

2. Common Data Types

Many data types of the GEDCOM X conceptual model share common structures. This section defines the data types of those shared structures and their requirements for convenient reference by the other data type definitions.

2.1 The URI

The Uniform Resource Identifier ("URI") is fundamental to the GEDCOM X conceptual model. The URI is used to identify specific resources, such as persons, relationships, and sources. The URI is also used to identify the data structures that describe those resources and even the data types that define those data structures. The URI is specified by RFC3986.

2.2 The "Identifier" Data Type

The Identifier data type defines the data structure used to supply an identifier of a genealogical resource in a specific data set.

The Identifier data type does NOT support extension properties (see Extension Properties).

identifier

The identifier for the "Identifier" data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/Identifier

properties

name description data type
value The value of the identifier. string (possibly interpreted as a URI, depending on the type of the identifier).
type URI identifying the type of the identifier. URI - MUST resolve to an identifier type. Refer to the list of known identifier types.

known identifier types

The following identifier types are defined by GEDCOM X.

URI description
http://gedcomx.org/Forwarded

examples

todo: fill in some examples.

2.3 The "Attribution" Data Type

The Attribution data type defines the data structure used to supply the attribution (including who, when, and why) of genealogical data.

The Attribution data type does NOT support extension properties (see Extension Properties).

identifier

The identifier for the "Attribution" data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/Attribution

properties

name description data type
contributor Reference to the contributor to whom the attributed data is attributed. URI - MUST resolve to an instance of http://gedcomx.org/v1/Agent.
modified Timestamp of when the attributed data was contributed. timestamp
confidence Reference to the confidence level of the contributor of the attributed data. URI - MUST resolve to a confidence level. Refer to the list of known confidence levels.
changeMessage A statement of why the attributed data is being provided by the contributor. string

known confidence levels

The following confidence levels are defined by GEDCOM X. For more information, refer to Mills, Elizabeth Shown. "Fundamentals of Evidence Analysis." Evidence Explained. 2nd ed. (Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2009), 19-20 (Section 1.6).

URI description
http://gedcomx.org/Certainly The contributor has no reasonable doubt about the assertion, based upon sound research and good evidence.
http://gedcomx.org/Probably The contributor feels the assertion is more likely than not, based upon sound research and good evidence.
http://gedcomx.org/Possibly The contributor feels some evidence supports the assertion, but the assertion is far from proved.
http://gedcomx.org/Likely The contributor feels the odds weigh at least slightly in favor of the assertion.
http://gedcomx.org/Apparently The contributor has formed an impression or presumption, typically based upon common experience, but has not tested the matter.
http://gedcomx.org/Perhaps The contributor suggests that an idea is plausible, although it remains to be tested.

examples

todo:

2.4 The "FormalValue" Data Type

The FormalValue data type defines the data structure used to supply a normalized and/or standardized value. The formal value is used to supply a formal interpretation of a value that has been supplied by a user. If the value has been reformatted for the purpose of easier processing (e.g. for display purposes), it is said to be "normalized". If the value has been resolved to a discrete, machine-identifiable value based on a specific standard, it is said to be "standardized".

The FormalValue data type does NOT support extension properties (see Extension Properties).

identifier

The identifier for the "FormalValue" data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/FormalValue

properties

name description data type
value A string supplying the value of the formal value. If the value has been standardized, a datatype will be supplied to identify how the string is to be parsed. string
datatype URI identifying the way the value is to be processed according to a specific standard. URI
resource URI identifying the resource to which the formal value has been standardized. URI

If a value is supplied for the datatype property, a value SHALL NOT be supplied for the resource property. If a value is supplied for the resource property, a value SHALL NOT be supplied for the datatype property.

examples

  • A user supplies the text "jan 1 1890" as the value of a genealogical date. If a process (either automated or by user-interaction) normalizes this text to "1 January 1890", the formal value containing the results of this normalization will have a value of "1 January 1890" and no values specified for either the datatype or the resource.
  • A user supplies the text "jan 1 1890" as the value of a genealogical date. If a process (either automated or by user-interaction) standardizes this text to a specific date such as midnight UTC of the first day of January of the year 1890 A.D. of the Gregorian calendar, the formal value containing the results of this standardization might have a value of "1890-01-01T00:00:00Z" and a datatype of "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime" and no value specified for the resource.
  • A user supplies "boston, MA" as the value for a genealogical place. If a process (either automated or by user-interaction) standardizes this place to a unique resource (e.g. the actual city know today as Boston, Massachusetts) identified by a specific URI (e.g. "http://places.com/12345"), the formal value containing the results of this standardization will have "http://places.com/12345" as the value of its "resource" property. The formal value MAY also supply a value for the "value" property that contains the results of normalizing the user-supplied text (e.g. "Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts, United States").

2.5 The "Note" Data Type

The Note data type defines a note that was contributed from genealogical research.

Notes are not intended to contain genealogical conclusions. Notes are only associated with a single genealogical resource.

identifier

The identifier for the "Note" data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/Note

properties

name description data type
text The text of the note. http://gedcomx.org/TextValue
attribution The attribution of this note. http://gedcomx.org/Attribution

2.7 The "TextValue" Data Type

The TextValue data type defines a literal value.

The TextValue data type does NOT support extension properties (see Extension Properties).

identifier

The identifier for the "TextValue" data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/TextValue

properties

name description data type
lang The language of the literal value. http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace#lang
value The literal value. A datatype MAY be supplied to identify how the string is to be parsed. string

3. Data Types for Describing Sources

Citing sound evidence is a critical component to the exchange of genealogical data. The source of a piece of genealogical data has to be completely and accurately described in order to be consistently evaluated by other genealogical researchers. Many sources do not have a digital representation (e.g. books or other physical artifacts). Sources are instead described and their description is provided as the digital representation of a source.

This section defines the data types that are used for describing and referencing sources.

3.1 The "SourceDescription" Data Type

The SourceDescription data type defines a description of a source.

identifier

The identifier for the "SourceDescription" data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/SourceDescription

properties

name description data type
id A local, transient identifier for the resource being described. Note that as a local, transient identifier, the id may only be used to resolve references to the resource within a well-defined scope (such as a single web service request or a single file). string
citation The citation for this source. http://gedcomx.org/v1/SourceCitation - REQUIRED
about A uniform resource identifier (URI) for the resource being described. URI - OPTIONAL
mediator A reference to the entity that mediates access to the described source. URI - OPTIONAL; MUST resolve to an instance of http://gedcomx.org/v1/Agent.
sources A list of references to any sources from which this source is derived. List of http://gedcomx.org/v1/SourceReference - OPTIONAL
componentOf A reference to the source that contains this source -- its parent context; this is for cases where this description is not complete without the description of its parent context http://gedcomx.org/v1/SourceReference - OPTIONAL
displayName A display name for this source. string - OPTIONAL
alternateNames A list of alternate display names for this source. List of http://gedcomx.org/TextValue - OPTIONAL
notes A list of notes about a source. List of http://gedcomx.org/Note - OPTIONAL
attribution The attribution of this source description. http://gedcomx.org/Attribution

3.2 The "SourceCitation" Data Type

The SourceCitation data type defines a container for the metadata necessary to identify a source(s) and from which bibliographic citation strings may be rendered.

identifier

The identifier for the "SourceCitation" data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/SourceCitation

properties

name description data type
value A rendering of the full (working) citation as a string. string - REQUIRED
citationTemplate The identifier of the citation template by which this citation may be interpreted. URI - OPTIONAL; MUST resolve to an instance of http://gedcomx.org/v1/CitationTemplate.
fields A list of citation fields about a source. List of http://gedcomx.org/v1/CitationField - OPTIONAL

3.3 The "CitationField" Data Type

The CitationField data type defines a piece of metadata (e.g., author, volume, page, publisher, etc.) necessary to identify a source.

The CitationField data type does NOT support extension properties (see Extension Properties).

identifier

The identifier for the "CitationField" data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/CitationField

properties

name description data type
name The identifier for the citation detail -- defined by a citation template or a citation template library. URI - REQUIRED
value The value of the citation detail. string - OPTIONAL

3.4 The "SourceReference" Data Type

The SourceReference data type defines a reference to a source. A genealogical conclusion or a derivate source [the referring object -- the object holding the SourceReference instance] cites its supporting source(s) [the target source(s)] using an instance(s) of SourceReference.

identifier

The identifier for the "SourceReference" data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/SourceReference

properties

name description data type
sourceDescription Reference to a description of the target source. URI - MUST resolve to an instance of http://gedcomx.org/v1/SourceDescription
attribution The attribution of this source reference. http://gedcomx.org/Attribution

examples

todo:

3.5 The "CitationTemplate" Data Type

todo: define citation templates and any associated infrastructure

a note about citation templates (not part of this specification)

Building source citations is said to be an "art" and requires a great deal of flexibility. While citation style guides exist (e.g. Chicago style, Turabian, Evidence Style -- see Evidence Explained by Elizabeth Shown Mills, etc.), they are considered guides and execution within their guidelines allows for flexibility. No one style has been universally accepted, nor will a style become universally accepted in the forseeable future. Therefore, the approach to collecting citation metadata and the exchange of this data needs to support flexibility.

The citation metadata is collected as a set of name-value pairs (see the CitationField data type), but there still remains a set of difficult questions, including:

  • What is the set of valid "names" (e.g. controlled vocabulary)?
  • What "values" are valid values for a given "name"?
  • What fields (name-value pairs) are required, and under what circumstances might they be optional?
  • What metadata needs to be collected to properly site data in a specific record? For example, is a citation for the 1900 US Census different from a citation for the 1910 US Census and from a citation for the 1911 England and Wales Census?

Further questions remain about how to arrange the fields into citations. For example, given a set of metadata, can it be expressed in the Chicago style? The Evidence style? What about a lesser-used or custom style?

To address these design issues, we define citation templates. A citation template defines the metadata that should be collected for a given source and the semantics associated with that metadata. Templates also specify how the metadata is rendered into specific citation styles, such as Chicago style or Evidence style. Templates could be designed to address specific record types and may be grouped by type (e.g., a group of templates for census records, or newspapers, or US census records, or UK census records, etc.). Templates could also be associated with other templates into libraries such that a specific piece of citation metadata (e.g., a citation field named "Volume") has a shared semantic meanign across the set of associated templates -- a template library. Perhaps a standard template library could be developed that would address the most common citation needs.

Citation templates have not been fully specified and are therefore outlined here in broad terms. For now, this section functions as a place holder for the needed specifications. We will likely consider ideas like those expressed at http://sourcetemplates.org/ when we define this portion of the specification.

4. Data Types for Describing Contributors

Genealogical research is performed and data is gathered by a living person or organization. This section describes the data types that are used to provide information about contributors of genealogical data.

4.1 The "OnlineAccount" Data Type

The OnlineAccount data type defines a description of an account in an online web application.

identifier

The identifier for the OnlineAccount data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/OnlineAccount

properties

name description data type
serviceHomepage The home page of the service. URI
accountName The name, label, or id associating the owner of the account with the account. string

4.2 The "Address" Data Type

The Address data type defines a street address of a person or organization.

identifier

The identifier for the Address data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/Address

properties

name description data type
value A string representation of the value. Used when the address isn't separated into its constituent parts. string
city The city. string
country The country. string
postalCode The postal code. string
stateOrProvince The state or province. string
street The street. string
street2 The street (second line). string
street3 The street (third line). string

4.3 The "Agent" Data Type

The Agent data type defines a living entity, such as a person (user) or organization.

identifier

The identifier for the Agent data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/Agent

properties

name description data type
id A local identifier for the agent. Note that this id MUST NOT be processed as an identifier for the resource being referenced, but instead as a transient identifier for the reference itself. string
identifiers Identifiers for the agent. When an identifier for an agent is also an identifier for a person, the data in the person describes the agent. List of http://gedcomx.org/v1/Identifier. Order is preserved.
name The name of the person or organization. string
homepage The homepage of the person or organization. URI
openid The openid of the person or organization. URI
accounts The online accounts of the person or organization. List of http://gedcomx.org/v1/OnlineAccount. Order is preserved.
emails The email addresses of the person or organization. List of URI - MUST resolve to a valid e-mail address (e.g. "mailto:someone@gedcomx.org"). Order is preserved.
phones The phones (voice, fax, mobile) of the person or organization. List of URI - MUST resolve to a valid phone number (e.g. "tel:+1-201-555-0123"). Order is preserved.
addresses The addresses of the person or organization. List of http://gedcomx.org/v1/Address. Order is preserved.

5. Data Types for Describing Conclusions

This section describes the data types that are used to define genealogical conclusions.

5.1 The "Conclusion" Data Type

The Conclusion data type defines the base conceptual model for basic genealogical conclusions.

identifier

The identifier for the Conclusion data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/Conclusion

properties

name description data type
id A local identifier for the conclusion. Note that this id MUST NOT be processed as an identifier for the resource being referenced, but instead as a transient identifier for the reference itself. string
sources The list of references to the sources of related to this conclusion. The sources of a conclusion MUST also be sources of the conclusion's containing entity (i.e. Person or Relationship ). List of http://gedcomx.org/v1/SourceReference. Order is preserved.
notes A list of notes about a conclusion. List of http://gedcomx.org/Note - OPTIONAL
attribution The attribution of this conclusion. http://gedcomx.org/Attribution

5.2 The "Document" Data Type

The Document data type defines the base conceptual model for genealogical conclusions that are managed as textual documents. The Document data type extends the Conclusion data type.

identifier

The identifier for the Document data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/Document

extension

This data type extends the following data type:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/Conclusion

properties

name description data type
text The text of the document. http://gedcomx.org/TextValue

5.2.1 The "AbstractDocument" Data Type

The AbstractDocument data type is used to represent document abstracts. The AbstractDocument data type extends the Document data type.

identifier

The identifier for the AbstractDocument data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/AbstractDocument

extension

This data type extends the following data type:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/Document

properties

The AbstractDocument data type defines no additional properties beyond those defined by its extended type.

5.2.2 The "TranscriptionDocument" Data Type

The TranscriptionDocument data type is used to represent document transcriptions -- to include partial transcriptions (also called extracts). The TranscriptionDocument data type extends the Document data type.

identifier

The identifier for the TranscriptionDocument data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/TranscriptionDocument

extension

This data type extends the following data type:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/Document

properties

The TranscriptionDocument data type defines no additional properties beyond those defined by its extended type.

5.2.3 The "TranslationDocument" Data Type

The TranslationDocument data type is used to represent document translations. The TranslationDocument data type extends the Document data type.

identifier

The identifier for the TranslationDocument data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/TranslationDocument

extension

This data type extends the following data type:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/Document

properties

The TranslationDocument data type defines no additional properties beyond those defined by its extended type.

5.2.4 The "AnalysisDocument" Data Type

The AnalysisDocument data type is used to represent documents with evidence analysis -- e.g., a genealogical proof statement. The AnalysisDocument data type extends the Document data type.

identifier

The identifier for the AnalysisDocument data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/AnalysisDocument

extension

This data type extends the following data type:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/Document

properties

The AnalysisDocument data type defines no additional properties beyond those defined by its extended type.

5.3 The "Gender" Data Type

The Gender data type defines a conclusion about the gender of a person. the Gender data type extends the Conclusion data type.

identifier

The identifier for the Gender data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/Gender

extension

This data type extends the following data type:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/Conclusion

properties

name description data type
type URI identifying the type of the gender. URI - MUST resolve to a gender type. Refer to the list of known gender types.

known gender types

The following gender types are defined by GEDCOM X:

URI description
http://gedcomx.org/Male
http://gedcomx.org/Female
http://gedcomx.org/Unknown

5.4 The "Name" Data Type

The Name data type defines a conclusion about a name of a person. The Name data type extends the Conclusion data type.

identifier

The identifier for the Name data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/Name

extension

This data type extends the following data type:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/Conclusion

properties

name description data type
type URI identifying the type of the name. URI - MUST resolve to a name type. Refer to the list of known name types.
preferred Whether this name is preferred above the other names of a person. boolean
primaryForm The primary form of the name. http://gedcomx.org/v1/NameForm
alternateForms The alternate forms of the name. List of http://gedcomx.org/v1/NameForm. Order is preserved.

known name types

The following name types are defined by GEDCOM X:

URI description
http://gedcomx.org/Name
http://gedcomx.org/BirthName
http://gedcomx.org/DeathName
http://gedcomx.org/MarriedName
http://gedcomx.org/AlsoKnownAs
http://gedcomx.org/MaidenName
http://gedcomx.org/Nickname
http://gedcomx.org/Adoptive
http://gedcomx.org/Formal
http://gedcomx.org/Religious

5.5 The "Fact" Data Type

The Fact data type defines a conclusion about a fact of the life of a person or the nature of a relationship. The Fact data type extends the Conclusion data type.

identifier

The identifier for the Fact data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/Fact

extension

This data type extends the following data type:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/Conclusion

properties

name description data type
type URI identifying the type of the fact. URI - MUST resolve to a fact type. See the list of known fact types.
date The date of applicability of the fact. http://gedcomx.org/v1/Date
place The place of applicability of the fact. http://gedcomx.org/v1/Place
original The value of the fact as supplied by the contributor. string
formal The formal value of the fact. http://gedcomx.org/v1/FormalValue

known fact types

The following fact types are defined by GEDCOM X:

URI description scope
http://gedcomx.org/Adoption A fact of a person's adoption. In the context of a parent-child relationship, it describes a fact of the adoption of a child by a parent. person
http://gedcomx.org/AdultChristening A fact of a person's christening or baptism as an adult. person
http://gedcomx.org/Baptism A fact of a person's baptism. person
http://gedcomx.org/BarMitzvah A fact of a person's bar mitzvah. person
http://gedcomx.org/BatMitzvah A fact of a person's bat mitzvah. person
http://gedcomx.org/Birth A fact of a person's birth. person
http://gedcomx.org/Blessing A fact of an official blessing received by a person, such as at the hands of a clergy member or at another religious rite. person
http://gedcomx.org/Burial A fact of the burial of person's body after death. person
http://gedcomx.org/Caste A fact of a person's caste. person
http://gedcomx.org/Census A fact of a person's participation in a census. person
http://gedcomx.org/Christening A fact of a person's christening at birth. Note: use AdultChristening for the christening as an adult. person
http://gedcomx.org/Circumcision A fact of a person's circumcision. person
http://gedcomx.org/Clan A fact of a person's clan. person
http://gedcomx.org/Confirmation A fact of a person's confirmation (or other rite of initiation) in a church or religion. person
http://gedcomx.org/Cremation A fact of the cremation of person's body after death. person
http://gedcomx.org/Death A fact of the death of a person. person
http://gedcomx.org/Education A fact of an education or an educational achievement (e.g. diploma, graduation, scholarship, etc.) of a person. person
http://gedcomx.org/Emigration A fact of the emigration of a person. person
http://gedcomx.org/Ethnicity A fact of a person's ethnicity or race. person
http://gedcomx.org/Excommunication A fact of a person's excommunication from a church. person
http://gedcomx.org/FirstCommunion A fact of a person's first communion in a church. person
http://gedcomx.org/Funeral A fact of a person's funeral. person
http://gedcomx.org/Immigration A fact of a person's immigration. person
http://gedcomx.org/LandTransation A fact of a land transaction enacted by a person. person
http://gedcomx.org/Living A fact of a record of a person's living for a specific period. This is designed to include "flourish", defined to mean the time period in an adult's life where he was most productive, perhaps as a writer or member of the state assembly. It does not reflect the person's birth and death dates. person
http://gedcomx.org/MaritalStatus A fact of a person's marital status. person
http://gedcomx.org/Medical A fact of a person's medical record, such as for an illness or hospital stay. person
http://gedcomx.org/MilitaryAward A fact of a person's military award. person
http://gedcomx.org/MilitaryDischarge A fact of a person's military discharge. person
http://gedcomx.org/MilitaryService A fact of a person's militray service. person
http://gedcomx.org/Mission A fact of a person's church mission. person
http://gedcomx.org/MoveTo A fact of a person's move (i.e. change of residence) to a new location. person
http://gedcomx.org/MoveFrom A fact of a person's move (i.e. change of residence) from a location. person
http://gedcomx.org/MultipleBirth A fact that a person was born as part of a multiple birth (e.g. twin, triplet, etc.) person
http://gedcomx.org/NationalId A fact of a person's national id (e.g. social security number). person
http://gedcomx.org/Nationality A fact of a person's nationality. person
http://gedcomx.org/Naturalization A fact of a person's naturalization (i.e. acquisition of citizenship and nationality). person
http://gedcomx.org/NumberOfChildren A fact of the number of children of a person or relationship. person
http://gedcomx.org/NumberOfMarriages A fact of a person's number of marriages. person
http://gedcomx.org/Occupation A fact of a person's occupation or employment. person
http://gedcomx.org/Ordination A fact of a person's ordination to a stewardship in a church. person
http://gedcomx.org/PhysicalDescription A fact of a person's physical description. person
http://gedcomx.org/Probate A fact of a receipt of probate of a person's property. person
http://gedcomx.org/Property A fact of a person's property or possessions. person
http://gedcomx.org/Religion A fact of a person's religion. person
http://gedcomx.org/Residence A fact of a person's residence. person
http://gedcomx.org/Retirement A fact of a person's retirement. person
http://gedcomx.org/Stillbirth A fact of a person's stillbirth. person
http://gedcomx.org/Will A fact of a person's will. person
http://gedcomx.org/Visit A fact of a person's visit to a place different from the person's residence. person
http://gedcomx.org/Annulment The fact of an annulment of a marriage. couple relationship
http://gedcomx.org/CommonLawMarriage The fact of a marriage by common law. couple relationship
http://gedcomx.org/Divorce The fact of a divorce of a couple. couple relationship
http://gedcomx.org/DivorceFiling The fact of a filing for divorce. couple relationship
http://gedcomx.org/Engagement The fact of an engagement to be married. couple relationship
http://gedcomx.org/Marriage The fact of a marriage. couple relationship
http://gedcomx.org/MarriageBanns The fact of a marriage banns. couple relationship
http://gedcomx.org/MarriageContract The fact of a marriage contract. couple relationship
http://gedcomx.org/MarriageLicense The fact of a marriage license. couple relationship
http://gedcomx.org/MarriageNotice The fact of a marriage notice. couple relationship
http://gedcomx.org/NumberOfChildren A fact of the number of children of a person or relationship. couple relationship
http://gedcomx.org/Separation A fact of a couple's separation. couple relationship
http://gedcomx.org/BiologicalLineage A fact about the biological lineage of a child to a parent. parent-child relationship
http://gedcomx.org/Adoption A fact of a person's adoption. In the context of a parent-child relationship, it describes a fact of the adoption of a child by a parent. parent-child relationship
http://gedcomx.org/Foster A fact about a foster relationship between a foster parent and a child. parent-child relationship
http://gedcomx.org/Guardianship A fact about a legal guardianship between a parent and a child. parent-child relationship
http://gedcomx.org/Step A fact about the step relationship between a parent and a child. parent-child relationship

5.6 The "Person" Data Type

The Person data type defines a description of a person. The Person data type extends the Conclusion data type.

identifier

The identifier for the Person data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/Person

extension

This data type extends the following data type:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/Conclusion

properties

name description data type
identifiers Identifiers for the person. List of http://gedcomx.org/v1/Identifier. Order is preserved.
living Whether the person is considered living. boolean
gender The conclusion about the gender of the person. http://gedcomx.org/v1/Gender
names The conclusions about the names of the person. List of http://gedcomx.org/v1/Name. Order is preserved.
facts The conclusions about the facts of the life of the person. List of http://gedcomx.org/v1/Fact. Order is preserved.

5.7 The "Relationship" Data Type

The Relationship data type describes the relationship between two persons. The Relationship data type extends the Conclusion data type.

identifier

The identifier for the Relationship data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/Relationship

extension

This data type extends the following data type:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/Conclusion

properties

name description data type
type URI identifying the type of the relationship. URI - MUST resolve to a relationship type. Refer to the list of known relationship types
person1 Reference to the first person in the relationship. URI - MUST resolve to an instance of http://gedcomx.org/v1/Person
person2 Reference to the second person in the relationship. URI - MUST resolve to an instance of http://gedcomx.org/v1/Person
facts The conclusions about the facts of the life of the relationship. List of http://gedcomx.org/v1/Fact. Order is preserved.

Note: when a relationship type implies direction, the relationship is said to be from person1 to person2. For example, in a parent-child relationship, the person1 property refers to the parent and the person2 property refers to the child.

known relationship types

The following relationship types are defined by GEDCOM X:

URI description
http://gedcomx.org/Couple
http://gedcomx.org/ParentChild

5.8 The "EventRole" Data Type

The EventRole data type defines a role played in an event by a person. The EventRole data type extends the Conclusion data type.

identifier

The identifier for the EventRole data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/EventRole

extension

This data type extends the following data type:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/Conclusion

properties

name description data type
person Reference to the person playing the role in the event. URI - MUST resolve to an instance of http://gedcomx.org/v1/Person
type Reference to the role type. URI - MUST resolve to a role type. Refer to the list of known role types.
details Details about the role of the person in the event. string

known role types

The following role types are defined by GEDCOM X:

URI description
http://gedcomx.org/Principal
http://gedcomx.org/Participant
http://gedcomx.org/Official
http://gedcomx.org/Witness

5.9 The "Event" Data Type

The Event data type defines a description of a historical event. The Event data type extends the Conclusion data type.

identifier

The identifier for the Event data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/Event

extension

This data type extends the following data type:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/Conclusion

properties

name description data type
type URI identifying the type of the event. URI. MUST resolve to an event type. Refer to the list of known event types
date The date of the event. http://gedcomx.org/v1/Date
place The place of the event. http://gedcomx.org/v1/Place
roles The roles of the persons in the event. List of http://gedcomx.org/v1/EventRole. Order is preserved.

known event types

The following event types are defined by GEDCOM X:

URI description
http://gedcomx.org/Adoption An adoption event.
http://gedcomx.org/AdultChristening An adult christening event.
http://gedcomx.org/Annulment An annulment event of a marriage.
http://gedcomx.org/Baptism A baptism event.
http://gedcomx.org/BarMitzvah A bar mitzvah event.
http://gedcomx.org/BatMitzvah A bat mitzvah event.
http://gedcomx.org/Birth A birth event.
http://gedcomx.org/Blessing A an official blessing event, such as at the hands of a clergy member or at another religious rite.
http://gedcomx.org/Burial A burial event.
http://gedcomx.org/Census A census event.
http://gedcomx.org/Christening A christening event at birth. Note: use AdultChristening for a christening event as an adult.
http://gedcomx.org/Circumcision A circumcision event.
http://gedcomx.org/Confirmation A confirmation event (or other rite of initiation) in a church or religion.
http://gedcomx.org/Cremation A cremation event after death.
http://gedcomx.org/Death A death event.
http://gedcomx.org/Divorce A divorce event.
http://gedcomx.org/DivorceFiling A divorce filing event.
http://gedcomx.org/Education A education or an educational achievement event (e.g. diploma, graduation, scholarship, etc.).
http://gedcomx.org/Engagement An engagement to be married event.
http://gedcomx.org/Emigration An emigration event.
http://gedcomx.org/Excommunication An excommunication event from a church.
http://gedcomx.org/FirstCommunion A first communion event.
http://gedcomx.org/Funeral A funeral event.
http://gedcomx.org/Immigration An immigration event.
http://gedcomx.org/LandTransation A land transaction event.
http://gedcomx.org/Marriage A marriage event.
http://gedcomx.org/MilitaryAward A military award event.
http://gedcomx.org/MilitaryDischarge A military discharge event.
http://gedcomx.org/Mission A mission event.
http://gedcomx.org/MoveFrom An event of a move (i.e. change of residence) from a location.
http://gedcomx.org/MoveTo An event of a move (i.e. change of residence) to a location.
http://gedcomx.org/Naturalization A naturalization event (i.e. acquisition of citizenship and nationality).
http://gedcomx.org/Ordination An ordination event.
http://gedcomx.org/Retirement A retirement event.

5.10 The "Date" Data Type

The Date data type defines the value of a genealogical date.

identifier

The identifier for the Date data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/Date

properties

name description data type
original The original value of the date as supplied by the contributor. string
formal The formal value of the date. http://gedcomx.org/FormalValue

known date formats

The following date formats are recognized by GEDCOM X:

URI description
http://gedcomx.org/GEDCOM_5_5 The date format specified by the GEDCOM 5.5 specification.
iso:8601 The date format specified by ISO 8601.

5.11 The "Place" Data Type

The Place data type defines the value of a genealogical place.

identifier

The identifier for the Place data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/Place

properties

name description data type
original The original value of the place as supplied by the contributor. string
formal The formal value of the place. http://gedcomx.org/FormalValue

5.12 The "NamePart" Data Type

The NamePart data type defines a part of a name of a person.

The NamePart data type does NOT support extension properties (see Extension Properties).

identifier

The identifier for the NamePart data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/NamePart

properties

name description data type
type URI identifying the type of the name part. URI - MUST resolve to a name part type. Refer to the list of known name part types.
value The value of the name part. string

known name part types

The following name part types are defined by GEDCOM X:

URI description
http://gedcomx.org/Prefix
http://gedcomx.org/Suffix
http://gedcomx.org/Given
http://gedcomx.org/Surname

5.13 The "NameForm" Data Type

The NameForm data type defines a form of a name of a person.

identifier

The identifier for the NameForm data type is:

http://gedcomx.org/v1/NameForm

properties

name description data type
fullText The full text of the name form. string
parts The parts of the name form. List of http://gedcomx.org/v1/NamePart. Order is preserved.

6. Extensibility

Extensions from Non-GEDCOM X Vocabularies

This specification provides the data types and properties that define GEDCOM X. Other data types and vocabularies ("foreign vocabularies") can be used in GEDCOM X data types.

Extensions to the GEDCOM X Vocabulary

The GEDCOM X namespaces are reserved for future forward-compatible revisions of GEDCOM X. Future versions of this specification could add new data types and properties to the GEDCOM X vocabulary. Software written to conform to this version of the specification will not be able to process such extensions correctly and, in fact, will not be able to distinguish such extensions from error. For the purposes of this discussion, unrecognized data types and properties from the GEDCOM X vocabulary will be considered "foreign vocabularies".

Processing Foreign Vocabularies

GEDCOM X Processors that encounter foreign vocabularies in a location that is legal according to this specification MUST NOT stop processing or signal an error. It might be the case that the GEDCOM X Processor is able to process the foreign vocabularies correctly and does so. Otherwise, such vocabularies are termed "unknown foreign vocabularies".

When unknown foreign vocabularies are encountered, GEDCOM X Processors MAY bypass the foreign properties, type references, and textual content and MUST NOT change their behavior as a result of the presence of the vocabulary.

Extension Properties

GEDCOM X allows properties of foreign vocabularies in any data type, except where it is explicitly forbidden.

Extension Types

GEDCOM X allows data types of foreign vocabularies to be referenced anywhere data types are defined to be referenced. Examples of data type references include name types, fact types, resource types, etc. GEDCOM X supplies its own set of "known" data types and implementors are encouraged to use the list of known data types as much as possible to preserve maximum compatibility.

User-Defined Types

Some applications MAY allow data types to be provided. For example, a genealogy application may provide a feature that allows a user to supply a "custom" fact about the life of a person when the list of known fact types doesn't contain the type of fact the user may want to add.

In the case where a user has supplied a title or description instead of selecting a known data type, GEDCOM X recognizes the data URI scheme as defined by RFC 2397.

7. Miscellaneous To Do

todo: add details about which properties are required.

todo: supply details about how GEDCOM X defines its evidence model.

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