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Using Custom Tabs

Summary

This presents a few example applications using Custom Tabs, and a possible usage of the APIs, both intent-based and the the background service. It covers UI customization, setting up callbacks, pre-warming, pre-fetching, and lifecycle management. Here we assume that Chrome's implementation of Custom Tabs is used. Note that this feature is in no way specific to Chrome, but slight differences may exist with other implementations.

Overview

In particular, this covers:

  • UI customization:
    • Toolbar color
    • Action button
    • Custom menu items
    • Custom in/out animations
  • Navigation awareness: the browser delivers callbacks to the application for navigations in the Custom Tab.
  • Performance optimizations:
    • Pre-warming of the Browser in the background, without stealing resources from the application
    • Providing a likely URL in advance to the browser, which may perform speculative work, speeding up page load time.

These features are enabled through two mechanisms:

  • Adding extras to the ACTION_VIEW intent sent to the browser.
  • Connecting to a bound service in the target browser.

Code Organization

To get full benefits of the Custom Tabs APIs, it is recommended to use the Android Support Library.

The code in this repository is organised in four parts:

  • demos/: This module contains sample implementations for Chrome Custom Tabs using the Android Support Library. Feel free to re-use the classes withing this module.
  • shared/: Shared code between the Application and demos modules. Feel free to re-use the classes within this directory, which are only provided as a convenience. In particular,CustomTabsHelper can be re-used. This code is not required to use Custom Tabs.
  • customtabs/: Code within this directory is in the package android.support.customtabs. This contains code analog to the Android Support library, but with the latest version of Chrome Custom Tabs, enabling features that may still not be available on the Android Support Library. API is subject to changes and this code should only be used if you want to test the latest features. It is recommended to copy the code as-is to your project and remove the Android Support Library for Chrome Custom Tabs from the build.gradle file.
  • Application/: Example application code, in the package org.chromium.customtabsclient. This code uses the latest version of the Chrome Custom Tabs, contained in the module customtabs.

UI Customization

UI customization is done through the methods exposed by CustomTabsIntent.Builder.

Example:

CustomTabsIntent.Builder builder = new CustomTabsIntent.Builder();
builder.setSession(session);
builder.setToolbarColor(Color.BLUE);
// Application exit animation, Chrome enter animation.
builder.setStartAnimations(this, R.anim.slide_in_right, R.anim.slide_out_left);
// vice versa
builder.setExitAnimations(this, R.anim.slide_in_left, R.anim.slide_out_right);

CustomTabsIntent customTabsIntent = builder.build();
customTabsIntent.launchUrl(this, packageName, url);

In this example, no UI customization is done, aside from the animations and the toolbar color. The general usage is:

  1. Create an instance of CustomTabsIntent.Builder
  2. Build the UI using the methods of CustomTabsIntent.Builder
  3. Call CustomTabsIntent.Builder.build()
  4. Call CustomTabsIntent.launchUrl()

The communication between the custom tab activity and the application is done via pending intents. For each interaction leading back to the application (menu items and action button), a PendingIntent must be provided, and will be delivered upon activation of the corresponding UI element.

Navigation

The hosting application can elect to get notifications about navigations in a Custom Tab. This is done using a callback extending android.support.customtabs.CustomTabsCallback, that is:

void onNavigationEvent(int navigationEvent, Bundle extras);

This callback is set when a CustomTabsSession object is created, through CustomTabsSession.newSession(). It thus has to be set:

  • After binding to the background service
  • Before launching a URL in a custom tab

The two events are analogous to WebViewClient.onPageStarted() and WebViewClient.onPageFinished(), respectively (see WebViewClient).

Optimization

WARNING: The browser treats the calls described in this section only as advice. Actual behavior may depend on connectivity, available memory and other resources.

The application can communicate its intention to the browser, that is:

  • Warming up the browser
  • Indicating a likely navigation to a given URL

In both cases, communication with the browser is done through a bound background service. This binding is done by CustomTabClient.bindCustomTabsService(). After the service is connected, the client has access to a CustomTabsClient object, valid until the service gets disconnected. This client can be used in these two cases:

  • Warmup: Warms up the browser to make navigation faster. This is expected to create some CPU and IO activity, and to have a duration comparable to a normal Chrome startup. Once started, Chrome will not use additional resources. This is triggered by CustomTabsClient.warmup().
  • Hint about a likely future navigation: Indicates that a given URL may be loaded in the future. Chrome may perform speculative work to speed up page load time. The application must call CustomTabsClient.warmup() first. This is triggered by CustomTabsSession.mayLaunchUrl().

Example:

// Binds to the service.
CustomTabsClient.bindCustomTabsService(context, packageName, new CustomTabsServiceConnection() {
    @Override
    public void onCustomTabsServiceConnected(ComponentName name, CustomTabsClient client) {
        // mClient is now valid.
        mClient = client;
    }

    @Override
    public void onServiceDisconnected(ComponentName name) {
        // mClient is no longer valid. This also invalidates sessions.
        mClient = null;
    }
});

// With a valid mClient.
mClient.warmup(0);

// With a valid mClient.
CustomTabsSession session = mClient.newSession(new CustomTabsCallback());
session.mayLaunchUrl(Uri.parse("https://www.google.com"), null, null);

// Shows the Custom Tab
builder.build().launchUrl(context, packageName, Uri.parse("https://www.google.com"));

Tips

  • If possible, issue the warmup call in advance to reduce waiting when the custom tab activity is started.
  • If possible, advise Chrome about the likely target URL in advance, as the loading optimization can take time (requiring network traffic, for instance).