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NOTE Since this framework performs a lot of system-level configuration changes to operate it is highly recommended to create an environment for this inside a VM.

Setup instructions

  • Run which will set up cross-compilation toolchains and setup the cross-compiled FirmFuzz kernels

  • Fix up path for HOME_DIR in ./framework/scripts/env_var.config and put PATH in TEST_PATH, this is because we run certain scripts as sudo and require location of cross compilation binaries

  • Update ROOT_DIR in cleanup_fs.shto point to your FirmFuzz Directory

Run instructions

Using FirmFuzz on a firmware filesystem is a three-step process:

  • Extracting the firmware filesystem from the firmware image
  • Create a firmware emulation configuration for the extracted filesystem
  • Run the fuzzer on the emulated fimrware image

Instructions for each of these steps is provided below.

Filesystem extraction

  • Use the firmadyne extractor system to extract the linux filesystem from the firmware image. Otherwise you can provide a filesystem extracted using binwalk as well but I didn't test with that.

Firmware Emulation

  • Put the extracted filesystem from the previous phase (in the form of a .tgz file) into a folder name $IMAGE_DIR. (Note that IMAGE_DIR can be named anything

  • Run `./ $IMAGE_DIR. Note that $IMAGE_DIR should have a succeeding backslash when being passed to this script

  • If a succcessful emulation for the firmware image is created, it would be placed in $HOME_DIR/final/scratch_ffs`

  • To test the emulation, go to the newly created folder and run sudo ./


Before running, the fuzzer certain setup needs to be carried out.

Fuzzer setup

sudo apt-get install python-pip python-dev 
libffi-dev libssl-dev libxml2-dev 
libxslt1-dev libjpeg8-dev zlib1g-dev g++

sudo pip install "mitmproxy==0.18.2"
sudo pip install "numpy"
sudo pip install "selenium==3.4.3"

# Install mitmdump v0.18.2

# Install geckodriver(v0.18.0) and put it in `/usr/local/bin`

Create memory snapshot

Before running the firmware image for fuzzing, we create a memory snapshot to revert to in case the firmware reaches an inconsistent state during fuzzing You can use the following instructions to do so:

- Once the emulation reaches the stable state, run the following commands to
  save snapshot of the stable state
    - `ctrl-a and then c` to get into QEMU monitor mode
    - `savevm 1` to save the stable snapshot of the image

- Exit the emulation

Run the fuzzer

  • Fix the FUZZER_ROOT_DIR path in
  • Run the emulated image
  • Run the selenium backend: java -jar selenium-server-standalone-3.4.0.jar
  • Run the proxy server using the IP address where the firmware is exposing the web API. You can find this looking at the script that is generated for the emulated firmware
  • The proxy server can be run as mitmdump -R -s
  • If you know the credentials to authenticate with the firmware, put username in first line and password in the second line (with _ for blank) in data/credentials.txt to bootstrap the fuzzing process
  • With these components up, the fuzzer can be fired up. An example invocation is provided that tests CI: `python -d ~/location/of/emulated/firmware/ -u -v 1 -a 1


Automated IoT firmware fuzzing framework.






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