Policy Based C++ Allocator Library
Switch branches/tags
Nothing to show
Clone or download
Latest commit 6c80ac3 Nov 4, 2017

README.md

Allocator Builder {#mainpage}

A highly composable, policy based C++ allocator.

The layout idea of the library is was presented by Andrei Alexandrescu at the C++ and Beyond 2013 seminar and at the CppCon 2015.

The background behind the idea is to compensate the main problem of malloc and the other current standard allocators, separation of memory pointer and the allocated size. This makes it very difficult for all kind of memory management to handle in a fast way memory allocations and especially deallocations, because the memory manager must find the corresponding length of the pointer that shall be free. As well all memory handler are currently general purpose handler. This policy based approach allows to create handlers for special purpose. Additionally all users of manually raw allocated memory have to store the size anyway to ensure that no access beyond the length of the allocated buffer takes place.

An other idea behind this allocator library is, that one can compose for every use case a special designed one. Example use cases:

  • Collect statistic information about the memory usage profile.
  • Apply guards to memory allocated blocks to detect buffer under- or overflows, even in release mode of the compiled application.
  • Wait free allocations in a single threaded environment

So the approach is, every allocator returns such a block:

struct block {
  void  *ptr;
  size_t length;
};

And a request goes this way:

auto myMemBlock = allocator.allocate(42);

Motivation

Raw memory is temporarily needed inside a function, 64-128 bytes per allocation. The fastest way would be to use ::alloca(); getting the memory from the stack. But this memory cannot be freed explicitly. But with the combination of free-list these memory block could be recycled. This approach would be must faster than getting the memory from the heap. The order of allocations and de-allocations can happen in any order.

So the code could look like this

using StackRecycler = alb::free_list<alb::stack_allocator<16384>, 64, 128, 128>;

StackRecycler localAllocator;
auto m1 = localAllocator.allocate(64);
auto m2 = localAllocator.allocate(128);

localAllocator.deallocate(m1); // This freed memory can now we reused with calling the next allocation
localAllocator.deallocate(m2);

A more advanced allocator with different sized buckets as one are used in jemalloc would look like:

// This defines a FreeList that is later configured by the bucketizer to its size
using FList = freelist<mallocator, DynamicSetSize, DynamicSetSize>;

// All allocation requests up to 3584 bytes are handled by the cascade of FLists.
// Sizes from 3584 till 4MB are handled by the Heap and all beyond that are forwarded
// directly to the normal OS
using AdvancedAllocator = segregator<
  8, freelist<mallocator, 0, 8>, segregator<
    128, bucketizer<FList, 1, 128, 16>, segregator<
      256, bucketizer<FList, 129, 256, 32>, segregator<
        512, bucketizer<FList, 257, 512, 64>, segregator<
          1024, bucketizer<FList, 513, 1024, 128>, segregator<
            2048, bucketizer<FList, 1025, 2048, 256>, segregator<
              3584, bucketizer<FList, 2049, 3584, 512>, segregator<
                4072 * 1024, cascading_allocator<Heap<mallocator, 1018, 4096>>, mallocator
              >
            >
          >
        >
      >
    >
  >>;

Allocator Overview

Allocator Description
affix_allocator Allows to automatically pre- and sufix allocated regions.
allocator_with_stats An allocator that collects a configured number of statistic information, like number of allocated bytes, number of successful expansions and high tide
bucketizer Manages a bunch of Allocators with increasing bucket size
fallback_allocator Either the default Allocator can handle a request, otherwise it is passed to a fall-back Allocator
(aligned_)mallocator Provides and interface to systems ::malloc(), the aligned variant allocates according to a given alignment
null_allocator An Null allocator
segregator Separates allocation requests depending on a threshold to Allocator A or B
(shared_)freelist Manages a list of freed memory blocks in a list for faster re-usage. (The Shared variant is thread safe)
(shared_)cascading_allocator Manages in a thread safe way Allocators and automatically creates a new one when the previous are out of memory. (The Shared variant is thread safe, but it needs further improvements, because it does not frees unused allocators)
(shared_)heap A heap block based heap. (The Shared variant is thread safe manner with minimal overhead and as far as possible in a lock-free way.)
stack_allocator Provides a memory access, taken from the stack

Documentation

Online Documentation is available on [GitHub.io] (http://felixpetriconi.github.io/AllocatorBuilder/index.html) as well.

There is the begin of a tutorial in the tutorial section

Author

Felix Petriconi (felix at petriconi.net)

Contributions

Gary Furnish Jürgen Braungardt Northcode

Comments, feedback or contributions are welcome!

License

Boost 1.0 License

Version

0.1.0

Prerequisites

  • C++ 14 (partly, as far as Visual Studio 2015 supports it)
  • boost 1.55.0 (lockfree, thread, assert)
  • GoogleTest 1.7 (Is part of the repository, because it's CMakeFiles.txt needs some patches to compile with Visual Studio)
  • CMake 3.0 or later

Platform

Compiler Status
Visual Studio 2015 x64 All tests pass
Debian x64, Clang 3.4 All tests pass
Intel XE Inspector x64 No detections
Clang thread sanitizer No detections

Installation Win

  • Have boost installed and the standard libs be build, install into D:\boost_1_55_0 and set in the CMakeLists.txt the correct path
  • Clone into e.g. D:\misc\AllocatorBuilder
  • Create a build folder, eg D:\misc\alb_build
  • Open a command prompt in that alb_build folder
  • Have CMake in the path
  • Execute cmake -G "Visual Studio 14 2015 Win64" ..\alb_build
  • Open created solution in .\alb_build\AllocatorBuilder.sln
  • Compile and run all test (if necessary add D:\boost_1_55_0\stage\lib to search path)

ToDo

See issue list of [open enhancements] (https://github.com/FelixPetriconi/AllocatorBuilder/issues?labels=enhancement&page=1&state=open)