IBM Cloud Functions building block - HTTP REST Trigger - This project provides a starting point for handling events from REST API calls with IBM Cloud Functions powered by Apache OpenWhisk.
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README.md

Triggering IBM Cloud Functions on HTTP REST API calls

Read this in other languages: 한국어.

Create REST API mappings with IBM Cloud Functions powered by Apache OpenWhisk. This tutorial should take about 5 minutes to complete. After this, move on to more complex serverless applications such as those tagged openwhisk-hands-on-demo.

Sample Architecture

If you're not familiar with the Cloud Functions/OpenWhisk programming model try the action, trigger, and rule sample first. You'll need an IBM Cloud account and the latest OpenWhisk (bx wsk) or IBM Cloud command line plugin (bx bx wsk).

This example provides two REST endpoints for HTTP POST and GET methods that are mapped to corresponding create-cat and fetch-cat Cloud Functions (OpenWhisk actions).

  1. Create Cloud Functions
  2. Create REST endpoints
  3. Clean up

1. Create Cloud Functions

Create an action to create a cat entity

Create a file named create-cat.js. This file will define an action written as a JavaScript function. It checks for the required parameters(name and color) and returns a unique identifier for the cat, or an error if either parameter is missing.

Note: This example is simplified, and does not connect to a backend datastore. For a more sophisticated example, check out this REST API example.

function main(params) {

  return new Promise(function(resolve, reject) {

    if (!params.name) {
      reject({
        'error': 'name parameter not set.'
      });
    } else {
      resolve({
        id: 1
      });
    }

  });

}

Create an action to return a cat entity

Create a file named fetch-cat.js. This file will define another action written as a JavaScript function. It checks for the required parameter(id) and returns Tahoma, the tabby colored cat.

Note: Again, for the purpose of this simplified demo we always return Tahoma the cat, rather than connecting to a backend datastore.

function main(params) {

  return new Promise(function(resolve, reject) {

    if (!params.id) {
      reject({
        'error': 'id parameter not set.'
      });
    } else {
      resolve({
        id: params.id,
        name: 'Tahoma',
        color: 'Tabby'
      });
    }

  });

}

Upload the actions

The next step will be to deploy Cloud Functions from the JavaScript files that we just created. We also add the --web true flag, to annotate these actions as "Web Actions". This will be necessary later when we add REST endpoints as it makes the actions HTTP-aware.

bx wsk action create create-cat create-cat.js --web true
bx wsk action create fetch-cat fetch-cat.js --web true

Unit test the actions

Cloud Functions (OpenWhisk actions) are stateless code snippets that can be invoked explicitly or in response to an event. For right now, we will test our actions by explicitly invoking them. Later, we will trigger our actions in response to an HTTP request. Invoke the actions using the code below and pass the parameters using the --param command line argument.

bx wsk action invoke \
  --blocking \
  --param name Tahoma \
  --param color Tabby \
  create-cat

bx wsk action invoke \
  --blocking \
  --param id 1 \
  fetch-cat

Note: If you see any error messages, refer to the Troubleshooting section below.

2. Create REST endpoints

Create POST and GET REST mappings for /v1/cat endpoint

Now that we have our Cloud Functions created, we will expose them through the Bluemix API Gateway. To do this we use: bx wsk api create $BASE_PATH $API_PATH $API_VERB $ACTION

This feature is part of the IBM Cloud Native API Management service and currently supports very powerful API management features like security, rate limiting, and more. For now though we're just using the CLI to expose our action with a public REST endpoint.

# Exposes POST /v1/cat {"name": "Tahoma", "color": "Tabby"}
bx wsk api create -n "Cats API" /v1 /cat post create-cat

# Exposes /v1/cat?id=1
bx wsk api create /v1 /cat get fetch-cat

In both cases, the CLI will output the URL required to use the API. Make note of it for the next section.

Test with curl HTTP requests

Take note of the API URL that is generated from the previous command. Send an HTTP POST and GET request using curl to test the actions. Remember to send the required parameters in the body of the request for POST, or as path parameters for GET. The IBM Cloud Functions system automatically forwards these parameters to the actions we created.

# POST /v1/cat {"name": "Tahoma", "color": "Tabby"}
curl -X POST -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -d '{"name":"Tahoma","color":"Tabby"}' $THE_URL_FROM_ABOVE

# GET /v1/cat?id=1
curl $THE_URL_FROM_ABOVE?id=1

3. Clean up

Remove the API mappings and delete the actions

# Remove API base which removes all the mappings
bx wsk api delete /v1

# Remove actions
bx wsk action delete create-cat
bx wsk action delete fetch-cat

Troubleshooting

Check for errors first in the Cloud Functions activation log. Tail the log on the command line with bx wsk activation poll or drill into details visually with the Cloud Functions monitoring console.

If the error is not immediately obvious, make sure you have the latest version of the bx wsk CLI installed. If it's older than a few weeks, download an update.

bx wsk property get --cliversion

License

Apache 2.0