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readme.md

Sample: Reliable Task Scheduling on Google Compute Engine with Cloud Scheduler

In distributed systems, such as a network of Google Compute Engine instances, it is challenging to reliably schedule tasks because any individual instance may become unavailable due to autoscaling or network partitioning.

Google Cloud Platform provides a managed Cloud Scheduler service. Using this service for scheduling and Google Cloud Pub/Sub for distributed messaging, you can build an application to reliably schedule tasks across a fleet of Compute Engine instances.

This sample illustrates how to build a solution. For a full description of the design pattern used in this sample, see Reliable Task Scheduling on Compute Engine with Cloud Scheduler.

For an example of how to start and stop VMs, see Scheduling Compute Instances with Cloud Scheduler.

About the sample

This sample contains two components:

  • Instructions for configuring Cloud Scheduler to send cron messages to Cloud Pub/Sub topics.

  • A utility that runs on Compute Engine. This utility monitors a Cloud Pub/Sub topic. When it detects a new message, it runs the corresponding command locally on the server.

You specify the cron messages to send and their timing in the Cloud Scheduler configuration. When Cloud Scheduler fires a scheduled event, the cron message is passed to the corresponding previously created Cloud Pub/Sub topic.

The utility running on the Compute Engine instances receives cron messages from Cloud Pub/Sub and runs the specified commands that are normally run by cron. To do so, it performs the following actions:

  • Creates subscriptions to Cloud Pub/Sub topics.
  • Monitors those subscriptions for new messages using a long-polling loop.
  • In response to messages, it runs the corresponding command in a subprocess, during which it:
    • Maintains the lease on the Cloud Pub/Sub message and extends the lease time on a Cloud Pub/Sub message as needed for long-running commands.
    • Acknowledges and releases the message on exit of the command. The exit code is not required to be successful; additional retry logic is left as an exercise.

This sample includes the reusable wrapper code of the utility, an example of its use, and a sample script that it runs.

How to run the sample

The overview for configuring and running this sample is as follows:

  1. Create a project and other cloud resources.
  2. Clone or download the sample code.
  3. Create the Cloud Pub/Sub topic.
  4. Create the Cloud Scheduler job.
  5. Run a utility on Compute Engine that monitors the Cloud Pub/Sub topic for messages. and, on detecting one, runs a sample script locally on the instance.
  6. Verify the script ran on schedule by checking the Cloud Logging output.

Prerequisites

Ensure that the following is installed if not already on your system:

Important: This tutorial uses several billable components of Google Cloud Platform. To estimate the cost of running this sample:

  • Assume the utility runs on a single f1-micro Google Compute Instance for 15 minutes of one day while you test the sample. After which, you delete the project, releasing all resources. That's 0.25 hours per month.
  • Cloud Scheduler is free for up to 3 jobs per month.

Use the Google Cloud Platform Pricing Calculator to generate a cost estimate based on this projected usage. New Cloud Platform users may be eligible for a free trial.

Clone the sample code

To clone the GitHub repository to your computer, run the following command:

$ git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/reliable-task-scheduling-compute-engine-sample

Change directories to the reliable-task-scheduling-compute-engine-sample directory. The exact path depends on where you placed the directory when you cloned the sample files from GitHub.

$ cd reliable-task-scheduling-compute-engine-sample

Create Pub/Sub topic

  1. Configure the gcloud command-line tool to use the project you created in Prerequisites.

     $ gcloud config set project <your-project-id>
    

    Where you replace <your-project-id> with the identifier of your cloud project.

  2. Create the Pub/Sub topic that you will push messages to.

    $ gcloud pubsub topics create test
    

The topic is now listed under gcloud pubsub topics list. You can also see the topic in the console:

Big Data > Pub/Sub

Create Cloud Scheduler job

Note: At time of writing Cloud Scheduler is in Beta. The keyword beta in the commands below will no longer be necessary after Cloud Scheduler becomes generally available.

Next, we configure Cloud Scheduler to push a message containing the string test job every minute to the Pub/Sub topic test that we just created.

gcloud beta scheduler jobs create pubsub test-job --schedule="* * * * *" \
  --topic=test --message-body="test job"

The schedule is specified in unix-cron format. A * in every field means the job runs every minute, every hour, every day of the month, every month, every day of the week. More simply put, it runs once per minute.

The job is now visible in gcloud beta scheduler jobs list. You can also see the jobs in the console:

Tools > Cloud Scheduler

Execution logs for the job are visible via the Logs link for each job.

How Cloud Pub/Sub subscriptions are specified

The utility running on a Compute Engine instance monitors a set of Cloud Pub/Sub topic subscriptions and runs commands on that instance each time it receives a message. By configuring which topics the utility monitors, you can control the jobs that run on each instance. Separating the scheduling logic from the utility logic using Cloud Pub/Sub messaging gives you the ability to schedule all of your jobs with Cloud Scheduler, and then configure the utility on each instance to listen to only the job messages that apply to that instance.

In the sample implementation of the utility, the topic to subscribe to is set as a variable in test_executor.py.

TOPIC = 'test'

This value is used when the code creates an Executor object to monitor a Cloud Pub/Sub topic.

test_executor = Executor(topic=TOPIC, project=PROJECT, task_cmd=logger, subname='logger_sample_task')

If you only need the utility to monitor a single topic, you can simply change the value of TOPIC in this script. To have the utility monitor multiple topics, you need to instantiate multiple Executor objects.

For this runthrough of the sample, leave TOPIC set to 'test' so you can verify your results as described in the following sections.

Specify the commands to run on the instance

In this sample, the utility acts as a wrapper to run commands that can be configured as cron jobs. These commands are specified in the test_executor.py file. For this example, the command runs a script logger_sample_task.py that simply prints output to stdout.

script_path = os.path.abspath(os.path.join(os.getcwd(), 'logger_sample_task.py'))
sample_task = "python -u %s" % script_path

To modify the sample to run your own tasks, update the command syntax in the sample_task variable.

For your first time running the sample, leave this set to the logger_sample_task script so you can verify your results as described in the following sections.

Install the utility script on a Compute Engine instance

The utility script runs on your Compute Engine instances and subscribes to the Cloud Pub/Sub topics you specified in Cloud Scheduler. When the utility script receives a message, it runs the corresponding job locally. To make this possible, install the utility script on each instance where you want durable cron jobs to run. The script files are in the gce directory.

  1. Create a Compute Engine instance with Cloud Pub/Sub scope. In the following example, the instance name is cronworker.

     $  gcloud compute instances create cronworker \
       --machine-type f1-micro \
       --scopes https://www.googleapis.com/auth/pubsub,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/logging.write \
       --zone us-central1-a
    
  2. Edit gce/test_executor.py to change the project constant:

     PROJECT = 'your-project-id'
    

    Replace your-project-id with the identifier of your cloud project.

  3. Copy the utility script files to the new instance.

     $  gcloud compute scp --recurse gce cronworker:~/ --zone=us-central1-a
    
  4. SSH into the Compute Engine instance. The following steps are run on the instance over the SSH session.

     $  gcloud compute ssh cronworker \
       --zone us-central1-a
    
  5. Update the apt-get package lists on the instance.

     $ sudo apt-get update
    
  6. Install pip and the Python development libraries on the instance.

     $ sudo apt-get install -y python-pip python-dev
    
  7. Install the Python client library for accessing Google APIs on the instance with Python Pip.

     $ sudo pip install --upgrade google-api-python-client oauth2client pytz
    
  8. Change directories on the instance to the directory where you uploaded the utility script files.

     $ cd gce
    
  9. Run the utility file script, test_executor.py

    $ python test_executor.py
    

Verify cron jobs run on the instance

After you start the utility, it checks for messages on the specified Cloud Pub/Sub topic ('test', by default). When it checks the subscription and receives a message, it runs a sample task that simply prints output to stdout. If you are still connected to the instance using SSH, you’ll see output like the following when the task runs.

Doing work... 1
Doing work... 2
Doing work... 3
…
Doing work... 20

The utility script records its activity using Google Cloud Logging. After a cron job has had time to run, you can view the stdout output of the job in the Logs Viewer for Google Compute Engine.

  1. Open the Developers Console and select your project from the list.

  2. From the navigational menu, select Stackdriver > Logging > Logs.

  3. Expand the dropdown box displaying GAE Application and select GCE VM Instance > cronworker.

  4. Expand the dropdown box displaying All Logs, and select task_runner to display the logged messages from the executor utility, and test_sample_task_task to display the output of the sample task running on the Compute Engine instance. Click Ok to confirm.

You can also see the topic in the Pub/Sub console now lists the subscription.

Clean up

Now that you have tested the sample, delete the cloud resources you created to prevent further billing for them on your account.

  • Delete the Compute Engine instance.

      $ gcloud compute instances delete cronworker --zone=us-central1-a
    
  • Delete the Cloud Scheduler job.

    You can delete the job from the Cloud Scheduler section of the Developers Console.

  • Delete the Cloud Pub/Sub topic. You can delete the topic and associated subscriptions from the Cloud Pub/Sub section of the Developers Console.

License

Copyright 2019 Google Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at

http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.

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