celery - Distributed Task Queue
|Keywords:||task queue, job queue, asynchronous, rabbitmq, amqp, redis, python, webhooks, queue, distributed|
Celery is an open source asynchronous task queue/job queue based on distributed message passing. It is focused on real-time operation, but supports scheduling as well.
The execution units, called tasks, are executed concurrently on one or more worker nodes. Tasks can execute asynchronously (in the background) or synchronously (wait until ready).
Celery is already used in production to process millions of tasks a day.
Celery is written in Python, but the protocol can be implemented in any language. It can also operate with other languages using webhooks.
This is a high level overview of the architecture.
The broker delivers tasks to the worker servers. A worker server is a networked machine running celeryd. This can be one or more machines depending on the workload.
The result of the task can be stored for later retrieval (called its "tombstone").
You probably want to see some code by now, so here's an example task adding two numbers:
from celery.decorators import task @task def add(x, y): return x + y
You can execute the task in the background, or wait for it to finish:
>>> result = add.delay(4, 4) >>> result.wait() # wait for and return the result 8
Messaging Supported brokers include RabbitMQ, Stomp, Redis, and most common SQL databases. Robust Using RabbitMQ, celery survives most error scenarios, and your tasks will never be lost. Distributed Runs on one or more machines. Supports clustering when used in combination with RabbitMQ. You can set up new workers without central configuration (e.g. use your dads laptop while the queue is temporarily overloaded). Concurrency Tasks are executed in parallel using the multiprocessing module. Scheduling Supports recurring tasks like cron, or specifying an exact date or countdown for when after the task should be executed. Performance Able to execute tasks while the user waits. Return Values Task return values can be saved to the selected result store backend. You can wait for the result, retrieve it later, or ignore it. Result Stores Database, MongoDB, Redis, Tokyo Tyrant, AMQP (high performance). Webhooks Your tasks can also be HTTP callbacks, enabling cross-language communication. Rate limiting Supports rate limiting by using the token bucket algorithm, which accounts for bursts of traffic. Rate limits can be set for each task type, or globally for all. Routing Using AMQP you can route tasks arbitrarily to different workers. Remote-control You can rate limit and delete (revoke) tasks remotely. Monitoring You can capture everything happening with the workers in real-time by subscribing to events. A real-time web monitor is in development. Serialization Supports Pickle, JSON, YAML, or easily defined custom schemes. One task invocation can have a different scheme than another. Tracebacks Errors and tracebacks are stored and can be investigated after the fact. UUID Every task has an UUID (Universally Unique Identifier), which is the task id used to query task status and return value. Retries Tasks can be retried if they fail, with configurable maximum number of retries, and delays between each retry. Task Sets A Task set is a task consisting of several sub-tasks. You can find out how many, or if all of the sub-tasks has been executed, and even retrieve the results in order. Progress bars, anyone? Made for Web You can query status and results via URLs, enabling the ability to poll task status using Ajax. Error e-mails Can be configured to send e-mails to the administrators when tasks fails. Supervised Pool workers are supervised and automatically replaced if they crash.
The latest documentation with user guides, tutorials and API reference is hosted at Github.
You can install Celery either via the Python Package Index (PyPI) or from source.
To install using pip,:
$ pip install Celery
To install using easy_install,:
$ easy_install Celery
Download the latest version of Celery from http://pypi.python.org/pypi/celery/
You can install it by doing the following,:
$ tar xvfz celery-0.0.0.tar.gz $ cd celery-0.0.0 $ python setup.py build # python setup.py install # as root
You can clone the repository by doing the following:
$ git clone git://github.com/ask/celery.git
For discussions about the usage, development, and future of celery, please join the celery-users mailing list.
Come chat with us on IRC. The #celery channel is located at the Freenode network.
If you have any suggestions, bug reports or annoyances please report them to our issue tracker at http://github.com/ask/celery/issues/
Development of celery happens at Github: http://github.com/ask/celery
You are highly encouraged to participate in the development of celery. If you don't like Github (for some reason) you're welcome to send regular patches.
This software is licensed under the New BSD License. See the
file in the top distribution directory for the full license text.