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#!/usr/bin/env python
# Copyright (C) 2008 Instituto Nokia de Tecnologia. All rights reserved.
# Contact: Ian Lawrence
# This software, including documentation, is protected by copyright
# controlled by Instituto Nokia de Tecnologia. All rights are reserved.
# Copying, including reproducing, storing, adapting or translating, any
# or all of this material requires the prior written consent of
# Instituto Nokia de Tecnologia. This material also contains
# confidential information which may not be disclosed to others without
# the prior written consent of Instituto Nokia de Tecnologia.
A set of functions for quick analysis of an investment
opportunity and a series of projected cashflows.
For further details and pros/cons of each function please refer
to the respective wikipedia page:
net present value
internal rate of return
efficiency of investment
net present value/cost -> the return to be expected per unit of investment
Works according to
import sys, locale
def payback_of_investment(investment, cashflows):
"""The payback period refers to the length of time required
for an investment to have its initial cost recovered.
>>> payback_of_investment(200.0, [60.0, 60.0, 70.0, 90.0])
total, years, cumulative = 0.0, 0, []
if not cashflows or (sum(cashflows) < investment):
raise Exception("insufficient cashflows")
for cashflow in cashflows:
total += cashflow
if total < investment:
years += 1
A = years
B = investment - cumulative[years-1]
C = cumulative[years] - cumulative[years-1]
return A + (B/C)
def payback(cashflows):
"""The payback period refers to the length of time required
for an investment to have its initial cost recovered.
(This version accepts a list of cashflows)
>>> payback([-200.0, 60.0, 60.0, 70.0, 90.0])
investment, cashflows = cashflows[0], cashflows[1:]
if investment < 0 : investment = -investment
return payback_of_investment(investment, cashflows)
def npv(rate, cashflows):
"""The total present value of a time series of cash flows.
>>> npv(0.1, [-100.0, 60.0, 60.0, 60.0])
total = 0.0
for i, cashflow in enumerate(cashflows):
total += cashflow / (1 + rate)**i
return total
def irr(cashflows, iterations=100):
"""The IRR or Internal Rate of Return is the annualized effective
compounded return rate which can be earned on the invested
capital, i.e., the yield on the investment.
>>> irr([-100.0, 60.0, 60.0, 60.0])
rate = 1.0
investment = cashflows[0]
for i in range(1, iterations+1):
rate *= (1 - npv(rate, cashflows) / investment)
return rate
# enable placing commas in thousands
locale.setlocale(locale.LC_ALL, "")
# convenience function to place commas in thousands
format = lambda x: locale.format('%d', x, True)
def investment_analysis(discount_rate, cashflows, resources):
"""Provides summary investment analysis on a list of cashflows
and a discount_rate.
Assumes that the first element of the list (i.e. at period 0)
is the initial investment with a negative float value."""
NPV = npv(discount_rate, cashflows)
#ts = [('year', 'cashflow')] + [(str(x), format(y)) for (x,y) in zip(
# range(len(cashflows)), cashflows)]
IRR = (irr(cashflows) * 100)
IE = (NPV/resources)
return (IRR, NPV, IE)
"""print "-" * 70
for y,c in ts:
print y + (len(c) - len(y) + 1)*' ',
for y,c in ts:
print c + ' ',
print "Discount Rate: %.1f%%" % (discount_rate * 100)
print "Remaining Expenses: %s" % resources
#print "Payback: %.2f years" % payback(cashflows)
print " IRR: %.2f%%" % (irr(cashflows) * 100)
print " NPV: %s" % format(_npv)
print " IE: %s" % (_npv/resources)
print "==> %s opportunity which has a one time fixed cost of %s" % (
("Approve this" if _npv > 0 else "Do Not Approve this"), format(-cashflows[0]))
print "-" * 70"""
def main(inputs):
"""commandline entry point
usage = '''Provides analysis of a business opportunity from a series of cashflows.
usage: juiz WACC [cashflow0, cashflow1, ..., cashflowN] Remaining Expenses
WACC is Weighted Average Cost of Capital
cashflow0 is the investment amount (always a negative value)
cashflow1 .. cashflowN values can be positive (net inflows)
negative (net outflows)
Remaining Expenses is the capital which remains to be spent on the project
for example:
./ 0.09 -849600 4332568.47 1299000"""
rate, cashflows, resources = inputs[0], inputs[1:-1], inputs[-1]
investment_analysis(float(rate), [float(c) for c in cashflows], float(resources))
except IndexError:
print usage
if __name__ == '__main__':
debug = False
if debug:
import doctest