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#!/usr/bin/perl -w
use strict;
use lib './blib/lib','../blib/lib';
use Bio::Graphics::Panel;
use Bio::Graphics::Feature;
use Bio::Graphics::FeatureFile;
use Getopt::Long;
use List::Util qw/first/;
use constant WIDTH => 600;
GetOptions ('width:i' => \$WIDTH,
'range:s' => \$RANGE,
'boxes' => \$BOXES,
) || die <<USAGE;
Usage: $0 [feature file 1] [feature file 2] ...
--width <pixels> Set width of image (${\WIDTH} pixels default)
--range <start-stop> Set range of region (base pairs, start-stop)
--boxes Draw grey boxes around the features (for debugging)
Render a Bio::Graphics feature file and produce a PNG image.
See the manual page for Bio::Graphics::FeatureFile for a
description of the file format.
my @COLORS = qw(cyan blue red yellow green wheat turquoise orange); # default colors
my $color = 0; # position in color cycle
my $data = Bio::Graphics::FeatureFile->new(-file => '-');
# general configuration of the image here
my $width = $WIDTH || $data->setting(general => 'pixels')
|| $data->setting(general => 'width')
my ($start,$stop);
my $range_expr = '(-?\d+)(?:-|\.\.)(-?\d+)';
if (defined $RANGE) {
($start,$stop) = $RANGE =~ /$range_expr/o or die "$RANGE: invalid range specification";
} elsif (my $bases = $data->setting(general => 'bases')) {
($start,$stop) = $bases =~ /([\d-]+)(?:-|\.\.)([\d-]+)/;
if (!defined $start || !defined $stop) {
$start = $data->min unless defined $start;
$stop = $data->max unless defined $stop;
# Use the order of the stylesheet to determine features. Whatever is left
# over is presented in alphabetic order
my %types = map {$_=>1} $data->configured_types;
my @configured_types = grep {exists $data->features->{$_}} $data->configured_types;
my @unconfigured_types = sort grep {!exists $types{$_}} $data->types;
# create the segment,the panel and the arrow with tickmarks
my $segment = Bio::Graphics::Feature->new(-start=>$start,-stop=>$stop);
my $panel = Bio::Graphics::Panel->new(-segment => $segment,
-width => $width,
-key_style => 'between');
my @base_config = $data->style('general');
for my $type (@configured_types,@unconfigured_types) {
my @config = ( -glyph => 'segments', # really generic
-bgcolor => $COLORS[$color++ % @COLORS],
-label => 1,
-key => $type,
@base_config, # global
$data->style($type), # feature-specificp
my $features = $data->features($type);
my $gd = $panel->gd;
if ($BOXES) { # debugging code
my $boxes = $panel->boxes;
if($gd->can('png')) {
print STDERR "Printing png\n";
print $gd->png;
} elsif($gd->can('gif')) {
print STDERR "Printing gif\n";
print $gd->gif;
sub debugging_rectangles {
my ($image,$boxes) = @_;
my $grey = $image->colorClosest(100,100,100);
foreach (@$boxes) {
my @rect = @{$_}[1,2,3,4];
=head1 NAME -- Render a Bio::Graphics Feature File
=head1 SYNOPSIS [options] file.txt [file2.txt...] > rendering.png [options] file.txt [file2.txt...] | display -
The script is a thin front end around the
Bio::Graphics module. It accepts a list of files containing sequence
(protein, nucleotide) feature coordinates from the file(s) listed on
the command line or on standard input, renders them, and produces a
PNG file on standard output.
=head2 Options
This script uses GNU-style long options. This allows you to specify
the image width option, for example, with any of the following alternative
--width 800
-width 800
-w 800
=over 4
=item --width
This sets the width of the image, in pixels. The default is 800
=item --range
This sets the range of the region displayed, in base pairs from start
to stop. Any of the following formats are accepted:
--range 1..1000
--range 1,1000
--range 1-1000
Negative ranges are allowed.
=head1 Feature Files Format
This script accepts and processes sequence annotations in a simple
tab-delimited format or in GFF format.
The feature file format has a configuration section and a data
section. The configuration section sets up the size and overall
properties of the image, and the data section gives the feature
data itself.
=head2 Configuration Section
If not provided, this scripts generates a reasonable default
configuration section for you, so you do not need to provide a
configuration section to get a reasonable image. However, to tune the
appearance of the image, you will probably want to tweak the
configuration. Here is an excerpt from the configuration section:
# example file
bases = -1000..21000
height = 12
glyph = segments
bgcolor= yellow
connector = dashed
height = 5
glyph = transcript2
bgcolor = green
description = 1
The configuration section is divided into a set of sections, each one
labeled with a [section title]. The [general] section specifies global
options for the entire image. Other sections apply to particular
feature types. In the example above, the configuration in the [EST]
section applies to features labeled as ESTs, while the configuration
in the [FGENES] section applies to features labeled as predictions
from the FGENES gene prediction program.
Inside each section is a series of name=value pairs, where the name is
the name of an option to set. You can put whitespace around the = sign
to make it more readable, or even use a colon (:) if you prefer. The
following option names are recognized:
Option Value Example
------ ----- -------
bases Min & max of the sequence range (bp) 1200..60000
width width of the image (pixels) 600
height Height of each graphical element (pixels) 10
glyph Style of each graphical element (see below) transcript
fgcolor Foreground color of each element yellow
bgcolor Background color of each element blue
linewidth Width of lines 3
label Print the feature's name 1
description Whether to print the feature's description 0
bump Elements are not allowed to collide 1
ticks Print tick marks on arrows 1
connector Type of group connector (dashed, hat or solid) dashed
The "bases" and "width" options are only relevant in the [general]
section. They are overridden by the like-named command-line options.
The remainder of the options can be located in any section, but if
present in the [general] section will set defaults for the others.
Colors are English-language color names or Web-style #RRGGBB colors
(see a book on HTML for an explanation). True/false values are 1 for
true, and 0 for false. Numeric ranges can be expressed in start..end
fashion with two dots, or as start-end with a hyphen.
The "glyph" option controls how the features are rendered. The
following glyphs are implemented:
Name Description
---- -----------
box A filled rectangle, nondirectional.
ellipse An oval.
arrow An arrow; can be unidirectional or
bidirectional. It is also capable of displaying
a scale with major and minor tickmarks, and can
be oriented horizontally or vertically.
segments A set of filled rectangles connected by solid
lines. Used for interrupted features, such as
gapped alignments and exon groups.
transcript Similar to segments, but the connecting line is
a "hat" shape, and the direction of
transcription is indicated by a small arrow.
transcript2 Similar to transcript, but the direction of
transcription is indicated by a terminal segment
in the shape of an arrow.
primers Two inward pointing arrows connected by a line. Used for STSs.
The bump option is the most important option for controlling the look
of the image. If set to false (the number 0), then the features are
allowed to overlap. If set to true (the number 1), then the features
will move vertically to avoid colliding. If not specified, bump is
turned on if the number of any given type of sequence feature is
greater than 50.
=head2 Data Section
The data section can follow or proceed the configuration section. The
two sections can also be intermixed. The data section is a tab or
whitespace-delimited file which you can export from a spreadsheet
application or word processor file (be sure to save as text only!)
Here is an example data section:
Cosmid B0511 . 516-619
Cosmid B0511 . 3185-3294
Cosmid B0511 . 10946-11208
Cosmid B0511 . 13126-13511
Cosmid B0511 . 66-208
Cosmid B0511 . 6354-6499
Cosmid B0511 . 13955-14115
EST yk595e6.5 + 3187-3294
EST yk846e07.3 - 11015-11208
EST yk53c10
yk53c10.5 + 18892-19154
yk53c10.3 - 15000-15500,15700-15800
EST yk53c10.5 + 16032-16105
SwissProt PECANEX + 13153-13656 Swedish fish
FGENESH "Gene 1" - 1-205,518-616,661-735,3187-3365,3436-3846 Transmembrane domain
FGENESH "Gene 2" - 16626-17396,17451-17597 Kinase and sushi domains
Each line of the file contains five columns. The columns are:
Column # Description
-------- -----------
1 feature type
2 feature name
3 strand
4 coordinates
5 description
=over 4
=item Feature type
The feature type should correspond to one of the [feature type]
headings in the configuration section. If it doesn't, the [general]
options will be applied to the feature when rendering it. The feature
name is a name for the feature. Use a "." or "-" if this is not
relevant. If the name contains whitespace, put single or double quotes
("") around the name.
=item Strand
The strand indicates which strand the feature is on. It is one of "+"
for the forward strand, "-" for the reverse strand, or "." for
features that are not stranded.
=item Coordinates
The coordinates column is a set of one or more ranges that the feature
occupies. Ranges are written using ".." as in start..stop, or with
hyphens, as in start-stop. For features that are composed of multiple
ranges &em; for example transcripts that have multiple exons &em; you
can either put the ranges on the same line separated by commas or
spaces, or put the ranges on individual lines and just use the same
feature name and type to group them. In the example above, the Cosmid
B0511 features use the individual line style, while the FGENESH
features use the all-ranges-on-one-line style.
=item Description
The last column contains some descriptive text. If the description
option is set to true, this text will be printed underneath the
feature in the rendering.
Finally, it is possible to group related features together. An example
is the ESTs yk53c10.5 and yk53c10.3, which are related by being reads
from the two ends of the clone yk53c10. To indicate this relationship,
generate a section that looks like this:
EST yk53c10
yk53c10.5 + 18892-19154
yk53c10.3 - 15000-15500,15700-15800
The group is indicated by a line that contains just two columns
containing the feature type and a unique name for the group. Follow
this line with all the features that form the group, but leave the
first column (the feature type) blank. The group will be rendered by
drawing a dashed line between all the members of the group. You can
change this by specifying a different connector option in the
configuration section for this feature type.
=head1 BUGS
Please report them to the author.
=head1 SEE ALSO
=head1 AUTHOR
Lincoln Stein,
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