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README.md

Homotopy Type Theory in Agda

Build Status

This repository contains a development of homotopy type theory and univalent foundations in Agda. The structure of the source code is described below.

Setup

The code is loosely broken into core and theorems Agda libraries. You need Agda 2.5.3 or newer and include at least the path to core.agda-lib in your Agda library list. See CHANGELOG of Agda 2.5 for more information.

Agda Options

Each Agda file should have --without-K --rewriting in its header. --without-K is to restrict pattern matching so that the uniqueness of identity proofs is not admissible, and --rewriting is for the computational rules of the higher inductive types.

Style and naming conventions

General

  • Line length should be reasonably short, not much more than 80 characters (TODO: except maybe sometimes for equational reasoning?)
  • Directories are in lowercase and modules are in CamelCase
  • Types are Capitalized unless they represent properties (like is-prop)
  • Terms are in lowercase-with-hyphens-between-words unless the words refer to types.
  • Try to avoid names of free variables in identifiers
  • Pointedness and other disambiguating labels may be omitted if inferable from prefixes.

TODO: principles of variable names

Identity type

The identity type is _==_, because _=_ is not allowed in Agda. For every identifier talking about the identity type, the single symbol = is used instead, because this is allowed by Agda. For instance the introduction rule for the identity type of Σ-types is pair= and not pair==.

Truncation levels

The numbering is the homotopy-theoretic numbering, parametrized by the type TLevel or ℕ₋₂ where

data TLevel : Type₀ where
  ⟨-2⟩ : TLevel
  S : TLevel → TLevel

ℕ₋₂ = TLevel

Numeric literals (including negative ones) are overloaded. There is also explicit conversion ⟨_⟩ : ℕ → ℕ₋₂ with the obvious definition.

Properties of types

Names of the form is-X or has-X, represent properties that can hold (or not) for some type A. Such a property can be parametrized by some arguments. The property is said to hold for a type A iff is-X args A is inhabited. The types is-X args A should be (h-)propositions.

Examples:

is-contr
is-prop
is-set
has-level       -- This one has one argument of type [ℕ₋₂]
has-all-paths   -- Every two points are equal
has-dec-eq      -- Decidable equality
  • The theorem stating that some type A (perhaps with arguments) has some property is-X is named A-is-X. The arguments of A-is-X are the arguments of is-X followed by the arguments of A.
  • Theorems stating that any type satisfying is-X also satisfies is-Y are named X-is-Y (and not is-X-is-Y which would mean is-Y (is-X A)).

Examples (only the nonimplicit arguments are given)

Unit-is-contr : is-contr Unit
Bool-is-set : is-set Bool
is-contr-is-prop : is-contr (is-prop A)
contr-is-prop : is-contr A → is-prop A
dec-eq-is-set : has-dec-eq A → is-set A
contr-has-all-paths : is-contr A → has-all-paths A

The term giving the most natural truncation level to some type constructor T is called T-level:

Σ-level : (n : ℕ₋₂) → (has-level n A) → ((x : A) → has-level n (P x))
       → has-level n (Σ A P)
×-level : (n : ℕ₋₂) → (has-level n A) → (has-level n B)
       → has-level n (A × B))
Π-level : (n : ℕ₋₂) → ((x : A) → has-level n (P x))
       → has-level n (Π A P)
→-level : (n : ℕ₋₂) → (has-level n B)
       → has-level n (A → B))

Similar suffices include conn for connectivity.

Lemmas of types

Modules of the same name as a type collects useful properties given an element of that type. Records have this functionality built-in.

Functions and equivalences

  • A natural function between two types A and B is often called A-to-B
  • If f : A → B, the lemma asserting that f is an equivalence is called f-is-equiv.
  • If f : A → B, the equivalence (f , f-is-equiv) is called f-equiv.
  • As a special case of the previous point, A-to-B-equiv is usually called A-equiv-B instead.

We have

A-to-B : A → B
A-to-B-is-equiv : is-equiv (A-to-B)
A-to-B-equiv : A ≃ B
A-equiv-B : A ≃ B
A-to-B-path : A == B
A-is-B : A == B

Also for group morphisms, we have

G-to-H : G →ᴳ H
G-to-H-is-iso : is-equiv (fst G-to-H)
G-to-H-iso : G ≃ᴳ H
G-iso-H : G ≃ᴳ H

However, A-is-B can be easily confused with is-X above, so it should be used with great caution.

Another way of naming of equivalences only specifies one side. Suffixes -econv may be added for clarity. The suffix -conv refers to the derived path.

A : A == B
A-econv : A ≃ B
A-conv : A == B

TODO: pres and preserves.

TODO: -inj and -surj for injectivity and surjectivity.

TODO: -nat for naturality.

Negative types

The constructor of a record should usually be the uncapitalized name of the record. If N is a negative type (for instance a record) with introduction rule n and elimination rules e1, …, en, then

  • The identity type on N is called N=
  • The intros and elim rules for the identity type on N are called n= and e1=, …, en=
  • If necessary, the double identity type is called N== and similarly for the intros and elim.
  • The β-elimination rules for the identity type on N are called e1=-β, …, en=-β.
  • The η-expansion rule is called n=-η (TODO: maybe N=-η instead, or additionally?)
  • The equivalence/path between N= and _==_ {N} is called
  • N=-equiv/N=-path (TODO: n=-equiv/n=-path would maybe be more natural). Note that this equivalence is usually needed in the direction N= ≃ _==_ {N}

If a positive type N behaves like a negative one through some access function f : N → M, the property is called f-ext : (n₁ n₂ : N) → f n₁ = f n₂ → n₁ = n₂

Functoriality

A family of some structures indexed by another structures often behaves like a functor which maps functions between structures to functions between corresponding structures. Here is a list of standardized suffices that denote different kind of functoriality:

  • X-fmap: X maps morphisms to morphisms (covariantly or contravariantly).
  • X-csmap: X maps commuting squares to commuting squares (covariantly or contravariantly).
  • X-emap: X maps isomorphisms to isomorphisms.
  • X-isemap: Usually a part of X-emap which lifts the proof of being an isomorphism.

For types, morphisms are functions and isomorphisms are equivalences. Bi-functors are not standardized (yet).

TODO: X-fmap-id, X-fmap-∘

Precedence

Precedence convention

  1. Separators _$_ and arrows: 0
  2. Layout combinators (equational reasoning): 10-15
  3. Equalities, equivalences: 30
  4. Other relations, operators with line-level separators: 40
  5. Constructors (for example _,_): 60
  6. Binary operators (including type formers like _×_): 80
  7. Prefix operators: 100
  8. Postfix operators: 120

Inductive types and higher ones

  • See core/lib/types/Pushout.agda for an example of higher inductive types.

  • Constructors should make all the parameters implicit, and varients which make commonly specified parameters explicit should have the suffix '.

  • S0 is defined as Bool, and the circle is the suspension of Bool.

Algebraic rules

Groups

Structure of the source

The structure of the source is roughly the following:

Old code (directory old/)

The old library is still present, mainly to facilitate code transfer to the new library. Once everything has been ported to the new library, this directory will be removed.

Core library (directory core/)

The main library is more or less divided in three parts.

  • The first part is exported in the module lib.Basics and contains everything needed to make the second part compile
  • The second part is exported in the module lib.types.Types and contains everything you ever wanted to know about all type formers
  • The third part contains more advanced stuff.

The whole library is exported in the file HoTT, so every file using the library should contain open import HoTT.

TODO: describe more precisely each file

Homotopy (directory theorems/homotopy/)

This directory contains proofs of interesting homotopy-theoretic theorems.

  • 3x3/: Contains definitions and lemmas for the 3x3-lemma stating that pushouts commute with pushouts.
  • AnyUniversalCoverIsPathSet: Proves that for any universal covering F over some type A with base point a₁ : A, the fiber F.Fiber a₂ over some point a₂ : A is equivalent to a₁ =₀ a₂, the 0-truncation of the space of paths between a₁ and a₂.
  • BlakersMassey: Contains a proof of the Blakers–Massey theorem. See the paper A mechanization of the Blakers-Massey connectivity theorem in Homotopy Type Theory and Favonia's thesis.
  • blakersmassey/: Contains definitions and lemmas for BlakersMassey.agda.
  • Bouquet: Defines the bouquet of a family of circles and other families of pointed types.
  • CircleCover: Defines a type S¹Cover and proves that it is equivalent to the type Cover S¹ j of coverings of .
  • CircleHSpace: Defines ⊙S¹-hSpace : HSpaceStructure ⊙S¹.
  • CoHSpace: Defines what a CoHSpaceStructure is.
  • CofiberComp: Let f : X ⊙→ Z and g : Y ⊙→ Z be two pointed maps. This file proves that the cofiber of the composition of g and ⊙cfcod` f : Z ⊙→ ⊙Cofiber f is equivalent to the cofiber of the induced map h : X ⊙∨ Y ⊙→ Z.
  • CofiberSequence: Proves that the 5-term sequence obtained from a map f : X ⊙→ Y by repeatedly taking the map into the cofiber of the previous map is equivalent to the sequence X ⊙→⟨ f ⟩ Y ⊙→⟨ ⊙cfcod` f ⟩ ⊙Cofiber f ⊙→⟨ ⊙extract-glue ⟩ ⊙Susp X ⊙→⟨ ⊙Susp-fmap f ⟩ ⊙Susp Y ⊙⊣|.
  • Cogroup: Defines CogroupStructure, proves that such a structure on X induces a GroupStructure on X ⊙→ Y for any pointed type Y.
  • ConstantToSetExtendsToProp: Proves that any constant function f : A → B factors through a function Trunc -1 A → B.
  • DisjointlyPointedSet: Defines properties is-separable X (equality to the base point is decidable) and has-disjoint-pt (being pointedly equivalent to the coproduct of the singleton and MinusPoint X, that is X without the base point) of pointed types X and proves that they are equivalent. Also gives a pointed equivalence between ⊙Bouquet (MinusPoint X) 0, a bouquet of 0-spheres indexed by MinusPoint X and X for each pointed type X that is separable.
  • elims/: Contains proofs of elimination principles.
    • CofPushoutSection: Given a span s, in which one of the maps has a left-inverse, and a map h : Pushout s → D, proves an elimination principle for Cofiber h.
    • Lemmas: Contains technical lemmas about commutative squares over commutative squares.
    • SuspSmash: Gives an elimination principle for Susp (X ∧ Y), the suspension of the smash product.
  • EM1HSpace: Defines the HSpaceStructure on the Eilenberg–MacLane space ⊙EM₁ G for an abelian group G.
  • EilenbergMacLane: Defines the Eilenberg–MacLane spaces ⊙EM G n, proves that ⊙Ω (⊙EM G (S n)) is pointedly equivalent to ⊙EM G n for each n and that their homotopy groups are as required. See Eilenberg-MacLane Spaces in Homotopy Type Theory by Dan Licata and Eric Finster.
  • EilenbergMacLane1: Proves that the fundamental group of the Eilenberg–MacLane space ⊙EM₁ G (which is defined as a HIT) is in fact G.
  • FiberOfWedgeToProduct: Let X of Y be two types with basepoints x₀ and y₀. This contains a proof that the fiber of the induced map X ∨ Y → X × Y over a point (x , y) is equivalent to the join (x₀ == x) * (y₀ == y).
  • FinWedge: Contains helper functions and lemmas for dealing with wedges indexed over Fin I for some I : ℕ.
  • Freudenthal: Proves the Freudenthal suspension theorem.
  • GroupSetsRepresentCovers: Let X be a 0-connected type. This file gives an equivalence between coverings of X and πS 0 X-sets (where πS 0 X is the fundamental group of X).
  • HSpace: Contains definition(s) of H-spaces and some basic lemmas.
  • Hopf: Proves that the total space of the Hopf fibration is .
  • HopfConstruction: Given a 0-connected H-space X, constructs a fibration H on Susp A with total space equivalent to the join X * X.
  • HopfJunior: Contains HopfJunior : S¹ → Type₀, a fibration with fibers equivalent to Bool (a.k.a. the 0-sphere) and a proof that its total space is (equivalent to) .
  • IterSuspensionStable: Contains a reformulation of the Freudenthal suspension theorem.
  • JoinAssoc3x3: Gives an equivalence between the joins (A * B) * C and A * (B * C). The proof uses the 3x3-lemma.
  • JoinAssocCubical: Gives an equivalence between the joins (A * B) * C and A * (B * C). The proof involves squares and cubes.
  • JoinComm: Gives an equivalence between the joins A * B and B * A.
  • JoinSusp: Contains equivalences Bool * A ≃ Susp A, Susp A * B ≃ Susp (A * B) and ⊙Sphere m ⊙* X ⊙≃ ⊙Susp^ (S m) X ((m+1)-fold suspension is equivalent to joining with an m-sphere).
  • LoopSpaceCircle: Proves that the fundamental group of the circle is equivalent to the integers.
  • ModalWedgeExtension: Lemmas about modalities and the function X ∨ Y → X × Y for pointed types X and Y.
  • PathSetIsInitalCover: Proves that the covering constructed from the path set of a type X is initial in the category of coverings of X.
  • Pi2HSusp: Given an H-space X, constructs an isomorphism π₂-Susp : πS 1 (⊙Susp X) ≃ᴳ πS 0 X between the fundamental group of X and the second homotopy group of its suspension.
  • PinSn: Proves that the n-th homotopy group of the n-sphere is isomorphic to the integers.
  • PropJoinProp: Proves that if A and B are propositions, then so is A * B.
  • PtdAdjoint: Defines what a endofunctor of the category of pointed spaces is, gives two definitions of adjointness of such functors via unit and counit morphisms and via equivalence of Hom-types and constructs equivalence between the definitions. Also proves that right adjoints preserve products and left adjoints preserve wedges.
  • PtdMapSequence: Defines data types representing sequences of pointed maps and maps between them.
  • PushoutSplit: Shows one direction of the pasting law for pushouts, namely the fact that if you compose pushout squares you get another pushout square.
  • RelativelyConstantToSetExtendsViaSurjection: Given a surjective function f : A → B, a type family C : B → Type k of sets and a dependent function g : (a : A) → C (f a) such that g agree g-is-const : ∀ a₁ a₂ → (p : f a₁ == f a₂) → g a₁ == g a₂ [ C ↓ p ], shows that there is a function ext : (b : B) → C (f a) such that g is equal to ext ∘ f.
  • RibbonCover: Constructs a covering of a type X given a set with an action of the fundamental group of X on it. Used to prove an equivalence between such sets and coverings if X is connected in GroupSetsRepresentCovers.
  • SmashIsCofiber: Proves that the smash product Smash X Y of two pointed types X and Y is equivalent to the cofiber of the induced map A ∨ B → A × B.
  • SpaceFromGroups: Given an infinite sequence of groups, all abelian except maybe the first, constructs a type with these groups as its homotopy groups.
  • SphereEndomorphism: Proves that the types of endomaps of a sphere and the type of basepoint-preserving such endomaps become equivalent when 0-truncated. Also proves that suspension induces an equivalence between the set of endomaps of the n-sphere and the set of endomaps of the S n-sphere for positive n.
  • SuspAdjointLoop: Defines the suspension and the loop functor and proves that they are adjoint.
  • SuspAdjointLoopLadder: Proves naturality in the covariant argument of the adjunction between the iterated suspension and the iterated loop space when phrased in terms of Hom-types.
  • SuspProduct: Proves that ⊙Susp (X ⊙× Y) ⊙≃ ⊙Susp X ⊙∨ (⊙Susp Y ⊙∨ ⊙Susp (X ⊙∧ Y)).
  • SuspSectionDecomp: Let f : X → Y be a pointed section of g : Y → X. Then there is an equivalence Susp (de⊙ Y) ≃ ⊙Susp X ∨ ⊙Susp (⊙Cofiber ⊙f) between the suspension of Y and the wedge sum of the suspensions of X and the cofiber of f. This can be interpreted as a splitting in the part ΣX → ΣY → Σcofib(f) of the cofiber sequence of f.
  • SuspSmash: Gives an equivalence ⊙Susp (⊙Smash X Y) ⊙≃ (X ⊙* Y) between the suspension of the smash product and the join of two pointed types.
  • TruncationLoopLadder: Proves the naturality of the equivalence of the 0-truncation of the m-fold loop space and the m-fold loop space of the m-truncation.
  • VanKampen: Proves the improved version of the Seifert–van Kampen theorem for calculating the fundamental groupoid of a pushout from Favonia's thesis.
  • vankampen/: Contains definitions and lemmas for VanKampen.agda.
  • WedgeCofiber: Shows that the cofiber space of winl : X → X ∨ Y is equivalent to Y and the cofiber space of winr : Y → X ∨ Y is equivalent to X.
  • WedgeExtension: Proves the wedge connectivity lemma from the HoTT book (lemma 8.6.2), which basically says that given an n-connected pointed type A and an m-connected pointed type B a function h : (w : A ∨ B) → P (∨-to-× w), where P : A × B → Type is a family of (n+m)-types, extends along ∨-to-× : A ∨ B → A × B.

Cohomology (directory theorems/cohomology/)

This directory contains proofs of interesting cohomology-theoretic theorems. Many results in this directory are described in Evan Cavallo's thesis.

  • Bouquet: Shows that the cohomology in degree n of a bouquet of n-spheres indexed by a type I, which has choice, is isomorphic to the product of I copies of C2 0 (the 0-th cohomology of the 0-sphere) for an ordinary cohomology theory.
  • ChainComplex: Defines the data types of (co)chain complexes and equivalences between them, defines their (co)homology groups and proves that equivalences between complex induce equivalences between their cohomology groups.
  • CoHSpace: Contains simple lemmas about the cohomology of co-H-spaces.
  • Cogroup: Given a type X with a cogroup structure and a type Y, proves that the map (X ⊙→ Y) → (C n Y →ᴳ C n X) is a group homomorphism for any cohomology theory C.
  • Coproduct: Proves that C n (X ⊙⊔ Y) ≃ᴳ C n (X ⊙∨ Y) ×ᴳ C2 n (where C2 n is the n-th cohomology of the 0-sphere) for any cohomology theory C.
  • DisjointlyPointedSet: Shows that the cohomology of a separable pointed set X, which has choice, is the MinusPoint X-fold product of C2 0 (the 0-th cohomology of the 0-sphere) in degree 0 and trivial in higher degrees for any ordinary cohomology theory C.
  • EMModel: Constructs the Eilenberg–MacLane spectrum given an abelian group and shows that its induced cohomology theory is ordinary.
  • InverseInSusp: Shows that the homomorphism Cⁿ(ΣX) → Cⁿ(ΣX) mapping an element to its inverse is induced by a map ΣX → ΣX.
  • LongExactSequence: Given a map f : X → Y, constructs the sequence Cⁿ(Y) → Cⁿ(X) → Cⁿ⁺¹(cofib(f)) → Cⁿ⁺¹(Y) → ⋯ and shows that it is exact.
  • MayerVietoris: Given a pointed span X ←f– Z –g→ Y, shows the cofiber space of the natural map reglue : X ∨ Y → X ⊔_Z Y is equivalent to the suspension of Z. Using this equivalence one can derive the Mayer–Vietoris sequence from the long exact sequence associated with reglue.
  • PtdMapSequence: Functions for applying a cohomology theory to a sequence of pointed maps, producing a sequence of group homomorphisms.
  • RephraseSubFinCoboundary: Gives a description the homomorphism induced in cohomology by a map from a bouquet of (n+1)-spheres to the suspension of a bouquet of n-spheres in terms of mapping degrees. This is used for defining cellular cohomology.
  • Sigma: Constructs an isomorphism C n (⊙Σ X Y) ≃ᴳ C n (⊙BigWedge Y) ×ᴳ C n X for a type X, a family Y : X → Ptd i and any cohomology theory C.
  • SpectrumModel: Shows that a spectrum induces a cohomology theory.
  • Sphere: Shows that the cohomology of the m-sphere is C2 0 (the 0-cohomology of the 0-sphere) in degree m and trivial in other degrees for any ordinary cohomology theory.
  • SphereEndomorphism: Proves that the map C n (⊙Sphere (S m)) C → n (⊙Sphere (S m)) induced by a map f : ⊙Sphere (S m) ⊙→ ⊙Sphere (S m) is given by multiplication with the degree of f.
  • SphereProduct: Gives an isomorphism C n (⊙Sphere m ⊙× X) ≃ᴳ C n (⊙Lift (⊙Sphere m)) ×ᴳ (C n X ×ᴳ C n (⊙Susp^ m X)) for calculating the cohomology of the product of the m-sphere and X for any pointed type X and any cohomology theory.
  • SubFinBouquet: Constructs an explicit inverse to the function from the cohomology of the wedge of m-spheres indexed over a subfinite type B to the product (indexed over B) of the 0-th cohomology groups of the 0-sphere.
  • SubFinWedge: Constructs an explicit inverse to the function from the cohomology of the wedge of a (sub)finite family of pointed types to the product of the cohomologies of the pointed types.
  • Theory: Defines a data type CohomologyTheory of cohomology theories fulfilling some axioms similar to the Eilenberg–Steenrod axioms and proves some basic consequences of these axioms.
  • Torus: Contains a computation of the cohomology of the n-torus.
  • Wedge: Gives an isomorphism between Cⁿ(X ∨ Y) and Cⁿ(X) × Cⁿ(Y) (“finite additivity”) without using the additivity axiom and shows that e.g. the projection map to Cⁿ(X) is induced by the inclusion of X in X ∨ Y and similarly for other maps.

CW complexes (directory theorems/cw/)

This directory contains proofs of interesting theorems about CW complexes.

TODO: describe more precisely each file

Experimental and unfinished (directory stash/)

This directory contains experimental or unfinished work.

Citation

@online{hott-in:agda,
  author={Guillaume Brunerie
    and Kuen-Bang {Hou (Favonia)}
    and Evan Cavallo
    and Tim Baumann
    and Eric Finster
    and Jesper Cockx
    and Christian Sattler
    and Chris Jeris
    and Michael Shulman
    and others},
  title={Homotopy Type Theory in {A}gda},
  url={https://github.com/HoTT/HoTT-Agda}
}

Names are roughly sorted by the amount of contributed code, with the founder Guillaume always staying on the top. List of contribution (possibly outdated or incorrect):

  • Guillaume Brunerie: the foundation, pi1s1, 3x3 lemma, many more
  • Favonia: covering space, Blakers-Massey, van Kampen, cohomology
  • Evan Cavallo: cubical reasoning, cohomology, Mayer-Vietoris
  • Tim Baumann: cup product
  • Eric Finster: modalities
  • Jesper Cockx: rewrite rules
  • Christian Sattler: updates to equivalence and univalence
  • Chris Jeris: Eckmann-Hilton argument
  • Michael Shulman: updates to equivalence and univalence

License

This work is released under MIT license. See LICENSE.md.

Acknowledgments

This material was sponsored by the National Science Foundation under grant numbers CCF-1116703 and DMS-1638352; Air Force Office of Scientific Research under grant numbers FA-95501210370 and FA-95501510053. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the author and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of any sponsoring institution, the U.S. government or any other entity.