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# CSV -- module for generating/parsing CSV data.
# Copyright (C) 2000-2004 NAKAMURA, Hiroshi <nakahiro@sarion.co.jp>.
# $Id$
# This program is copyrighted free software by NAKAMURA, Hiroshi. You can
# redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms of Ruby's license;
# either the dual license version in 2003, or any later version.
class CSV
class IllegalFormatError < RuntimeError; end
# deprecated
class Cell < String
def initialize(data = "", is_null = false)
super(is_null ? "" : data)
end
def data
to_s
end
end
# deprecated
class Row < Array
end
# Open a CSV formatted file for reading or writing.
#
# For reading.
#
# EXAMPLE 1
# CSV.open('csvfile.csv', 'r') do |row|
# p row
# end
#
# EXAMPLE 2
# reader = CSV.open('csvfile.csv', 'r')
# row1 = reader.shift
# row2 = reader.shift
# if row2.empty?
# p 'row2 not find.'
# end
# reader.close
#
# ARGS
# filename: filename to parse.
# col_sep: Column separator. ?, by default. If you want to separate
# fields with semicolon, give ?; here.
# row_sep: Row separator. nil by default. nil means "\r\n or \n". If you
# want to separate records with \r, give ?\r here.
#
# RETURNS
# reader instance. To get parse result, see CSV::Reader#each.
#
#
# For writing.
#
# EXAMPLE 1
# CSV.open('csvfile.csv', 'w') do |writer|
# writer << ['r1c1', 'r1c2']
# writer << ['r2c1', 'r2c2']
# writer << [nil, nil]
# end
#
# EXAMPLE 2
# writer = CSV.open('csvfile.csv', 'w')
# writer << ['r1c1', 'r1c2'] << ['r2c1', 'r2c2'] << [nil, nil]
# writer.close
#
# ARGS
# filename: filename to generate.
# col_sep: Column separator. ?, by default. If you want to separate
# fields with semicolon, give ?; here.
# row_sep: Row separator. nil by default. nil means "\r\n or \n". If you
# want to separate records with \r, give ?\r here.
#
# RETURNS
# writer instance. See CSV::Writer#<< and CSV::Writer#add_row to know how
# to generate CSV string.
#
def CSV.open(path, mode, fs = nil, rs = nil, &block)
if mode == 'r' or mode == 'rb'
open_reader(path, mode, fs, rs, &block)
elsif mode == 'w' or mode == 'wb'
open_writer(path, mode, fs, rs, &block)
else
raise ArgumentError.new("'mode' must be 'r', 'rb', 'w', or 'wb'")
end
end
def CSV.foreach(path, rs = nil, &block)
open_reader(path, 'r', ',', rs, &block)
end
def CSV.read(path, length = nil, offset = nil)
CSV.parse(IO.read(path, length, offset))
end
def CSV.readlines(path, rs = nil)
reader = open_reader(path, 'r', ',', rs)
begin
reader.collect { |row| row }
ensure
reader.close
end
end
def CSV.generate(path, fs = nil, rs = nil, &block)
open_writer(path, 'w', fs, rs, &block)
end
# Parse lines from given string or stream. Return rows as an Array of Arrays.
def CSV.parse(str_or_readable, fs = nil, rs = nil, &block)
if File.exist?(str_or_readable)
STDERR.puts("CSV.parse(filename) is deprecated." +
" Use CSV.open(filename, 'r') instead.")
return open_reader(str_or_readable, 'r', fs, rs, &block)
end
if block
CSV::Reader.parse(str_or_readable, fs, rs) do |row|
yield(row)
end
nil
else
CSV::Reader.create(str_or_readable, fs, rs).collect { |row| row }
end
end
# Parse a line from given string. Bear in mind it parses ONE LINE. Rest of
# the string is ignored for example "a,b\r\nc,d" => ['a', 'b'] and the
# second line 'c,d' is ignored.
#
# If you don't know whether a target string to parse is exactly 1 line or
# not, use CSV.parse_row instead of this method.
def CSV.parse_line(src, fs = nil, rs = nil)
fs ||= ','
if fs.is_a?(Fixnum)
fs = fs.chr
end
if !rs.nil? and rs.is_a?(Fixnum)
rs = rs.chr
end
idx = 0
res_type = :DT_COLSEP
row = []
begin
while res_type == :DT_COLSEP
res_type, idx, cell = parse_body(src, idx, fs, rs)
row << cell
end
rescue IllegalFormatError
return []
end
row
end
# Create a line from cells. each cell is stringified by to_s.
def CSV.generate_line(row, fs = nil, rs = nil)
if row.size == 0
return ''
end
fs ||= ','
if fs.is_a?(Fixnum)
fs = fs.chr
end
if !rs.nil? and rs.is_a?(Fixnum)
rs = rs.chr
end
res_type = :DT_COLSEP
result_str = ''
idx = 0
while true
generate_body(row[idx], result_str, fs, rs)
idx += 1
if (idx == row.size)
break
end
generate_separator(:DT_COLSEP, result_str, fs, rs)
end
result_str
end
# Parse a line from string. Consider using CSV.parse_line instead.
# To parse lines in CSV string, see EXAMPLE below.
#
# EXAMPLE
# src = "a,b\r\nc,d\r\ne,f"
# idx = 0
# begin
# parsed = []
# parsed_cells, idx = CSV.parse_row(src, idx, parsed)
# puts "Parsed #{ parsed_cells } cells."
# p parsed
# end while parsed_cells > 0
#
# ARGS
# src: a CSV data to be parsed. Must respond '[](idx)'.
# src[](idx) must return a char. (Not a string such as 'a', but 97).
# src[](idx_out_of_bounds) must return nil. A String satisfies this
# requirement.
# idx: index of parsing location of 'src'. 0 origin.
# out_dev: buffer for parsed cells. Must respond '<<(aString)'.
# col_sep: Column separator. ?, by default. If you want to separate
# fields with semicolon, give ?; here.
# row_sep: Row separator. nil by default. nil means "\r\n or \n". If you
# want to separate records with \r, give ?\r here.
#
# RETURNS
# parsed_cells: num of parsed cells.
# idx: index of next parsing location of 'src'.
#
def CSV.parse_row(src, idx, out_dev, fs = nil, rs = nil)
fs ||= ','
if fs.is_a?(Fixnum)
fs = fs.chr
end
if !rs.nil? and rs.is_a?(Fixnum)
rs = rs.chr
end
idx_backup = idx
parsed_cells = 0
res_type = :DT_COLSEP
begin
while res_type != :DT_ROWSEP
res_type, idx, cell = parse_body(src, idx, fs, rs)
if res_type == :DT_EOS
if idx == idx_backup #((parsed_cells == 0) and cell.nil?)
return 0, 0
end
res_type = :DT_ROWSEP
end
parsed_cells += 1
out_dev << cell
end
rescue IllegalFormatError
return 0, 0
end
return parsed_cells, idx
end
# Convert a line from cells data to string. Consider using CSV.generate_line
# instead. To generate multi-row CSV string, see EXAMPLE below.
#
# EXAMPLE
# row1 = ['a', 'b']
# row2 = ['c', 'd']
# row3 = ['e', 'f']
# src = [row1, row2, row3]
# buf = ''
# src.each do |row|
# parsed_cells = CSV.generate_row(row, 2, buf)
# puts "Created #{ parsed_cells } cells."
# end
# p buf
#
# ARGS
# src: an Array of String to be converted to CSV string. Must respond to
# 'size' and '[](idx)'. src[idx] must return String.
# cells: num of cells in a line.
# out_dev: buffer for generated CSV string. Must respond to '<<(string)'.
# col_sep: Column separator. ?, by default. If you want to separate
# fields with semicolon, give ?; here.
# row_sep: Row separator. nil by default. nil means "\r\n or \n". If you
# want to separate records with \r, give ?\r here.
#
# RETURNS
# parsed_cells: num of converted cells.
#
def CSV.generate_row(src, cells, out_dev, fs = nil, rs = nil)
fs ||= ','
if fs.is_a?(Fixnum)
fs = fs.chr
end
if !rs.nil? and rs.is_a?(Fixnum)
rs = rs.chr
end
src_size = src.size
if (src_size == 0)
if cells == 0
generate_separator(:DT_ROWSEP, out_dev, fs, rs)
end
return 0
end
res_type = :DT_COLSEP
parsed_cells = 0
generate_body(src[parsed_cells], out_dev, fs, rs)
parsed_cells += 1
while ((parsed_cells < cells) and (parsed_cells != src_size))
generate_separator(:DT_COLSEP, out_dev, fs, rs)
generate_body(src[parsed_cells], out_dev, fs, rs)
parsed_cells += 1
end
if (parsed_cells == cells)
generate_separator(:DT_ROWSEP, out_dev, fs, rs)
else
generate_separator(:DT_COLSEP, out_dev, fs, rs)
end
parsed_cells
end
# Private class methods.
class << self
private
def open_reader(path, mode, fs, rs, &block)
file = File.open(path, mode)
if block
begin
CSV::Reader.parse(file, fs, rs) do |row|
yield(row)
end
ensure
file.close
end
nil
else
reader = CSV::Reader.create(file, fs, rs)
reader.close_on_terminate
reader
end
end
def open_writer(path, mode, fs, rs, &block)
file = File.open(path, mode)
if block
begin
CSV::Writer.generate(file, fs, rs) do |writer|
yield(writer)
end
ensure
file.close
end
nil
else
writer = CSV::Writer.create(file, fs, rs)
writer.close_on_terminate
writer
end
end
def parse_body(src, idx, fs, rs)
fs_str = fs
fs_size = fs_str.size
rs_str = rs || "\n"
rs_size = rs_str.size
fs_idx = rs_idx = 0
cell = Cell.new
state = :ST_START
quoted = cr = false
c = nil
last_idx = idx
while c = src[idx]
unless quoted
fschar = (c == fs_str[fs_idx])
rschar = (c == rs_str[rs_idx])
# simple 1 char backtrack
if !fschar and c == fs_str[0]
fs_idx = 0
fschar = true
if state == :ST_START
state = :ST_DATA
elsif state == :ST_QUOTE
raise IllegalFormatError
end
end
if !rschar and c == rs_str[0]
rs_idx = 0
rschar = true
if state == :ST_START
state = :ST_DATA
elsif state == :ST_QUOTE
raise IllegalFormatError
end
end
end
if c == ?"
fs_idx = rs_idx = 0
if cr
raise IllegalFormatError
end
cell << src[last_idx, (idx - last_idx)]
last_idx = idx
if state == :ST_DATA
if quoted
last_idx += 1
quoted = false
state = :ST_QUOTE
else
raise IllegalFormatError
end
elsif state == :ST_QUOTE
cell << c.chr
last_idx += 1
quoted = true
state = :ST_DATA
else # :ST_START
quoted = true
last_idx += 1
state = :ST_DATA
end
elsif fschar or rschar
if fschar
fs_idx += 1
end
if rschar
rs_idx += 1
end
sep = nil
if fs_idx == fs_size
if state == :ST_START and rs_idx > 0 and fs_idx < rs_idx
state = :ST_DATA
end
cell << src[last_idx, (idx - last_idx - (fs_size - 1))]
last_idx = idx
fs_idx = rs_idx = 0
if cr
raise IllegalFormatError
end
sep = :DT_COLSEP
elsif rs_idx == rs_size
if state == :ST_START and fs_idx > 0 and rs_idx < fs_idx
state = :ST_DATA
end
if !(rs.nil? and cr)
cell << src[last_idx, (idx - last_idx - (rs_size - 1))]
last_idx = idx
end
fs_idx = rs_idx = 0
sep = :DT_ROWSEP
end
if sep
if state == :ST_DATA
return sep, idx + 1, cell;
elsif state == :ST_QUOTE
return sep, idx + 1, cell;
else # :ST_START
return sep, idx + 1, nil
end
end
elsif rs.nil? and c == ?\r
# special \r treatment for backward compatibility
fs_idx = rs_idx = 0
if cr
raise IllegalFormatError
end
cell << src[last_idx, (idx - last_idx)]
last_idx = idx
if quoted
state = :ST_DATA
else
cr = true
end
else
fs_idx = rs_idx = 0
if state == :ST_DATA or state == :ST_START
if cr
raise IllegalFormatError
end
state = :ST_DATA
else # :ST_QUOTE
raise IllegalFormatError
end
end
idx += 1
end
if state == :ST_START
if fs_idx > 0 or rs_idx > 0
state = :ST_DATA
else
return :DT_EOS, idx, nil
end
elsif quoted
raise IllegalFormatError
elsif cr
raise IllegalFormatError
end
cell << src[last_idx, (idx - last_idx)]
last_idx = idx
return :DT_EOS, idx, cell
end
def generate_body(cell, out_dev, fs, rs)
if cell.nil?
# empty
else
cell = cell.to_s
row_data = cell.dup
if (row_data.gsub!('"', '""') or
row_data.index(fs) or
(rs and row_data.index(rs)) or
(/[\r\n]/ =~ row_data) or
(cell.empty?))
out_dev << '"' << row_data << '"'
else
out_dev << row_data
end
end
end
def generate_separator(type, out_dev, fs, rs)
case type
when :DT_COLSEP
out_dev << fs
when :DT_ROWSEP
out_dev << (rs || "\n")
end
end
end
# CSV formatted string/stream reader.
#
# EXAMPLE
# read CSV lines untill the first column is 'stop'.
#
# CSV::Reader.parse(File.open('bigdata', 'rb')) do |row|
# p row
# break if !row[0].is_null && row[0].data == 'stop'
# end
#
class Reader
include Enumerable
# Parse CSV data and get lines. Given block is called for each parsed row.
# Block value is always nil. Rows are not cached for performance reason.
def Reader.parse(str_or_readable, fs = ',', rs = nil, &block)
reader = Reader.create(str_or_readable, fs, rs)
if block
reader.each do |row|
yield(row)
end
reader.close
nil
else
reader
end
end
# Returns reader instance.
def Reader.create(str_or_readable, fs = ',', rs = nil)
case str_or_readable
when IO
IOReader.new(str_or_readable, fs, rs)
when String
StringReader.new(str_or_readable, fs, rs)
else
IOReader.new(str_or_readable, fs, rs)
end
end
def each
while true
row = []
parsed_cells = get_row(row)
if parsed_cells == 0
break
end
yield(row)
end
nil
end
def shift
row = []
parsed_cells = get_row(row)
row
end
def close
terminate
end
private
def initialize(dev)
raise RuntimeError.new('Do not instanciate this class directly.')
end
def get_row(row)
raise NotImplementedError.new('Method get_row must be defined in a derived class.')
end
def terminate
# Define if needed.
end
end
class StringReader < Reader
def initialize(string, fs = ',', rs = nil)
@fs = fs
@rs = rs
@dev = string
@idx = 0
if @dev[0, 3] == "\xef\xbb\xbf"
@idx += 3
end
end
private
def get_row(row)
parsed_cells, next_idx = CSV.parse_row(@dev, @idx, row, @fs, @rs)
if parsed_cells == 0 and next_idx == 0 and @idx != @dev.size
raise IllegalFormatError.new
end
@idx = next_idx
parsed_cells
end
end
class IOReader < Reader
def initialize(io, fs = ',', rs = nil)
@io = io
@fs = fs
@rs = rs
@dev = CSV::IOBuf.new(@io)
@idx = 0
if @dev[0] == 0xef and @dev[1] == 0xbb and @dev[2] == 0xbf
@idx += 3
end
@close_on_terminate = false
end
# Tell this reader to close the IO when terminated (Triggered by invoking
# CSV::IOReader#close).
def close_on_terminate
@close_on_terminate = true
end
private
def get_row(row)
parsed_cells, next_idx = CSV.parse_row(@dev, @idx, row, @fs, @rs)
if parsed_cells == 0 and next_idx == 0 and !@dev.is_eos?
raise IllegalFormatError.new
end
dropped = @dev.drop(next_idx)
@idx = next_idx - dropped
parsed_cells
end
def terminate
if @close_on_terminate
@io.close
end
if @dev
@dev.close
end
end
end
# CSV formatted string/stream writer.
#
# EXAMPLE
# Write rows to 'csvout' file.
#
# outfile = File.open('csvout', 'wb')
# CSV::Writer.generate(outfile) do |csv|
# csv << ['c1', nil, '', '"', "\r\n", 'c2']
# ...
# end
#
# outfile.close
#
class Writer
# Given block is called with the writer instance. str_or_writable must
# handle '<<(string)'.
def Writer.generate(str_or_writable, fs = ',', rs = nil, &block)
writer = Writer.create(str_or_writable, fs, rs)
if block
yield(writer)
writer.close
nil
else
writer
end
end
# str_or_writable must handle '<<(string)'.
def Writer.create(str_or_writable, fs = ',', rs = nil)
BasicWriter.new(str_or_writable, fs, rs)
end
# dump CSV stream to the device. argument must be an Array of String.
def <<(row)
CSV.generate_row(row, row.size, @dev, @fs, @rs)
self
end
alias add_row <<
def close
terminate
end
private
def initialize(dev)
raise RuntimeError.new('Do not instanciate this class directly.')
end
def terminate
# Define if needed.
end
end
class BasicWriter < Writer
def initialize(str_or_writable, fs = ',', rs = nil)
@fs = fs
@rs = rs
@dev = str_or_writable
@close_on_terminate = false
end
# Tell this writer to close the IO when terminated (Triggered by invoking
# CSV::BasicWriter#close).
def close_on_terminate
@close_on_terminate = true
end
private
def terminate
if @close_on_terminate
@dev.close
end
end
end
private
# Buffered stream.
#
# EXAMPLE 1 -- an IO.
# class MyBuf < StreamBuf
# # Do initialize myself before a super class. Super class might call my
# # method 'read'. (Could be awful for C++ user. :-)
# def initialize(s)
# @s = s
# super()
# end
#
# # define my own 'read' method.
# # CAUTION: Returning nil means EnfOfStream.
# def read(size)
# @s.read(size)
# end
#
# # release buffers. in Ruby which has GC, you do not have to call this...
# def terminate
# @s = nil
# super()
# end
# end
#
# buf = MyBuf.new(STDIN)
# my_str = ''
# p buf[0, 0] # => '' (null string)
# p buf[0] # => 97 (char code of 'a')
# p buf[0, 1] # => 'a'
# my_str = buf[0, 5]
# p my_str # => 'abcde' (5 chars)
# p buf[0, 6] # => "abcde\n" (6 chars)
# p buf[0, 7] # => "abcde\n" (6 chars)
# p buf.drop(3) # => 3 (dropped chars)
# p buf.get(0, 2) # => 'de' (2 chars)
# p buf.is_eos? # => false (is not EOS here)
# p buf.drop(5) # => 3 (dropped chars)
# p buf.is_eos? # => true (is EOS here)
# p buf[0] # => nil (is EOS here)
#
# EXAMPLE 2 -- String.
# This is a conceptual example. No pros with this.
#
# class StrBuf < StreamBuf
# def initialize(s)
# @str = s
# @idx = 0
# super()
# end
#
# def read(size)
# str = @str[@idx, size]
# @idx += str.size
# str
# end
# end
#
class StreamBuf
# get a char or a partial string from the stream.
# idx: index of a string to specify a start point of a string to get.
# unlike String instance, idx < 0 returns nil.
# n: size of a string to get.
# returns char at idx if n == nil.
# returns a partial string, from idx to (idx + n) if n != nil. at EOF,
# the string size could not equal to arg n.
def [](idx, n = nil)
if idx < 0
return nil
end
if (idx_is_eos?(idx))
if n and (@offset + idx == buf_size(@cur_buf))
# Like a String, 'abc'[4, 1] returns nil and
# 'abc'[3, 1] returns '' not nil.
return ''
else
return nil
end
end
my_buf = @cur_buf
my_offset = @offset
next_idx = idx
while (my_offset + next_idx >= buf_size(my_buf))
if (my_buf == @buf_tail_idx)
unless add_buf
break
end
end
next_idx = my_offset + next_idx - buf_size(my_buf)
my_buf += 1
my_offset = 0
end
loc = my_offset + next_idx
if !n
return @buf_list[my_buf][loc] # Fixnum of char code.
elsif (loc + n - 1 < buf_size(my_buf))
return @buf_list[my_buf][loc, n] # String.
else # should do loop insted of (tail) recursive call...
res = @buf_list[my_buf][loc, BufSize]
size_added = buf_size(my_buf) - loc
if size_added > 0
idx += size_added
n -= size_added
ret = self[idx, n]
if ret
res << ret
end
end
return res
end
end
alias get []
# drop a string from the stream.
# returns dropped size. at EOF, dropped size might not equals to arg n.
# Once you drop the head of the stream, access to the dropped part via []
# or get returns nil.
def drop(n)
if is_eos?
return 0
end
size_dropped = 0
while (n > 0)
if !@is_eos or (@cur_buf != @buf_tail_idx)
if (@offset + n < buf_size(@cur_buf))
size_dropped += n
@offset += n
n = 0
else
size = buf_size(@cur_buf) - @offset
size_dropped += size
n -= size
@offset = 0
unless rel_buf
unless add_buf
break
end
@cur_buf = @buf_tail_idx
end
end
end
end
size_dropped
end
def is_eos?
return idx_is_eos?(0)
end
# WARN: Do not instantiate this class directly. Define your own class
# which derives this class and define 'read' instance method.
def initialize
@buf_list = []
@cur_buf = @buf_tail_idx = -1
@offset = 0
@is_eos = false
add_buf
@cur_buf = @buf_tail_idx
end
protected
def terminate
while (rel_buf); end
end
# protected method 'read' must be defined in derived classes.
# CAUTION: Returning a string which size is not equal to 'size' means
# EnfOfStream. When it is not at EOS, you must block the callee, try to
# read and return the sized string.
def read(size) # raise EOFError
raise NotImplementedError.new('Method read must be defined in a derived class.')
end
private
def buf_size(idx)
@buf_list[idx].size
end
def add_buf
if @is_eos
return false
end
begin
str_read = read(BufSize)
rescue EOFError
str_read = nil
rescue
terminate
raise
end
if str_read.nil?
@is_eos = true
@buf_list.push('')
@buf_tail_idx += 1
false
else
@buf_list.push(str_read)
@buf_tail_idx += 1
true
end
end
def rel_buf
if (@cur_buf < 0)
return false
end
@buf_list[@cur_buf] = nil
if (@cur_buf == @buf_tail_idx)
@cur_buf = -1
return false
else
@cur_buf += 1
return true
end
end
def idx_is_eos?(idx)
(@is_eos and ((@cur_buf < 0) or (@cur_buf == @buf_tail_idx)))
end
BufSize = 1024 * 8
end
# Buffered IO.
#
# EXAMPLE
# # File 'bigdata' could be a giga-byte size one!
# buf = CSV::IOBuf.new(File.open('bigdata', 'rb'))
# CSV::Reader.new(buf).each do |row|
# p row
# break if row[0].data == 'admin'
# end
#
class IOBuf < StreamBuf
def initialize(s)
@s = s
super()
end
def close
terminate
end
private
def read(size)
@s.read(size)
end
def terminate
super()
end
end
end
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