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Perl wrapper for git(7) command line interface

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NAME

Git::Wrapper - Wrap git(7) command-line interface

VERSION

version 0.020

SYNOPSIS

my $git = Git::Wrapper->new('/var/foo');

$git->commit(...)
print $_->message for $git->log;

DESCRIPTION

Git::Wrapper provides an API for git(7) that uses Perl data structures for argument passing, instead of CLI-style --options as Git does.

METHODS

Except as documented, every git subcommand is available as a method on a Git::Wrapper object. Replace any hyphens in the git command with underscores.

The first argument should be a hashref containing options and their values. Boolean options are either true (included) or false (excluded). The remaining arguments are passed as ordinary command arguments.

$git->commit({ all => 1, message => "stuff" });

$git->checkout("mybranch");

N.b. Because of the way arguments are parsed, should you need to pass an explicit '0' value to an option (for example, to have the same effect as --abrrev=0 on the command line), you should pass it with a leading space, like so:

$git->describe({ abbrev => ' 0' };

Output is available as an array of lines, each chomped.

@sha1s_and_titles = $git->rev_list({ all => 1, pretty => 'oneline' });

If a git command exits nonzero, a Git::Wrapper::Exception object will be thrown. It has three useful methods:

  • error

error message

  • output

normal output, as a single string

  • status

the exit status

The exception stringifies to the error message.

new

my $git = Git::Wrapper->new($dir);

dir

print $git->dir; # /var/foo

version

my $version = $git->version; # 1.6.1.4.8.15.16.23.42

log

my @logs = $git->log;

Instead of giving back an arrayref of lines, the log method returns a list of Git::Wrapper::Log objects. They have four methods:

  • id
  • author
  • date
  • message

has_git_in_path

This method returns a true or false value indicating if there is a 'git' binary in the current $PATH.

supports_status_porcelain

supports_log_raw_dates

These methods return a true or false value (1 or 0) indicating whether the git binary being used has support for these options. (The '--porcelain' option on 'git status' and the '--date=raw' option on 'git log', respectively.)

These are primarily for use in this distribution's test suite, but may also be useful when writing code using Git::Wrapper that might be run with different versions of the underlying git binary.

status

When running with an underlying git binary that returns false for the "supports_status_porcelain" method, this method will act like any other wrapped command: it will return output as an array of chomped lines.

When running with an underlying git binary that returns true for the "supports_status_porcelain" method, this method instead returns an instance of Git::Wrapper::Statuses:

my $statuses = $git->status;

Git::Wrapper:Statuses has two public methods. First, is_dirty:

my $dirty_flag = $statuses->is_dirty;

which returns a true/false value depending on whether the repository has any uncommitted changes.

Second, get:

my @status = $statuses->get($group)

which returns an array of Git::Wrapper::Status objects, one per file changed.

There are four status groups, each of which may contain zero or more changes.

  • indexed : Changed & added to the index (aka, will be committed)
  • changed : Changed but not in the index (aka, won't be committed)
  • unknown : Untracked files
  • conflict : Merge conflicts

Note that a single file can occur in more than one group. Eg, a modified file that has been added to the index will appear in the 'indexed' list. If it is subsequently further modified it will additionally appear in the 'changed' group.

A Git::Wrapper::Status object has three methods you can call:

my $from = $status->from;

The file path of the changed file, relative to the repo root. For renames, this is the original path.

my $to = $status->to;

Renames returns the new path/name for the path. In all other cases returns an empty string.

my $mode = $status->mode;

Indicates what has changed about the file.

Within each group (except 'conflict') a file can be in one of a number of modes, although some modes only occur in some groups (eg, 'added' never appears in the 'unknown' group).

  • modified
  • added
  • deleted
  • renamed
  • copied
  • conflict

All files in the 'unknown' group will have a mode of 'unknown' (which is redundant but at least consistent).

The 'conflict' group instead has the following modes.

  • 'both deleted' : deleted on both branches
  • 'both added' : added on both branches
  • 'both modified' : modified on both branches
  • 'added by us' : added only on our branch
  • 'deleted by us' : deleted only on our branch
  • 'added by them' : added on the branch we are merging in
  • 'deleted by them' : deleted on the branch we are merging in

See git-status man page for more details.

Example

my $git = Git::Wrapper->new('/path/to/git/repo');
my $statuses = $git->status;
for my $type (qw<indexed changed unknown conflict>) {
    my @states = $statuses->get($type)
        or next;
    print "Files in state $type\n";
    for (@states) {
        print '  ', $_->mode, ' ', $_->from;
        print ' renamed to ', $_->to
            if $_->mode eq 'renamed';
        print "\n";
    }
}

RUN

This method bypasses the output rearranging performed by some of the wrapped methods described above (i.e., log, status, etc.). This can be useful in various situations, such as when you want to produce a particular log output format that isn't compatible with the way Git::Wrapper constructs Git::Wrapper::Log, or when you want raw git status output that isn't parsed into a Git::Wrapper::Status object.

This method should be called with an initial string argument of the git subcommand you want to run, followed by a hashref containing options and their values, and then a list of any other arguments.

Example

my $git = Git::Wrapper->new( '/path/to/git/repo' );

# the 'log' method returns Git::Wrapper::Log objects
my @log_objects = $git->log();

# while 'RUN('log')' returns an array of chomped lines
my @log_lines = $git->RUN('log');

ERR

After a command has been run, this method will return anything that was sent to STDERR, in the form of an array of chomped lines. This information will be cleared as soon as a new command is executed. This method should *NOT* be used as a success/failure check, as git will sometimes produce output on STDERR when a command is successful.

OUT

After a command has been run, this method will return anything that was sent to STDOUT, in the form of an array of chomped lines. It is identical to what is returned from the method call that runs the command, and is provided simply for symmetry with the ERR method. This method should *NOT* be used as a success/failure check, as git will frequently not have any output with a successful command.

COMPATIBILITY

On Win32 Git::Wrapper is incompatible with msysGit installations earlier than Git-1.7.1-preview20100612 due to a bug involving the return value of a git command in cmd/git.cmd. If you use the msysGit version distributed with GitExtensions or an earlier version of msysGit, tests will fail during installation of this module. You can get the latest version of msysGit on the Google Code project page: http://code.google.com/p/msysgit/downloads

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

Git::Wrapper normally uses the first 'git' binary in your path, but if the GIT_WRAPPER_GIT environment variable is set, that value will be used instead.

SEE ALSO

VCI::VCS::Git is the git implementation for VCI, a generic interface to version-controle systems.

Other Perl Git Wrappers is a list of other Git interfaces in Perl. If Git::Wrapper doesn't scratch your itch, possibly one of the modules listed there will.

Git itself is at http://git.or.cz.

REPORTING BUGS & OTHER WAYS TO CONTRIBUTE

The code for this module is maintained on GitHub, at https://github.com/genehack/Git-Wrapper. If you have a patch, feel free to fork the repository and submit a pull request. If you find a bug, please open an issue on the project at GitHub. (We also watch the http://rt.cpan.org queue for Git::Wrapper, so feel free to use that bug reporting system if you prefer)

AUTHORS

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

This software is copyright (c) 2008 by Hans Dieter Pearcey.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.

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