Requirements and recomendations

Knut Jetlund edited this page May 7, 2018 · 2 revisions


Several ISO/TC211 standards and technical specifications have relevant rules and recomendations for UML modelling. Some of the rules and recomendations are included in descriptions on this wiki, but anyone working with UML models for geographic information should know the main documents.

19103 - Conceptual schema language

ISO 19103:2015 provides rules and guidelines for the use of a conceptual schema language within the ISO geographic information standards. The chosen conceptual schema language is the Unified Modeling Language (UML).

The standard contains a UML profile with requirements and recomendations for:

  • General usage of UML
  • Classes
  • Attributes
  • Data types
  • Operations
  • Relationships and associations
  • Optional, conditional and mandatory attributes and associations
  • Naming and namespaces
  • Packages
  • Notes
  • Constrainst
  • Documentation of models

19109 - Rules for application schema

ISO 19109:2015 defines rules and recomendations for creating and documenting application schemas, including principles for the definition of features. The focus is on: conceptual modelling of features and their properties from a universe of discourse;

  • Definition of application schemas
  • Use of the conceptual schema language for application schemas
  • Transition from the concepts in the conceptual model to the data types in the application schema
  • Integration of standardized schemas from other ISO geographic information standards with the application schema

19136 - GML (Annex E)

ISO19136:2007 defines the XML Schema syntax, mechanisms and conventions for the Geography Markup Language (GML). The normative Annex E in ISO19136:2007 contains rules that aim at an automatic mapping from an ISO 19109 and ISO/TS 19103 conformant UML application schema to a GML application schema. The annex describes encoding rules for:

  • Application schemas and packages
  • Classes
  • Attributes
  • Associations and association ends

19139 - XML Schema Implementation

ISO/TS 19139:2007 defines Geographic MetaData XML (gmd) encoding, an XML Schema implementation derived from ISO 19115. It contains general rules for mapping from UML to XML that are useful for XML implementation of other standards as well.

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