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Estonian resource grammar for the Grammatical Framework (GF) Resource Grammar Library (RGL)

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Estonian resource grammar for the GF RGL

Estonian resource grammar for the Resource Grammar Library (RGL) of Grammatical Framework (GF).

Note: This project is currently not being maintained, and the grammar is being improved directly in the RGL project (see


Tagged versions and zip-files with external resources are available at

To download only the GF files relevant for the resource grammar, execute:

mkdir -p api estonian
curl | python


To build the PGF run:

make pgf_lang

If the building fails with an error message, then compile first:

make clean
gf estonian/
make pgf_lang


Running morphology tests:

cd tools/
bash test-mk.bash N ../data/nouns.6forms.csv
bash test-mk.bash N ../data/adj.6forms.csv
bash test-mk.bash V ../data/verbs.8forms.csv

Running syntax tests:

make clean
cd tests/


We started out with a fork from the Finnish resource grammar with the general plan to:

  • translate the demo lexicon from Finnish to Estonian (LexiconEst)
  • implement Estonian smart paradigms to replace the Finnish ones
  • tweak the syntax to be Estonian

This has been mostly accomplished.


2 numbers and 14 cases.

2 * 14 forms (excluding parallel forms)

  • 1-arg (sg nom): 91% correct
  • 2-arg (sg nom gen): 95% correct
  • 3-arg (sg nom gen part): 97% correct
  • 4-arg (sg nom gen part, pl part): 98% correct
  • 6-arg paradigm: 100% correct
  • no parallel forms


Constructed in the same way as nouns, but have 3 degree forms.

3 * 2 * 14 forms + 2 (?) * 1 adverb forms

  • 1-arg : 90% correct
  • 2-arg : 93% correct
  • 3-arg : 95% correct
  • 4-arg : 97% correct
  • comparative guessed: TODO: determine correctness
  • TODO: superlative (not urgent)


Forms: 40 in total

  • Present : Person * Number
  • Imperfect : Person * Number
  • Conditional : Person * Number
  • Imperative : P2 Sg, P2 Pl, P3, P1 Pl, NegPl
  • Passive : {Present, Past} * {Pos, Neg}
  • Quotative : Active, Passive
  • Past participle : Active, Passive
  • Present participle: Active, Passive
  • Infinitive : da * 2 cases ; ma * 5 cases

Smart paradigm constructors

  • 1-arg paradigm (ma): 90% correct
  • 2-arg paradigm (ma, da): 96% correct
  • 3-arg paradigm (ma, da, b): 98% correct
  • 4-arg paradigm (ma, da, b, takse): 99% correct

Large lexicon (DictEst)



  • most functions ported to Estonian
  • tested using the MOLTO Phrasebook and ACE-in-GF applications

Papers about GF-Estonian

  • Inari Listenmaa and Kaarel Kaljurand. Computational Estonian Grammar in Grammatical Framework. 9th SaLTMiL Workshop on "Free/open-Source Language Resources for the Machine Translation of Less-Resourced Languages", LREC 2014, Reykjavík, Iceland, 27 May 2014. PDF

See also the talks.

Projects that use GF-Estonian