Kubernetes Engine Rolling Upgrades
Kubernetes Engine is a managed service that provides fully automated upgrades to keep clusters up to date with the latest Kubernetes versions and features. This managed service includes the control plane - API Server, Workload Controllers, and etcd storage back-end - at no cost to the user.
Worker nodes are organized in "Node Pools" which can take automated or manual version upgrades. When you choose manual upgrades of Node Pools, you have several choices for upgrade methodologies. This repository illustrates three different upgrade strategies, discusses their trade-offs, and provides demos of each.
Table of Contents
- Upgrade Paths
- Automated vs Manual Upgrades
- Regional vs Multi-Zone Clusters
- Highly Available Application Architecture
- Upgrade Strategies
- Kubernetes Engine and Change Control
- Relevant Material
A Kubernetes Engine version number represents an immutable collection of Kubernetes components (api server, workload controllers, kube-proxy, kubelet, etc), the container runtime, and the host VM operating system.
The version numbers are based on the Open Source Kubernetes Semantic Versioning
format. A Kubernetes Engine version will take the form of
X- Kubernetes major version
Y- Kubernetes minor version
Z- Kubernetes patch version
N- Kubernetes Engine patch version
X.Y.Z portion corresponds directly with the Open Source Kubernetes
version of the same number and is fully compatible. The various Kubernetes
Engine patch versions (
N) can contain bug fixes and security patches for the
Kubernetes components, the container runtime, and/or the VM Host OS.
Not all Kubernetes versions are available in Kubernetes Engine. Generally, multiple patch versions of the 3 most recent minor versions are available. Within minor versions, patch versions are turned down and are no longer available for new clusters or upgrades as newer versions are introduced. Kubernetes Engine versions are also removed when bugs and/or security vulnerabilities are discovered.
With this command, you can find the currently available Kubernetes Engine versions new clusters and upgrades:
gcloud container get-server-config [--region <your-region>] [--zone <your-zone>]
Kubernetes Engine supports upgrading from one minor version to the next and any patch version within a minor version. Some example version upgrades:
1.8.8-gke.0 -> 1.8.12-gke.1 1.8.8-gke.0 -> 1.9.7-gke.3 1.9.7-gke.3 -> 1.10.4-gke.2
Invalid version upgrades:
1.8.8-gke.0 -> 1.10.4-gke.0 1.8.12-gke.1 -> 1.10.4-gke.2
An error will result if you try to make an invalid upgrade.
Automated vs Manual Upgrades
Kubernetes Engine will automatically upgrade the control plane, you can not opt- out. You may opt-in to automatic upgrades for Node Pools as well but this functionality is disabled by default. When a Node Pool is configured for automatic updates, Kubernetes Engine will upgrade the Node Pool each time it detects a difference between the control plane and Node Pool versions.
The control plane upgrade schedule is posted on the Kubernetes Engine Release Notes page. You can also designate a weekly maintenance window to gain predictability around the timing of automated upgrades. Kubernetes Engine, however, may still make upgrades outside the maintenance window for unplanned, emergency upgrades.
Though the patch version upgrades will proceed fairly frequently, upgrades to minor versions will only occur when a specific minor version is being turned down, or going out of support. At that time, the control plane will be upgraded to the next minor version.
When configured for automatic upgrades, you may still manually initiate an upgrade at any time, provided:
- A current upgrade is not already in progress
- A Node Pool version will not be advanced beyond the control plane version
Though the control plane is upgraded automatically, you may still take a manual approach to keeping it up to date. Automated control plane upgrades are announced on the Kubernetes Engine Release Notes page. You can pre-empt this schedule by manually initiating the upgrade prior to the scheduled automated upgrade.
As most changes in the Kubernetes API functionality happen between minor versions, many operators will have less concern about patch version upgrades and allow them to proceed automatically but make planned and deliberate upgrades to new minor versions.
For Node Pools, manual upgrades are the default configuration but the pools will still be upgraded when the specific minor version is turned down and removed from Kubernetes Engine.
If you choose to adopt a manual approach to node pool upgrades, you must keep an eye on minor version deprecations published in the Kubernetes Engine Release Notes to ensure that you initiate upgrades before the scheduled upgrade.
Regional vs Multi-Zone Clusters
Regional cluster has multi-node highly available control plane. This allows zero-downtime upgrades for control plane and five 9s of availability. Three different zones are selected automatically at cluster creation time and one control plane node is run in each. The Node Pools are also spread out among the three zones.
Multi-zone clusters, also called "zonal clusters", have a single control plane node located in one zone. The api server will become unavailable during version upgrades resulting in Kubernetes API unavailability during that time. The Node Pool will default to the same single zone but can be expanded to multiple zones in the same region.
In both cases, the cost for running the control plane is the same for the end user - $0.
Highly Available Application Architecture
Highly Available (HA) applications can continue running during planned and unplanned interruptions. Specific knowledge of how your application operates and performs is necessary to ensure your application will be highly available while running within Kubernetes Engine.
There are specific Kubernetes features to assist in building HA applications. They include but are not limited to:
- Having enough replicas of an application to allow continued functioning when one or more instances are lost, restarted, or rescheduled on a different node.
anti-affinityannotations to avoid multiple replicas of the same application being scheduled on the same node.
PodDisruptionBudgetsto make sure the appropriate number of application replicas are left running when pods are being rescheduled.
readinessProbesto ensure that after rescheduled application instances are started they are fully initialized and operational before being marked "healthy".
There are several strategies available when upgrading Kubernetes Engine Node Pools. They range from fast and fully automated, to slow and deliberate.
The types of applications you have running in the cluster should dictate your
choice of upgrade strategy. The root of this repository has a common properties
env. Make a copy and update with values appropriate for your
cp env .env
In-Place Rolling Upgrade
This is the same procedure used when automated Node Pool upgrades is enabled. Each node is cordoned, drained, terminated, and finally replaced with a new node running the new version. This works well in large clusters that tend to have significant resource head room.
In Place Rolling Upgrade Example
Expand and Contract Upgrade
The Expand and Contract Upgrade is a further refinement of the Rolling Upgrade. More capacity is added to the Node Pool prior to the rolling upgrade and then removed at the end of the upgrade. This is a good choice for smaller clusters that don't have significant headroom, or clusters with Stateful workloads using zone specific disks.
Expand and Contract Upgrade Example
The Blue/Green, or "Lift and Shift", Upgrade gives the operator the most control over workload migrations. A duplicate Node Pool running the new version is run simultaneously with the Node Pool running the old version. The nodes in the old pool are cordoned then the operator can migrate pods to the nodes running the new version in the order and timing deemed appropriate.
Blue/Green Upgrade Example
Downgrading the control plane is not possible. If you find a unexpected behaviors during a Node Pool upgrade, you can abort and roll back the Node Pool to the previous version.
Kubernetes Engine and Change Control
Change Control procedures generally require making changes during specified maintenance windows and articulating back-out plans. Kubernetes Engine can help organizations achieve these requirements with specific configurations and planning.
- Plan and execute Control Plane upgrades prior to the automated upgrade schedule
- Do not configure Node Pools for automatic upgrades and instead plan and execute Node Pool upgrades when necessary.
- Since control plane downgrades are not possible, create/maintain a development or staging cluster with identical application workload types to test fully upgrades prior to applying them in your production environments.
Manual upgrade process
Manual upgrades require different considerations and planning depending on the type of upgrade. The following decision tree illustrates a high-level overview of a manual upgrade of a Kubernetes Engine cluster.
- Kubernetes Engine Release Notes
- Kubernetes Engine Maintenance Window
- Multi-Zone and Regional Clusters
- Affinity and Anti-Affinity
This is not an officially supported Google product