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Flowpack.ElasticSearch adaptor to support TYPO3 Content Repository
PHP

Merge pull request #75 from jrenggli/master

[BUGFIX] correct filename elasticsearch.yml in documentation
latest commit 469fb34f56
@mgoldbeck mgoldbeck authored

README.md

TYPO3 Neos ElasticSearch Adapter

supporting ElasticSearch Version 1.2.x and 1.3.x and 1.4.x

Created by Sebastian Kurfürst; contributions by Karsten Dambekalns and Robert Lemke.

This project connects the TYPO3 Content Repository (TYPO3CR) to ElasticSearch; enabling two main functionalities:

  • finding Nodes in TypoScript / Eel by arbitrary queries
  • Full-Text Indexing of Pages and other Documents (of course including the full content)

Relevant Packages:

  • TYPO3.TYPO3CR.Search: provides common functionality for searching TYPO3CR nodes, does not contain a search backend

  • Flowpack.ElasticSearch.ContentRepositoryAdaptor: this package

  • Flowpack.SimpleSearch.ContentRepositoryAdaptor: an alternative search backend (to be used instead of this package); storing the search index in SQLite

  • Flowpack.SearchPlugin: search plugin for Neos

Version 2 vs Version 1

  • Version 1 is the initial, productive version of the Neos ElasticSearch adapter.
  • Version 2 has a dependency on TYPO3.TYPO3CR.Search; which contains base functionality which is also relevant for other search implementations (like the SQLite based SimpleSearch).

The configuration from Version 1 to Version 2 has changed; here's what to change:

Settings.yaml

  1. Change the base namespace for configuration from Flowpack.ElasticSearch.ContentRepositoryAdaptor to TYPO3.TYPO3CR.Search. All further adjustments are made underneath this namespace:

  2. (If it exists in your configuration:) Move indexName to elasticSearch.indexName

  3. (If it exists in your configuration:) Move log to elasticSearch.log

  4. search for mapping (inside defaultConfigurationPerType.<typeName>) and replace it by elasticSearchMapping.

  5. Inside the indexing expressions (at defaultConfigurationPerType.<typeName>), replace ElasticSearch. by Indexing..

NodeTypes.yaml

  1. Replace elasticSearch by search. This replaces both <YourNodeType>.elasticSearch and <YourNodeType>.properties.<propertyName>.elasticSearch.

  2. search for mapping (inside <YourNodeType>.properties.<propertyName>.search) and replace it by elasticSearchMapping.

  3. Replace ElasticSeach.fulltext by Indexing

  4. Search for ElasticSearch. (inside the indexing expressions) and replace them by Indexing.

ElasticSearch Configuration file elasticsearch.yml

Due to the fact that the default scripting language has changed from marvel to groovy since elasticsearch 1.3.0, there is a need, depending on your running installation of ElasticSearch, to add following lines of configuration to your ElasticSearch Configuration File elasticsearch.yml.

Needed Configuration in configuration.yml for ElasticSearch 1.4.x

# The following settings are absolutely required for the CR adaptor to work
script.disable_dynamic: sandbox
script.groovy.sandbox.class_whitelist: java.util.LinkedHashMap
script.groovy.sandbox.receiver_whitelist:  java.util.Iterator, java.lang.Object, java.util.Map, java.util.Map$Entry
script.groovy.sandbox.enabled: true

# the following settings secure your cluster
cluster.name: [PUT_YOUR_CUSTOM_NAME_HERE]
network.host: 127.0.0.1

# the following settings are well-suited for smaller ElasticSearch instances (e.g. as long as you can stay on one host)
index.number_of_shards: 1
index.number_of_replicas: 0

Needed Configuration in configuration.yml for ElasticSearch 1.3.x

# The following settings are absolutely required for the CR adaptor to work
script.groovy.sandbox.class_whitelist: java.util.LinkedHashMap
script.groovy.sandbox.receiver_whitelist:  java.util.Iterator, java.lang.Object, java.util.Map, java.util.Map$Entry

# the following settings secure your cluster
cluster.name: [PUT_YOUR_CUSTOM_NAME_HERE]
network.host: 127.0.0.1

# the following settings are well-suited for smaller ElasticSearch instances (e.g. as long as you can stay on one host)
index.number_of_shards: 1
index.number_of_replicas: 0

You can get further information about this topic here:

http://www.elasticsearch.org/blog/elasticsearch-1-3-0-released/ http://www.elasticsearch.org/blog/scripting-security/ http://www.elasticsearch.org/guide/en/elasticsearch/reference/current/modules-scripting.html

Needed Configuration for ElasticSearch 1.2.x

If you are using ElasticSearch version 1.2 you have also to install groovy as a plugin. To install the plugin just run the following command in the root folder of your elastic:

bin/plugin -install elasticsearch/elasticsearch-lang-groovy/2.2.0.
script.disable_dynamic: false
script.default_lang: groovy

Building up the Index

The node index is updated on the fly, but during development you need to update it frequently.

In case of a mapping update, you need to reindex all nodes. Don't worry to do that in production; the system transparently creates a new index, fills it completely, and when everything worked, changes the index alias.

./flow nodeindex:build

 # if during development, you only want to index a few nodes, you can use "limit"
./flow nodeindex:build --limit 20

 # in order to remove old, non-used indices, you should use this command from time to time:
./flow nodeindex:cleanup

Advanced Index Settings

If you need advanced settings you can define them in your Settings.yaml:

Example is from the Documentation of the used Flowpack.ElasticSearch Package

https://github.com/Flowpack/Flowpack.ElasticSearch/blob/master/Documentation/Indexer.rst

Flowpack:
    ElasticSearch:
        indexes:
            default:
                'twitter':
                    analysis:
                        filter:
                            elision:
                                type: 'elision'
                                articles: [ 'l', 'm', 't', 'qu', 'n', 's', 'j', 'd' ]
                    analyzer:
                        custom_french_analyzer:
                            tokenizer: 'letter'
                            filter: [ 'asciifolding', 'lowercase', 'french_stem', 'elision', 'stop' ]
                        tag_analyzer:
                            tokenizer: 'keyword'
                            filter: [ 'asciifolding', 'lowercase' ]

If you use multiple client configurations, please change the default key just below the indexes.

Doing Arbitrary Queries

We'll first show how to do arbitrary ElasticSearch Queries in TypoScript. This is a more powerful alternative to FlowQuery. In the long run, we might be able to integrate this API back into FlowQuery, but for now it works well as-is.

Generally, ElasticSearch queries are done using the Search Eel helper. In case you want to retrieve a list of nodes, you'll generally do:

nodes = ${Search.query(site)....execute()}

In case you just want to retrieve a single node, the form of a query is as follows:

nodes = ${q(Search.query(site)....execute()).get(0)}

To fetch the total number of hits a query returns, the form of a query is as follows:

nodes = ${Search.query(site)....count()}

All queries search underneath a certain subnode. In case you want to search "globally", you will search underneath the current site node (like in the example above).

Furthermore, the following operators are supported:

  • nodeType("Your.Node:Type")
  • exactMatch('propertyName', value); supports simple types: exactMatch('tag', 'foo'), or node references: exactMatch('author', authorNode)
  • greaterThan('propertyName', value) -- range filter with property values greater than the given value
  • greaterThanOrEqual('propertyName', value) -- range filter with property values greater than or equal to the given value
  • lessThan('propertyName', value) -- range filter with property values less than the given value
  • lessThanOrEqual('propertyName', value) -- range filter with property values less than or equal to the given value
  • sortAsc('propertyName') and sortDesc('propertyName') -- can also be used multiple times, e.g. sortAsc('tag').sortDesc(date')` will first sort by tag ascending, and then by date descending.
  • limit(5) -- only return five results. If not specified, the default limit by ElasticSearch applies (which is at 10 by default)
  • from(5) -- return the results starting from the 6th one
  • fulltext(...) -- do a query_string query on the Fulltext Index

Furthermore, there is a more low-level operator which can be used to add arbitrary ElasticSearch filters:

  • queryFilter("filterType", {option1: "value1"})

In order to debug the query more easily, the following operation is helpful:

  • log() log the full query on execution into the ElasticSearch log (i.e. in Data/Logs/ElasticSearch.log)

Example Queries

Finding all pages which are tagged in a special way and rendering them in an overview

Use Case: On a "Tag Overview" page, you want to show all pages being tagged in a certain way

Setup: You have two node types in a blog called Acme.Blog:Post and Acme.Blog:Tag, both inheriting from TYPO3.Neos:Document. The Post node type has a property tags which is of type references, pointing to Tag documents.

TypoScript setup:

 # for "Tag" documents, replace the main content area.
prototype(TYPO3.Neos:PrimaryContent).acmeBlogTag {
    condition = ${q(node).is('[instanceof Acme.Blog:Tag]')}
    type = 'Acme.Blog:TagPage'
}

 # The "TagPage"
prototype(Acme.Blog:TagPage) < prototype(TYPO3.TypoScript:Collection) {
    collection = ${Search.query(site).nodeType('Acme.Blog:Post').exactMatch('tags', node).sortDesc('creationDate').execute()}
    itemName = 'node'
    itemRenderer = Acme.Blog:SingleTag
}
prototype(Acme.Blog:SingleTag) < prototype(TYPO3.Neos:Template) {
    ...
}

Fulltext Search / Indexing

When searching in a fulltext index, we want to show Pages, or, generally speaking, everything which is a Document node. However, the main content of a certain Document is often not stored in the node itself, but inside its (Content) child nodes.

This is why we need some special functionality for indexing, which adds the content of the inner nodes to the Document nodes where they belong to, to a field called __fulltext and __fulltextParts.

Furthermore, we want that a fulltext match e.g. inside a headline is seen as more important than a match inside the normal body text. That's why the Document node not only contains one field with all the texts, but multiple "buckets" where text is added to: One field which contains everything deemed as "very important" (__fulltext.h1), one which is "less important" (__fulltext.h2), and finally one for the plain text (__fulltext.text). All of these fields add themselves to the ElasticSearch _all field, and are configured with different boost values.

In order to search this index, you can just search inside the _all field with an additional limitation of __typeAndSupertypes containing TYPO3.Neos:Document.

For a search user interface, checkout the Flowpack.SearchPlugin package

Advanced: Configuration of Indexing

Normally, this does not need to be touched, as this package supports all TYPO3 Neos data types natively.

Indexing of properties is configured at two places. The defaults per-data-type are configured inside TYPO3.TYPO3CR.Search.defaultConfigurationPerType of Settings.yaml. Furthermore, this can be overridden using the properties.[....].search path inside NodeTypes.yaml.

This configuration contains two parts:

  • Underneath elasticSearchMapping, the ElasticSearch property mapping can be defined.
  • Underneath indexing, an Eel expression which processes the value before indexing has to be specified. It has access to the current value and the current node.

Example (from the default configuration):

 # Settings.yaml
TYPO3:
  TYPO3CR:
    Search:
      defaultConfigurationPerType:

        # strings should, by default, not be included in the _all field; and
        # indexing should just use their simple value.
        string:
          elasticSearchMapping:
            type: string
            include_in_all: false
          indexing: '${value}'
 # NodeTypes.yaml
'TYPO3.Neos:Timable':
  properties:
    '_hiddenBeforeDateTime':
      search:

        # a date should be mapped differently, and in this case we want to use a date format which
        # ElasticSearch understands
        elasticSearchMapping:
          type: date
          include_in_all: false
          format: 'date_time_no_millis'
        indexing: '${(node.hiddenBeforeDateTime ? Date.format(node.hiddenBeforeDateTime, "Y-m-d\TH:i:sP") : null)}'

There are a few indexing helpers inside the Indexing namespace which are usable inside the indexing expression. In most cases, you don't need to touch this, but they were needed to build up the standard indexing configuration:

  • Indexing.buildAllPathPrefixes: for a path such as foo/bar/baz, builds up a list of path prefixes, e.g. ['foo', 'foo/bar', 'foo/bar/baz'].
  • Indexing.extractNodeTypeNamesAndSupertypes(NodeType): extracts a list of node type names for the passed node type and all of its supertypes
  • Indexing.convertArrayOfNodesToArrayOfNodeIdentifiers(array $nodes): convert the given nodes to their node identifiers.

Advanced: Fulltext Indexing

In order to enable fulltext indexing, every Document node must be configured as fulltext root. Thus, the following is configured in the default configuration:

'TYPO3.Neos:Document':
  search:
    fulltext:
      isRoot: true

A fulltext root contains all the content of its non-document children, such that when one searches inside these texts, the document itself is returned as result.

In order to specify how the fulltext of a property in a node should be extracted, this is configured in NodeTypes.yaml at properties.[propertyName].search.fulltextExtractor.

An example:

'TYPO3.Neos.NodeTypes:Text':
  properties:
    'text':
      search:
        fulltextExtractor: '${Indexing.extractHtmlTags(value)}'

'My.Blog:Post':
  properties:
    title:
      search:
        fulltextExtractor: ${Indexing.extractInto('h1', value)}

Fulltext Searching / Search Plugin

For a search user interface, checkout the Flowpack.SearchPlugin package

Working with Dates

As a default, ElasticSearch indexes dates in the UTC Timezone. In order to have it index using the timezone currently configured in PHP, the configuration for any property in a node which represents a date should look like this:

'My.Blog:Post':
  properties:
    date:
      search:
        elasticSearchMapping:
          type: 'date'
          format: 'date_time_no_millis'
        indexing: '${(value ? Date.format(value, "Y-m-d\TH:i:sP") : null)}'

This is important so that Date- and Time-based searches work as expected, both when using formatted DateTime strings and when using relative DateTime calculations (eg.: now, now+1d).

For more information on ElasticSearch's Date Formats, click here.

Debugging

In order to understand what's going on, the following commands are helpful:

  • use ./flow nodeindex:showMapping to show the currently defined ElasticSearch Mapping
  • use the .log() statement inside queries to dump them to the ElasticSearch Log
  • the logfile Data/Logs/ElasticSearch.log contains loads of helpful information.
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