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PTHREADS-WIN32
==============
Pthreads-win32 is free software, distributed under the GNU Lesser
General Public License (LGPL). See the file 'COPYING.LIB' for terms
and conditions. Also see the file 'COPYING' for information
specific to pthreads-win32, copyrights and the LGPL.
What is it?
-----------
Pthreads-win32 (a.k.a. pthreads4w) is an Open Source Software
implementation of the Threads component of the POSIX 1003.1c 1995
Standard (or later) for Microsoft's Windows environment. Some functions
from POSIX 1003.1b are also supported, including semaphores. Other
related functions include the set of read-write lock functions. The
library also supports some of the functionality of the Open
Group's Single Unix specification, namely mutex types, plus some common
and pthreads-win32 specific non-portable routines (see README.NONPORTABLE).
See the file "ANNOUNCE" for more information including standards
conformance details and the list of supported and unsupported
routines.
Prerequisites
-------------
MSVC or GNU C (MinGW32 or MinGW64 MSys development kit)
To build from source.
QueueUserAPCEx by Panagiotis E. Hadjidoukas
To support any thread cancellation in C++ library builds or
to support cancellation of blocked threads in any build.
This library is not required otherwise.
For true async cancellation of threads (including blocked threads).
This is a DLL and Windows driver that provides pre-emptive APC
by forcing threads into an alertable state when the APC is queued.
Both the DLL and driver are provided with the pthreads-win32.exe
self-unpacking ZIP, and on the pthreads-win32 FTP site (in source
and pre-built forms). Currently this is a separate LGPL package to
pthreads-win32. See the README in the QueueUserAPCEx folder for
installation instructions.
Pthreads-win32 will automatically detect if the QueueUserAPCEx DLL
QuserEx.DLL is available and whether the driver AlertDrv.sys is
loaded. If it is not available, pthreads-win32 will simulate async
cancellation, which means that it can async cancel only threads that
are runnable. The simulated async cancellation cannot cancel blocked
threads.
[FOR SECURITY] To be found Quserex.dll MUST be installed in the
Windows System Folder. This is not an unreasonable constraint given a
driver must also be installed and loaded at system startup.
Library naming
--------------
Because the library is being built using various exception
handling schemes and compilers - and because the library
may not work reliably if these are mixed in an application,
each different version of the library has it's own name.
Please do not distribute your own modified versions of the library
using names conforming to this description. You can use the
makefile variable "EXTRAVERSION" to append your own suffix to the
library names when building and testing your library.
Note 1: the incompatibility is really between EH implementations
of the different compilers. It should be possible to use the
standard C version from either compiler with C++ applications
built with a different compiler. If you use an EH version of
the library, then you must use the same compiler for the
application. This is another complication and dependency that
can be avoided by using only the standard C library version.
Note 2: if you use a standard C pthread*.dll with a C++
application, then any functions that you define that are
intended to be called via pthread_cleanup_push() must be
__cdecl.
Note 3: the intention was to also name either the VC or GC
version (it should be arbitrary) as pthread.dll, including
pthread.lib and libpthread.a as appropriate. This is no longer
likely to happen.
Note 4: the compatibility number (major version number) was
added so that applications can differentiate between binary
incompatible versions of the libs and dlls.
In general the naming format used is:
pthread[VG]{SE,CE,C}[c][E].dll
pthread[VG]{SE,CE,C}[c][E].lib
where:
[VG] indicates the compiler
V - MS VC, or
G - GNU C
{SE,CE,C} indicates the exception handling scheme
SE - Structured EH, or
CE - C++ EH, or
C - no exceptions - uses setjmp/longjmp
c - DLL major version number indicating ABI
compatibility with applications built against
a snapshot with the same major version number.
See 'Version numbering' below.
E - EXTRAVERSION suffix.
The name may also be suffixed by a 'd' to indicate a debugging version
of the library. E.g. pthreadVC2d.lib. These will be created e.g. when
the *-debug makefile targets are used.
Examples:
pthreadVC2.dll (MSVC/not dependent on exceptions - not binary
compatible with pthreadVC1.dll or pthreadVC.dll)
pthreadGC2-w32.dll (As built, e.g., by "make GC ARCH=-m32 EXTRAVERSION=-w32")
pthreadVC2-w64.dll (As built, e.g., by "nmake VC ARCH=-m64 EXTRAVERSION=-w64")
For information on ARCH (MinGW GNUmakefile) or TARGET_CPU (MSVS Makefile)
see the respective "Building with ..." sections below.
The GNU library archive file names have correspondingly changed, e.g.:
libpthreadGCE2.a
libpthreadGC2.a
libpthreadGC2-w64.a
Version numbering
-----------------
See pthread.h and the resource file 'version.rc'.
Microsoft version numbers use 4 integers:
0.0.0.0
Pthreads-win32 uses the first 3 following the standard major.minor.micro
system. We had claimed to follow the Libtool convention but this has
not been the case with recent releases. Binary compatibility and
consequently library file naming has not changed over this time either
so it should not cause any problems.
The fourth is commonly used for the build number, but will be reserved
for future use.
major.minor.micro.0
The numbers are changed as follows:
1. If the general binary interface (ABI) has changed at all since the
last update in a way that requires recompilation and relinking of
applications, then increment Major, and set both minor and micro to 0.
(`M:m:u' becomes `M+1:0:0')
2. If the general API has changed at all since the last update or
there have been semantic/behaviour changes (bug fixes etc) but does
not require recompilation of existing applications, then increment
minor and set micro to 0.
(`M:m:u' becomes `M:m+1:0')
3. If there have been no interface or semantic changes since the last
public release but a new release is deemed necessary for some reason,
then increment micro.
(`M:m:u' becomes `M:m:u+1')
DLL compatibility numbering is an attempt to ensure that applications
always load a compatible pthreads-win32 DLL by using a DLL naming system
that is consistent with the version numbering system. It also allows
older and newer DLLs to coexist in the same filesystem so that older
applications can continue to be used. For pre .NET Windows systems,
this inevitably requires incompatible versions of the same DLLs to have
different names.
Pthreads-win32 has adopted the Cygwin convention of appending a single
integer number to the DLL name. The number used is simply the library's
major version number.
Consequently, DLL name/s will only change when the DLL's
backwards compatibility changes. Note that the addition of new
'interfaces' will not of itself change the DLL's compatibility for older
applications.
Which of the several dll versions to use?
-----------------------------------------
or,
---
What are all these pthread*.dll and pthread*.lib files?
-------------------------------------------------------
Simple, use either pthreadGCc.* if you use GCC, or pthreadVCc.* if you
use MSVC - where 'c' is the DLL versioning (compatibility) number.
Otherwise, you need to choose carefully and know WHY.
The most important choice you need to make is whether to use a
version that uses exceptions internally, or not. There are versions
of the library that use exceptions as part of the thread
cancellation and exit implementation. The default version uses
setjmp/longjmp.
If you use either pthreadVCE or pthreadGCE:
1. [See also the discussion in the FAQ file - Q2, Q4, and Q5]
If your application contains catch(...) blocks in your POSIX
threads then you will need to replace the "catch(...)" with the macro
"PtW32Catch", eg.
#ifdef PtW32Catch
PtW32Catch {
...
}
#else
catch(...) {
...
}
#endif
Otherwise neither pthreads cancellation nor pthread_exit() will work
reliably when using versions of the library that use C++ exceptions
for cancellation and thread exit.
Other name changes
------------------
All snapshots prior to and including snapshot 2000-08-13
used "_pthread_" as the prefix to library internal
functions, and "_PTHREAD_" to many library internal
macros. These have now been changed to "ptw32_" and "PTW32_"
respectively so as to not conflict with the ANSI standard's
reservation of identifiers beginning with "_" and "__" for
use by compiler implementations only.
If you have written any applications and you are linking
statically with the pthreads-win32 library then you may have
included a call to _pthread_processInitialize. You will
now have to change that to ptw32_processInitialize.
Cleanup code default style
--------------------------
Previously, if not defined, the cleanup style was determined automatically
from the compiler used, and one of the following was defined accordingly:
__CLEANUP_SEH MSVC only
__CLEANUP_CXX C++, including MSVC++, GNU G++
__CLEANUP_C C, including GNU GCC, not MSVC
These defines determine the style of cleanup (see pthread.h) and,
most importantly, the way that cancellation and thread exit (via
pthread_exit) is performed (see the routine ptw32_throw()).
In short, the exceptions versions of the library throw an exception
when a thread is canceled, or exits via pthread_exit(). This exception is
caught by a handler in the thread startup routine, so that the
the correct stack unwinding occurs regardless of where the thread
is when it's canceled or exits via pthread_exit().
In this snapshot, unless the build explicitly defines (e.g. via a
compiler option) __CLEANUP_SEH, __CLEANUP_CXX, or __CLEANUP_C, then
the build NOW always defaults to __CLEANUP_C style cleanup. This style
uses setjmp/longjmp in the cancellation and pthread_exit implementations,
and therefore won't do stack unwinding even when linked to applications
that have it (e.g. C++ apps). This is for consistency with most/all
commercial Unix POSIX threads implementations.
Although it was not clearly documented before, it is still necessary to
build your application using the same __CLEANUP_* define as was
used for the version of the library that you link with, so that the
correct parts of pthread.h are included. That is, the possible
defines require the following library versions:
__CLEANUP_SEH pthreadVSE.dll
__CLEANUP_CXX pthreadVCE.dll or pthreadGCE.dll
__CLEANUP_C pthreadVC.dll or pthreadGC.dll
It is recommended that you let pthread.h use it's default __CLEANUP_C
for both library and application builds. That is, don't define any of
the above, and then link with pthreadVC.lib (MSVC or MSVC++) and
libpthreadGC.a (MinGW GCC or G++). The reason is explained below, but
another reason is that the prebuilt pthreadVCE.dll is currently broken.
Versions built with MSVC++ later than version 6 may not be broken, but I
can't verify this yet.
WHY ARE WE MAKING THE DEFAULT STYLE LESS EXCEPTION-FRIENDLY?
Because no commercial Unix POSIX threads implementation allows you to
choose to have stack unwinding. Therefore, providing it in pthread-win32
as a default is dangerous. We still provide the choice but unless
you consciously choose to do otherwise, your pthreads applications will
now run or crash in similar ways irrespective of the pthreads platform
you use. Or at least this is the hope.
Development Build Toolchains and Configurations
-----------------------------------------------
As of Release 2.10 all build configurations pass the full test suite
for the following toolchains and configurations:
DLL and static library (full inlined and small) builds:
VC, VCE, VSE
GC, GCE
MSVS:
Intel Core i7 (6 Core HT)
Windows 7 64 bit
MSVS 2010 Express with SDK 7.1 (using the SDK command shell)
TARGET_CPU = x64 and x86
GNU:
Intel Core i7 (6 Core HT)
Windows 7 64 bit
MinGW64 multilib enabled
ARCH = -m32 and -m64
Building with MS Visual Studio (C, VC++ using C++ EH, or Structured EH)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
From the source directory run nmake without any arguments to list
help information. E.g.
$ nmake
As examples, as at Release 2.10 the pre-built DLLs and static libraries
are built from the following command-lines:
[Note: "setenv" comes with the SDK. "/2003" is used to override my build
system which is Win7 (at the time of writing) for backwards compatibility.]
$ setenv /x64 /2003 /Release
$ nmake realclean VC
$ nmake realclean VCE
$ nmake realclean VSE
$ nmake realclean VC-static
$ nmake realclean VCE-static
$ nmake realclean VSE-static
$ setenv /x86 /2003 /Release
$ nmake realclean VC
$ nmake realclean VCE
$ nmake realclean VSE
$ nmake realclean VC-static
$ nmake realclean VCE-static
$ nmake realclean VSE-static
If you want to differentiate between libraries by their names you can use,
e.g.:
$ nmake realclean VC EXTRAVERSION="-w64"
The string provided via the variable EXTRAVERSION is appended to the dll
and .lib library names, e.g.:
pthreadVC2-w64.dll
pthreadVC2-w64.lib
To build and test all DLLs and static lib compatibility versions
(VC, VCE, VSE):
[Note that the EXTRAVERSION="..." option is passed to the tests Makefile
when you target "all-tests". If you change to the tests directory and
run the tests you will need to repeat the option explicitly to the test
"nmake" command-line.]
$ setenv /x64 /2003 /release
$ nmake all-tests
You can run the testsuite by changing to the "tests" directory and
running nmake. E.g.:
$ cd tests
$ nmake VC
For failure analysis etc. individual tests can be built
and run, e.g:
$ cd tests
$ nmake VC TESTS="foo bar"
This builds and runs all prerequisite tests as well as the individual
tests listed. Prerequisite tests are defined in tests\runorder.mk.
To build and run only those tests listed use, i.e. without the
additional prerequistite dependency tests:
$ cd tests
$ nmake VC NO_DEPS=1 TESTS="foo bar"
Building with MinGW
-------------------
Please use Mingw64 to build either 64 or 32 bit variants of the DLL that will
run on 64 bit systems. We have found that Mingw32 builds of the GCE library
variants fail when run on 64 bit systems.
From the source directory, run 'make' without arguments for help information.
$ make
With MinGW64 multilib installed the following variables can be defined
either on the make command line or in the shell environment:
ARCH
- possible values are "-m64" and "-m32". You will probably recognise
these as gcc flags however the GNUmakefile also converts these into
the appropriate windres options when building version.o.
As examples, as at Release 2.10 the pre-built DLLs and static libraries
are built from the following command-lines:
$ nmake realclean GC ARCH=-m64
$ nmake realclean GC ARCH=-m32
$ nmake realclean GCE ARCH=-m64
$ nmake realclean GCE ARCH=-m32
$ nmake realclean GC-static ARCH=-m64
$ nmake realclean GC-static ARCH=-m32
$ nmake realclean GCE-static ARCH=-m64
$ nmake realclean GCE-static ARCH=-m32
If you want to differentiate between libraries by their names you can use,
e.g.:
$ make realclean GC ARCH="-m64" EXTRAVERSION="-w64"
The string provided via the variable EXTRAVERSION is appended to the dll
and .a library names, e.g.:
pthreadGC2-w64.dll
libpthreadGC2-w64.a
To build and test all DLLs and static lib compatibility variants (GC, GCE):
Note that the ARCH="..." and/or EXTRAVERSION="..." options are passed to the
tests GNUmakefile when you target "all-tests". If you change to the tests
directory and run the tests you will need to repeat those options explicitly
to the test "make" command-line.
$ make all-tests
or, with MinGW64 (multilib enabled):
$ make all-tests ARCH=-m64
$ make all-tests ARCH=-m32
You can run the testsuite by changing to the "tests" directory and
running make. E.g.:
$ cd tests
$ make GC
For failure analysis etc. individual tests can be built and run, e.g:
$ cd tests
$ make GC TESTS="foo bar"
This builds and runs all prerequisite tests as well as the individual
tests listed. Prerequisite tests are defined in tests\runorder.mk.
To build and run only those tests listed use, i.e. without the additional
prerequistite dependency tests:
$ cd tests
$ make GC NO_DEPS=1 TESTS="foo bar"
Building under Linux using the MinGW cross development tools
------------------------------------------------------------
You can build the library on Linux by using the MinGW cross development
toolchain. See http://www.libsdl.org/extras/win32/cross/ for tools and
info. The GNUmakefile contains some support for this, for example:
make CROSS=i386-mingw32msvc- clean GC
will build pthreadGCn.dll and libpthreadGCn.a (n=version#), provided your
cross-tools/bin directory is in your PATH (or use the cross-make.sh script
at the URL above).
Building the library as a statically linkable library
-----------------------------------------------------
General: PTW32_STATIC_LIB must be defined for both the library build and the
application build. The makefiles supplied and used by the following 'make'
command lines will define this for you.
MSVC (creates pthreadVCn.lib as a static link lib):
nmake clean VC-static
MinGW32 (creates libpthreadGCn.a as a static link lib):
make clean GC-static
Define PTW32_STATIC_LIB also when building your application.
Building the library under Cygwin
---------------------------------
Cygwin implements it's own POSIX threads routines and these
will be the ones to use if you develop using Cygwin.
Ready to run binaries
---------------------
For convenience, the following ready-to-run files can be downloaded
from the FTP site (see under "Availability" below):
pthread.h
semaphore.h
sched.h
pthreadVC2.dll - built with MSVC compiler using C setjmp/longjmp
pthreadVC2.lib
pthreadVCE2.dll - built with MSVC++ compiler using C++ EH
pthreadVCE2.lib
pthreadVSE2.dll - built with MSVC compiler using SEH
pthreadVSE2.lib
pthreadGC2.dll - built with Mingw32 GCC
libpthreadGC2.a - derived from pthreadGC.dll
pthreadGCE2.dll - built with Mingw32 G++
libpthreadGCE2.a - derived from pthreadGCE.dll
You may also need to include runtime DLLs from your SDK when
distributing your applications.
Building applications with GNU compilers
----------------------------------------
If you're using pthreadGC2.dll:
With the three header files, pthreadGC2.dll and libpthreadGC2.a in the
same directory as your application myapp.c, you could compile, link
and run myapp.c under MinGW as follows:
gcc -o myapp.exe myapp.c -I. -L. -lpthreadGC2
myapp
Or put pthreadGC2.dll in an appropriate directory in your PATH,
put libpthreadGC2.a in your system lib directory, and
put the three header files in your system include directory,
then use:
gcc -o myapp.exe myapp.c -lpthreadGC
myapp
If you're using pthreadGCE2.dll:
With the three header files, pthreadGCE2.dll and libpthreadGCE2.a
in the same directory as your application myapp.c, you could compile,
link and run myapp.c under Mingw32 as follows:
gcc -x c++ -o myapp.exe myapp.c -I. -L. -lpthreadGCE2
myapp
Or put pthreadGCE.dll and gcc.dll in an appropriate directory in
your PATH, put libpthreadGCE.a in your system lib directory, and
put the three header files in your system include directory,
then use:
gcc -x c++ -o myapp.exe myapp.c -lpthreadGCE
myapp
Availability
------------
The complete source code in either unbundled, self-extracting
Zip file, or tar/gzipped format can be found at:
ftp://sources.redhat.com/pub/pthreads-win32
The pre-built DLL, export libraries and matching pthread.h can
be found at:
ftp://sources.redhat.com/pub/pthreads-win32/dll-latest
Home page:
http://sources.redhat.com/pthreads-win32/
Mailing list
------------
There is a mailing list for discussing pthreads on Win32.
To join, send email to:
pthreads-win32-subscribe@sources.redhat.com
Unsubscribe by sending mail to:
pthreads-win32-unsubscribe@sources.redhat.com
Acknowledgements
----------------
See the ANNOUNCE file for acknowledgements.
See the 'CONTRIBUTORS' file for the list of contributors.
As much as possible, the ChangeLog file attributes
contributions and patches that have been incorporated
in the library to the individuals responsible.
Finally, thanks to all those who work on and contribute to the
POSIX and Single Unix Specification standards. The maturity of an
industry can be measured by it's open standards.
----
Ross Johnson
<rpj@callisto.canberra.edu.au>
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