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Note: this repository migrated to Frama-C's public Gitlab.

Updates to newer Frama-C versions will be done over there instead.

Frama-C's repository for SATE VI tests (Juliet 1.3 for C/C++)

Frama-C 19 (Potassium) can be used to run C tests for NIST's Juliet 1.3 Test Suite for C/C++, as part of the SATE tool exposition. This repository contains scripts to reproduce the tests.

To run them, you will need:

  • Frama-C 19 (Potassium) installed in your PATH

    • Alternatively, you can copy Frama-C sources to directory fc/frama-c. The scripts will then compile and use that version of Frama-C when running the tests.
  • GNU make

  • GNU parallel

  • Bash 4.0+

  • wget to download and extract the Juliet 1.3 for C/C++. Alternatively, you can download it yourself and place it in this directory.

    • Note: Juliet 1.3 for C/C++ is a ~150 MB zip; its uncompressed size is about 600 MB.
  • rsync (optional) to update the versioned test oracles after running all tests


  1. Frama-C installation - choose one:

    a. Install Frama-C 19 (Potassium);

    b. OR put a copy of the Frama-C uncompressed sources in fc/frama-c and run (to configure and locally install Frama-C):

       make fc/frama-c/build/bin/frama-c
  2. Run make all. This should download Juliet 1.3 for C/C++, unzip it, copy the required Frama-C scripts and makefiles, and apply some patches.

  3. Run cd C/testcases, then make. This will analyze all directories supported by Frama-C (about 45,000 tests) and output a summary in the end.

    Note: running all tests typically takes over 2 hours on a fast desktop. Every 5 seconds, a message indicates how many tests have been processed so far, which serves as a rough estimate.

Selected directories and files

The list of directories successfully analyzed with Frama-C is available in fc/analyzed-directories.txt. In each of those directories, all C tests that were not Windows-specific were analyzed.

In other words, Windows-specific tests (containing _w32_ in their filename) and C++ tests were not analyzed.

Bug detection via the Eva plug-in

Frama-C's Eva plug-in has been developed to show the absence of runtime errors on whole programs. When applied to the tests in Juliet, it enables the detection of classes of bugs that are related to runtime errors.

Eva is run with a fixed set of parameters, defined in (details about the parameters used in the script are available in the Frama-C blog post about SATE VI - Juliet) . The bugs identified by the analysis are those that correspond to undefined behaviors (or, in some cases, unspecified or implementation-defined behaviors). Some of the bugs are detected by the Frama-C kernel or the Variadic plug-in, in combination with Eva.

Note that, except for a few syntactic CWEs, the origin of the CWE may not be located at the point in which the program behavior becomes undefined. Thus Frama-C/Eva cannot automatically locate the origin of the issue, just its "symptoms". The precise identification of the location requires some inspection work (using the Frama-C GUI) to navigate to the program point ultimately responsible for the weakness.

Eva's classification of runtime errors is not currently mapped to CWEs; after Frama-C/Eva is run on a program, another script ( checks the output to see if any warnings/alarms were generated, and if so, categorizes the tests in one of the following cases:

  • ok: either the test was a "good" one (no bugs), and Frama-C reported no alarms/warnings, or the test was a "bad" one (presence of one or more bugs) and Frama-C emitted an alarm/warning;

  • imprecise: the test was a "good" one (no bugs), but Frama-C emitted an alarm/warning;

  • unsound: the test was a "bad" one (presence of one or more bugs), and Frama-C did not report any alarms/warnings. This should NOT happen for any of the analyzed test directories, after the proper patches are applied (see next section).

  • timeout: the test took too long (>30s). This should not happen unless the test machine is overloaded.

A few other statuses are possible in the script, mainly for future development and/or debugging, such as missing spec (for stdlib functions without specifications).

Patches applied to some tests

Two sets of patches were applied as part of the make all command above.

During the analysis with Frama-C, some "good" tests were identified as actually containing bugs or undefined behaviors. These tests had to be patched to ensure that Frama-C would correctly label them. The patches can be applied to a fresh copy by running

make juliet-patches

Without the above patches, Frama-C will report unsound (non-termination) for some tests in the affected directories.

Another set of patches allows Frama-C to obtain more precise results by changing some files in C/testcasesupport:

  1. RAND*() macros in C/testcasesupport/std_testcase.h are modified as follows:

    • Added macros for RAND16() and RAND8(), for short and char types respectively;

    • Modified macros RAND32() and RAND64() to avoid overflows.

    These patches, combined with the replacement of calls to (char)RAND32() with RAND8() and calls to (short)RAND32() with RAND16(), ensure Frama-C does not report alarms about overflows in downcasts related to the usage of these macros.

  2. Some calls to printf in C/testcasesupport/io.c are modified to use char modifiers (hh) when printing values of type char, e.g. %02hhx to print a char as hexadecimal. This prevents Frama-C (more specifically, the Variadic plug-in) from emitting some warnings.

These patches can be applied to a fresh copy by running

make improve-testcasesupport-patches

Without the above patches, Frama-C will report imprecise in some "good" tests.

Sources and headers used by Frama-C

Frama-C ships with an annotated version of the C standard library. Without its ACSL specifications, the user is required to provide code for each function used in the program (Eva performs a whole-program analysis).

The annotations provided in Frama-C's standard library are optimized for performance, to be used in code bases of unknown size. However, Frama-C also provides implementations for some libc functions, which improve the precision of the analysis in some cases. For the Juliet tests, some of these implementations (mainly, functions from string.h and math.h) are included in fc/fc_runtime.c, which itself is included by

The Frama-C standard library is an ongoing effort and some cases of missing/ incomplete specifications have been reported. The library is continuously improved with each release, but the correctness of an analysis of code using libc functions is subject to the correctness of such specifications. For critical code, it is imperative that users review the provided annotations or use their own libraries instead.

Scripts used by Frama-C

  • fc/ runs Eva with a set of predefined parameters. Used by the test makefiles. Allows modifying analysis parameters.

  • fc/ invokes and parses the output, to summarize the test result: ok, imprecise, unsound, timeout, etc. Used by the test makefiles.

The following Frama-C specific files are copied into C/testcases:

  • GNUmakefile: makefile used to run Frama-C. It is named GNUmakefile to avoid overwriting existing Makefiles, but also to avoid requiring using -f <file> option when running make (in GNU make, GNUmakefile takes precedence over Makefile).

  • CWE*/**/GNUmakefile: in each directory analyzed by Frama-C, a symbolic link to the previous GNUmakefile has been installed. Thus adding/removing such files allows Frama-C to consider/stop considering a given directory.

  • script that runs all sub-makefiles in parallel. Automatically invoked by make.

  • after all tests are run, compiles a summary of the results per directory. Automatically invoked by make.

  • results_summary.txt: results of the tests run by Eva.

  • removes all result files.

  • removes result files for tests that resulted in unsound or timeout. Used during development and also in case the test machine was overloaded, resulting in timeouts. Re-run make after running this script, to recompute the results for the failed tests.

Useful make targets

When inside a test directory (testcases/CWEXXX_*/sNN), the following targets are available for each test file CWEXXX_<test>.c:

  • make CWEXXX_<test>_good.res will run the "good" test case in the shell.

  • make CWEXXX_<test>_bad.res will run the "bad" test case in the shell.

  • make CWEXXX_<test>_good.gui will run the "good" test case and open it with the Frama-C GUI. Same for _bad.

    • Note: running a test in the GUI may modify the resulting .res file, which might affect the overall summary. Consider erasing the .res file and re-running make without the GUI to force its recomputation.
  • Note: for multifile tests (files ending with a, b, c, etc.), the target name does not have the letter suffix. E.g., the test targets for files test_42a.c and test_42b.c are test_42_good.res and test_42_bad.res.

  • make will re-run all necessary tests. Note that some dependencies are not tracked, e.g. if you modify Frama-C's libc files, you may have to force the tests to be run again (with -B).

  • make clean will erase all files created during testing.

Classification of CWEs as viewed by Frama-C/Eva

The CWEs present in Juliet 1.3 for C/C++ were categorized, in a non-formal manner, according to whether they map well to a semantic analysis based solely on the information present in the C standard, or whether they require external inputs, e.g. a list of discouraged syntactic constructs, what constitutes a plaintext password, etc. Besides that, CWEs were categorized according to features such as dynamic memory allocation and multithreading.

The following notation is used in the lists below:

  • ✓CWEXXX: currently handled by Frama-C/Eva
  • ∅CWEXXX: CWE currently handled by Frama-C/Eva, but Juliet 1.3 does not contain tests in the scope of Frama-C/Eva (i.e. C++ or Windows-only)
  • ↑CWEXXX: handled by Frama-C/Eva, but all test cases lead to unrelated warnings (either due to imprecise libc specifications, or due to lack of relational domains). We expect these to be improved in future versions of Frama-C/Eva.

Caveat: validity of correctness related to some CWEs

CWEs are sometimes broad in scope and their definition cannot be matched exactly to the capabilities of an abstract interpretation-based analyzer. In such cases, "handled by Eva" has the following meaning: "all the code examples in the test suite were corrected handled by the analysis", which implies that "it may be possible to craft examples where this is not the case".

For instance, CWE758 - Undefined Behavior is extremely vague and could, in theory, include examples which lead to any of the ~200 undefined behaviors listed in Annex J.2 of the ISO/IEC 9899:1999 standard. It is therefore impossible to guarantee that every program which contains a CWE758-type vulnerability will be reported by Eva.

Currently, however, we can state that, for all test cases in the Juliet 1.3 C/C++ set, for the CWEs mentioned as handled by Frama-C/Eva, the analysis reports one or several issues for each test case marked as bad.

Weaknesses directly related to undefined behaviors

  • ✓CWE121 Stack Based Buffer Overflow
  • ✓CWE122 Heap Based Buffer Overflow
  • ✓CWE123 Write What Where Condition
  • ✓CWE124 Buffer Underwrite
  • ✓CWE126 Buffer Overread
  • ✓CWE127 Buffer Underread
  • CWE188 Reliance on Data Memory Layout
  • ✓CWE190 Integer Overflow
  • ✓CWE191 Integer Underflow
  • ∅CWE244 Heap Inspection
  • ✓CWE369 Divide by Zero
  • ∅CWE440 Expected Behavior Violation
  • ✓CWE457 Use of Uninitialized Variable
  • ✓CWE469 Use of Pointer Subtraction to Determine Size
  • ✓CWE475 Undefined Behavior for Input to API
  • ✓CWE588 Attempt to Access Child of Non Structure Pointer
  • ✓CWE665 Improper Initialization
  • ✓CWE680 Integer Overflow to Buffer Overflow
  • ↑CWE688 Function Call With Incorrect Variable or Reference as Argument
  • ✓CWE758 Undefined Behavior
  • ∅CWE785 Path Manipulation Function Without Max Sized Buffer
  • ✓CWE843 Type Confusion

UB-related weaknesses dealing with dynamic memory allocation

  • ✓CWE415 Double Free
  • ✓CWE416 Use After Free
  • ✓CWE476 NULL Pointer Dereference
  • ✓CWE590 Free Memory Not on Heap
  • ✓CWE690 NULL Deref From Return
  • ↑CWE761 Free Pointer Not at Start of Buffer

Weaknesses related to unspecified and/or implementation-defined behaviors

  • ✓CWE194 Unexpected Sign Extension
  • ✓CWE195 Signed to Unsigned Conversion Error
  • ✓CWE196 Unsigned to Signed Conversion Error
  • ✓CWE197 Numeric Truncation Error
  • ✓CWE587 Assignment of Fixed Address to Pointer

Weaknesses (mostly syntactic) requiring input beyond the standard (e.g. whitelists/blacklists)

  • CWE78 OS Command Injection
  • CWE90 LDAP Injection
  • CWE134 Uncontrolled Format String
  • CWE242 Use of Inherently Dangerous Function
  • CWE252 Unchecked Return Value
  • CWE253 Incorrect Check of Function Return Value
  • CWE321 Hard Coded Cryptographic Key
  • CWE327 Use Broken Crypto
  • CWE390 Error Without Action
  • CWE391 Unchecked Error Condition
  • CWE396 Catch Generic Exception
  • CWE397 Throw Generic Exception
  • CWE467 Use of sizeof on Pointer Type
  • CWE468 Incorrect Pointer Scaling
  • CWE478 Missing Default Case in Switch
  • CWE480 Use of Incorrect Operator
  • CWE481 Assigning Instead of Comparing
  • CWE482 Comparing Instead of Assigning
  • CWE483 Incorrect Block Delimitation
  • CWE484 Omitted Break Statement in Switch
  • CWE500 Public Static Field Not Final
  • CWE546 Suspicious Comment
  • CWE561 Dead Code
  • ✓CWE562 Return of Stack Variable Address
  • CWE563 Unused Variable
  • CWE570 Expression Always False
  • CWE571 Expression Always True
  • CWE606 Unchecked Loop Condition
  • ✓CWE617 Reachable Assertion
  • CWE674 Uncontrolled Recursion
  • CWE676 Use of Potentially Dangerous Function
  • CWE681 Incorrect Conversion Between Numeric Types
  • CWE685 Function Call With Incorrect Number of Arguments
  • CWE835 Infinite Loop

Weaknesses related to multithreading/concurrence

  • CWE364 Signal Handler Race Condition
  • CWE366 Race Condition Within Thread
  • CWE367 TOC TOU
  • CWE479 Signal Handler Use of Non Reentrant Function

Weaknesses related to typestate analyses (e.g. input sanitization, access control), often requiring external input

In future versions of Eva, we intend to implement a typestate domain, which could allow some of the CWEs in this category to be handled by Eva.

  • CWE114 Process Control
  • CWE226 Sensitive Information Uncleared Before Release
  • CWE273 Improper Check for Dropped Privileges
  • CWE284 Improper Access Control
  • CWE325 Missing Required Cryptographic Step
  • CWE404 Improper Resource Shutdown
  • CWE459 Incomplete Cleanup
  • CWE620 Unverified Password Change
  • CWE666 Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime
  • CWE667 Improper Locking
  • CWE672 Operation on Resource After Expiration or Release
  • CWE675 Duplicate Operations on Resource
  • CWE762 Mismatched Memory Management Routines
  • CWE773 Missing Reference to Active File Descriptor or Handle
  • CWE775 Missing Release of File Descriptor or Handle
  • CWE780 Use of RSA Algorithm Without OAEP
  • CWE832 Unlock of Resource That is Not Locked

Other weaknesses, not (directly) related to undefined behaviors

  • CWE15 External Control of System or Configuration Setting
  • CWE23 Relative Path Traversal
  • CWE36 Absolute Path Traversal
  • CWE176 Improper Handling of Unicode Encoding
  • CWE222 Truncation of Security Relevant Information
  • CWE223 Omission of Security Relevant Information
  • CWE247 Reliance on DNS Lookups in Security Decision
  • CWE256 Plaintext Storage of Password
  • CWE259 Hard Coded Password
  • CWE272 Least Privilege Violation
  • CWE319 Cleartext Tx Sensitive Info
  • CWE328 Reversible One Way Hash
  • CWE338 Weak PRNG
  • CWE377 Insecure Temporary File
  • CWE398 Poor Code Quality
  • CWE400 Resource Exhaustion
  • CWE401 Memory Leak
  • CWE426 Untrusted Search Path
  • CWE427 Uncontrolled Search Path Element
  • CWE464 Addition of Data Structure Sentinel
  • CWE506 Embedded Malicious Code
  • CWE510 Trapdoor
  • CWE511 Logic Time Bomb
  • CWE526 Info Exposure Environment Variables
  • CWE534 Info Exposure Debug Log
  • CWE535 Info Exposure Shell Error
  • CWE591 Sensitive Data Storage in Improperly Locked Memory
  • CWE605 Multiple Binds Same Port
  • CWE615 Info Exposure by Comment
  • CWE789 Uncontrolled Mem Alloc


Reproduction of the NIST SATE VI Ockham Track results with Frama-C/Eva (Juliet 1.3)



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