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View的invalidate传递与绘制流程分析

上一篇文章自定义View——View的弹性滑动中,我们对View的滑动进行了实战以及简单分析。但在文章的最后,仍然遗留了两个问题,第一个是invalidate与postInvalidate有什么区别呢?第二个是invalidate是如何调用computeScroll()方法的呢?这两个问题将在这一篇文章中进行分析。

自定义View系列目录

一、invalidate与postInvalidate

invalidate与postInvadlidate都是用于请求View重绘的API,invalidate在主线程中进行调用,而postInvadlidate则在子线程中进行调用。
我们来分析下postInvadlidate的源码 :

public void postInvalidate() {
    postInvalidateDelayed(0);
}

postInvalidate()蒋会调用postInvalidateDelayed(0)方法,继续跟进。

public void postInvalidateDelayed(long delayMilliseconds) {
    final AttachInfo attachInfo = mAttachInfo;
    if (attachInfo != null) {
        attachInfo.mViewRootImpl.dispatchInvalidateDelayed(this, delayMilliseconds);
    }
}

postInvalidateDelayed方法,通过attachInfo获取到当前的ViewRootImpl对象,调用它的dispatchInvalidateDelayed方法

public void dispatchInvalidateDelayed(View view, long delayMilliseconds) {
    Message msg = mHandler.obtainMessage(MSG_INVALIDATE, view);
    mHandler.sendMessageDelayed(msg, delayMilliseconds);
}

从上面的源码已经可以看出,postInvalidate的子线程这一个特性了。再继续跟下去看看。

@Override
public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
    switch (msg.what) {
    case MSG_INVALIDATE:
        ((View) msg.obj).invalidate();
        break;

	...
	}
}

代码跟到这里,也就明白了,postInvalidate通过sendMessageDelayed的方法,加入到了looper中,之后在handleMessage中再调用对应View的invalidate()方法,请求View重绘。

二、invalidate流程分析

现在我们来看看invalidate是如何让View进行重绘的呢?
(PS:我这里使用的API版本为23,具体的代码可能和其他的版本有稍许不同)

1、invalidate的请求传递

我们的旅程从View的invalidate传递过程开始

现在来看看View#invalidate()方法。

public void invalidate() {
    invalidate(true);
}

void invalidate(boolean invalidateCache) {
    invalidateInternal(0, 0, mRight - mLeft, mBottom - mTop, invalidateCache, true);
}

invalidate调用View#invalidateInternal方法传入当前View的位置参数。

void invalidateInternal(int l, int t, int r, int b, boolean invalidateCache,
        boolean fullInvalidate) {

	// 如果View重绘,则它也将重绘
    if (mGhostView != null) {
        mGhostView.invalidate(true);
        return;
    }

	// View是否可见,是否在动画运行中
    if (skipInvalidate()) {
        return;
    }

	// 根据View的标记来判断View是否需要进行重绘
    if ((mPrivateFlags & (PFLAG_DRAWN | PFLAG_HAS_BOUNDS)) == (PFLAG_DRAWN | PFLAG_HAS_BOUNDS)
            || (invalidateCache && (mPrivateFlags & PFLAG_DRAWING_CACHE_VALID) == PFLAG_DRAWING_CACHE_VALID)
            || (mPrivateFlags & PFLAG_INVALIDATED) != PFLAG_INVALIDATED
            || (fullInvalidate && isOpaque() != mLastIsOpaque)) {
        if (fullInvalidate) {
            mLastIsOpaque = isOpaque();
            mPrivateFlags &= ~PFLAG_DRAWN;
        }

		// 设置标志,表明View正在被重绘
        mPrivateFlags |= PFLAG_DIRTY;
		//清除缓存,设置标志,表明重绘由当前View发起
        if (invalidateCache) {
            mPrivateFlags |= PFLAG_INVALIDATED;
            mPrivateFlags &= ~PFLAG_DRAWING_CACHE_VALID;
        }
        // 把需要重绘的View区域传递给父View
        final AttachInfo ai = mAttachInfo;
        final ViewParent p = mParent;
        if (p != null && ai != null && l < r && t < b) {
            final Rect damage = ai.mTmpInvalRect;
			// 设置重绘区域
            damage.set(l, t, r, b);
			// 关键代码,调用父View的方法,向上传递重绘事件
            p.invalidateChild(this, damage);
        }
        ...
    }
}

上述代码中,会判断当前View的状态,是否需要进行重绘,之后设置一系列标记位。通过父View的invalidateChild(this, damage)方法,将需要重绘的区域传递给父View。
接着来看下ViewGroup#invalidateChild方法,这里仅截取了其中的主要代码

public final void invalidateChild(View child, final Rect dirty) {
    ViewParent parent = this;
    final AttachInfo attachInfo = mAttachInfo;
    if (attachInfo != null) {
        ...
		// 保存子View的left、top
		final int[] location = attachInfo.mInvalidateChildLocation;
		location[CHILD_LEFT_INDEX] = child.mLeft;
		location[CHILD_TOP_INDEX] = child.mTop;
        if (!childMatrix.isIdentity() ||
                (mGroupFlags & ViewGroup.FLAG_SUPPORT_STATIC_TRANSFORMATIONS) != 0) {
            RectF boundingRect = attachInfo.mTmpTransformRect;
            boundingRect.set(dirty);
            Matrix transformMatrix;
            if ((mGroupFlags & ViewGroup.FLAG_SUPPORT_STATIC_TRANSFORMATIONS) != 0) {
                Transformation t = attachInfo.mTmpTransformation;
                boolean transformed = getChildStaticTransformation(child, t);
                if (transformed) {
                    transformMatrix = attachInfo.mTmpMatrix;
                    transformMatrix.set(t.getMatrix());
                    if (!childMatrix.isIdentity()) {
                        transformMatrix.preConcat(childMatrix);
                    }
                } else {
                    transformMatrix = childMatrix;
                }
            } else {
                transformMatrix = childMatrix;
            }
            transformMatrix.mapRect(boundingRect);
			// 设置需要重绘的区域
            dirty.set((int) (boundingRect.left - 0.5f),
                    (int) (boundingRect.top - 0.5f),
                    (int) (boundingRect.right + 0.5f),
                    (int) (boundingRect.bottom + 0.5f));
        }
		// 这里的do...while方法,让view可以不断的去调用父类的
		// invalidateChildInParent方法,来传递重绘请求
        do {
            View view = null;
            if (parent instanceof View) {
                view = (View) parent;
            }
            if (drawAnimation) {
                if (view != null) {
                    view.mPrivateFlags |= PFLAG_DRAW_ANIMATION;
                } else if (parent instanceof ViewRootImpl) {
                    ((ViewRootImpl) parent).mIsAnimating = true;
                }
            }
            // If the parent is dirty opaque or not dirty, mark it dirty with the opaque
            // flag coming from the child that initiated the invalidate
            if (view != null) {
                if ((view.mViewFlags & FADING_EDGE_MASK) != 0 &&
                        view.getSolidColor() == 0) {
                    opaqueFlag = PFLAG_DIRTY;
                }
                if ((view.mPrivateFlags & PFLAG_DIRTY_MASK) != PFLAG_DIRTY) {
                    view.mPrivateFlags = (view.mPrivateFlags & ~PFLAG_DIRTY_MASK) | opaqueFlag;
                }
            }
			// 这里是关键代码,他会调用父类的
            parent = parent.invalidateChildInParent(location, dirty);
            if (view != null) {
                // Account for transform on current parent
                Matrix m = view.getMatrix();
                if (!m.isIdentity()) {
                    RectF boundingRect = attachInfo.mTmpTransformRect;
                    boundingRect.set(dirty);
                    m.mapRect(boundingRect);
                    dirty.set((int) (boundingRect.left - 0.5f),
                            (int) (boundingRect.top - 0.5f),
                            (int) (boundingRect.right + 0.5f),
                            (int) (boundingRect.bottom + 0.5f));
                }
            }
        } while (parent != null);
    }
}

上述代码中,设置了需要重绘的区域dirty。之后再do...while方法中,反复的调用**parent = parent.invalidateChildInParent(location, dirty)**方法,来调用父类的invalidateChildInParent对View的重绘请求进行传递。这里的parent有可能是ViewGroup,也有可能是ViewRoot,我们先来看看ViewGroup#invalidateChildInParent方法

public ViewParent invalidateChildInParent(final int[] location, final Rect dirty) {
    if ((mPrivateFlags & PFLAG_DRAWN) == PFLAG_DRAWN ||
            (mPrivateFlags & PFLAG_DRAWING_CACHE_VALID) == PFLAG_DRAWING_CACHE_VALID) {
        if ((mGroupFlags & (FLAG_OPTIMIZE_INVALIDATE | FLAG_ANIMATION_DONE)) !=
                    FLAG_OPTIMIZE_INVALIDATE) {
			// 子View中的布局位置转换为父View中的布局位置
            dirty.offset(location[CHILD_LEFT_INDEX] - mScrollX,
                    location[CHILD_TOP_INDEX] - mScrollY);
            if ((mGroupFlags & FLAG_CLIP_CHILDREN) == 0) {
				// 合并绘制区域集合
                dirty.union(0, 0, mRight - mLeft, mBottom - mTop);
            }
            final int left = mLeft;
            final int top = mTop;
            if ((mGroupFlags & FLAG_CLIP_CHILDREN) == FLAG_CLIP_CHILDREN) {
                if (!dirty.intersect(0, 0, mRight - left, mBottom - top)) {
                    dirty.setEmpty();
                }
            }
            mPrivateFlags &= ~PFLAG_DRAWING_CACHE_VALID;
            location[CHILD_LEFT_INDEX] = left;
            location[CHILD_TOP_INDEX] = top;
            if (mLayerType != LAYER_TYPE_NONE) {
                mPrivateFlags |= PFLAG_INVALIDATED;
            }
            return mParent;
        } else {
            mPrivateFlags &= ~PFLAG_DRAWN & ~PFLAG_DRAWING_CACHE_VALID;
            location[CHILD_LEFT_INDEX] = mLeft;
            location[CHILD_TOP_INDEX] = mTop;
            if ((mGroupFlags & FLAG_CLIP_CHILDREN) == FLAG_CLIP_CHILDREN) {
                dirty.set(0, 0, mRight - mLeft, mBottom - mTop);
            } else {
                // in case the dirty rect extends outside the bounds of this container
                dirty.union(0, 0, mRight - mLeft, mBottom - mTop);
            }
            if (mLayerType != LAYER_TYPE_NONE) {
                mPrivateFlags |= PFLAG_INVALIDATED;
            }
            return mParent;
        }
    }
    return null;
}

在上述代码中,将会使用offset,把子View需要重绘的坐标区域转换为父View中的坐标区域。之后使用union对子View与父View的区域进行集合运算,获得需要绘制的区域。
接下来我们再来看看ViewRoot#invalidateChildInParent方法,ViewRoot并不是View,ViewRoot的实现类为ViewRootImpl,我们来看下它的invalidateChildInParent方法。

@Override
public ViewParent invalidateChildInParent(int[] location, Rect dirty) {
	// 检查线程是否为创建View的线程,即创建View的线程中是否含有此ViewRootImpl
    checkThread();
    if (DEBUG_DRAW) Log.v(TAG, "Invalidate child: " + dirty);
	// 检查重绘区域
    if (dirty == null) {
        invalidate();
        return null;
    } else if (dirty.isEmpty() && !mIsAnimating) {
        return null;
    }
	// 动画和滑动的检查设置
    if (mCurScrollY != 0 || mTranslator != null) {
        mTempRect.set(dirty);
        dirty = mTempRect;
        if (mCurScrollY != 0) {
            dirty.offset(0, -mCurScrollY);
        }
        if (mTranslator != null) {
            mTranslator.translateRectInAppWindowToScreen(dirty);
        }
        if (mAttachInfo.mScalingRequired) {
            dirty.inset(-1, -1);
        }
    }
    invalidateRectOnScreen(dirty);
    return null;
}

private void invalidateRectOnScreen(Rect dirty) {
    ...
    if (!mWillDrawSoon && (intersected || mIsAnimating)) {
		//关键代码,ViewTree列表
        scheduleTraversals();
    }
}

上述代码中,进入之后会线程以及重绘区域的检查,之后调用invalidateRectOnScreen方法,然后调用scheduleTraversals()方法。

来继续看看ViewRootImpl#scheduleTraversals()。

void scheduleTraversals() {
    if (!mTraversalScheduled) {
        mTraversalScheduled = true;
		// handler消息传递绘制请求
        mTraversalBarrier = mHandler.getLooper().getQueue().postSyncBarrier();
        mChoreographer.postCallback(
                Choreographer.CALLBACK_TRAVERSAL, mTraversalRunnable, null);
        if (!mUnbufferedInputDispatch) {
            scheduleConsumeBatchedInput();
        }
        notifyRendererOfFramePending();
        pokeDrawLockIfNeeded();
    }
}


final TraversalRunnable mTraversalRunnable = new TraversalRunnable();

final class TraversalRunnable implements Runnable {
    @Override
    public void run() {
        doTraversal();
    }
}

void doTraversal() {
    if (mTraversalScheduled) {
        mTraversalScheduled = false;
        mHandler.getLooper().getQueue().removeSyncBarrier(mTraversalBarrier);
        if (mProfile) {
            Debug.startMethodTracing("ViewAncestor");
        }
		// 关键代码,执行ViewTree遍历
        performTraversals();
        if (mProfile) {
            Debug.stopMethodTracing();
            mProfile = false;
        }
    }
}

上述代码中,将会之后handler,之后会调用mTraversalRunnable类,从而调用doTraversal方法,最后调用performTraversals()执行ViewTree的遍历。

现在继续查看ViewRootImpl#performTraversals()方法。

private void performTraversals() {
	...
    if (!cancelDraw && !newSurface) {
        if (!skipDraw || mReportNextDraw) {
            if (mPendingTransitions != null && mPendingTransitions.size() > 0) {
                for (int i = 0; i < mPendingTransitions.size(); ++i) {
                    mPendingTransitions.get(i).startChangingAnimations();
                }
                mPendingTransitions.clear();
            }
			// 关键代码
            performDraw();
        }
    } 
	...
}

private void performDraw() {
    ...
	final boolean fullRedrawNeeded = mFullRedrawNeeded;
    mFullRedrawNeeded = false;
    mIsDrawing = true;
    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_VIEW, "draw");
    try {
		// 关键代码
        draw(fullRedrawNeeded);
    } finally {
        mIsDrawing = false;
        Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_VIEW);
    }
    ...
}

在其中进行View的是否可见,是否为surfasce,是否正在绘制,是否存在于删除列表中等判断,之后调用performDraw()开始执行绘制。在performDraw()又调用了ViewRootImpl的draw方法,并传递了fullRedrawNeeded参数,此参数源自mFullRedrawNeeded成员变量,用于表示是否需要重新绘制全部的View。现在继续看看ViewRootImpl#draw源码。

private void draw(boolean fullRedrawNeeded) {
    Surface surface = mSurface;
    ...
	// 获取mDirty,该值表示需要重绘的区域
    final Rect dirty = mDirty;
    if (mSurfaceHolder != null) {
        // The app owns the surface, we won't draw.
        dirty.setEmpty();
        if (animating) {
            if (mScroller != null) {
                mScroller.abortAnimation();
            }
            disposeResizeBuffer();
        }
        return;
    }
	// 如果为ture,则设置dirty区域为全屏
    if (fullRedrawNeeded) {
        mAttachInfo.mIgnoreDirtyState = true;
        dirty.set(0, 0, (int) (mWidth * appScale + 0.5f), (int) (mHeight * appScale + 0.5f));
    }
    ...
	// 重绘区域、动画判断
		// 硬件渲染判断
			// 关键代码
            if (!drawSoftware(surface, mAttachInfo, xOffset, yOffset, scalingRequired, dirty)) {
                return;
            }
    ...
}

在draw方法中,根据传如fullRedrawNeeded参数,设置需要重绘的dirty区域,最后调用drawSoftware方法,把参数传递进去,现在继续看ViewRootImpl#drawSoftware源码。

private boolean drawSoftware(Surface surface, AttachInfo attachInfo, int xoff, int yoff,
        boolean scalingRequired, Rect dirty) {
    ...
    try {
        
        if (!canvas.isOpaque() || yoff != 0 || xoff != 0) {
            canvas.drawColor(0, PorterDuff.Mode.CLEAR);
        }
        dirty.setEmpty();
        mIsAnimating = false;
        mView.mPrivateFlags |= View.PFLAG_DRAWN;
        
        try {
            canvas.translate(-xoff, -yoff);
            if (mTranslator != null) {
                mTranslator.translateCanvas(canvas);
            }
            canvas.setScreenDensity(scalingRequired ? mNoncompatDensity : 0);
            attachInfo.mSetIgnoreDirtyState = false;
			// 关键代码,mView为DecorView,开启View绘制
            mView.draw(canvas);
            drawAccessibilityFocusedDrawableIfNeeded(canvas);
        } finally {
            if (!attachInfo.mSetIgnoreDirtyState) {
                // Only clear the flag if it was not set during the mView.draw() call
                attachInfo.mIgnoreDirtyState = false;
            }
        }
    } 
	...
}

上述代码中,首先对canvas进行一些属性设置,包括色块、平移等。之后调用mView.draw(canvas)方法,开始对View进行绘制。mView就是window中的顶级视图DecorView(这个坑会在之后的文章中说明,这里当做一个顶级的ViewGroup即可)。

2、绘制流程

DecorView继承自FrameLayout,而ViewGroup的draw方法继承自View,so,所以我们直接看View#draw即可。

public void draw(Canvas canvas) {
    final int privateFlags = mPrivateFlags;
    final boolean dirtyOpaque = (privateFlags & PFLAG_DIRTY_MASK) == PFLAG_DIRTY_OPAQUE &&
            (mAttachInfo == null || !mAttachInfo.mIgnoreDirtyState);
    mPrivateFlags = (privateFlags & ~PFLAG_DIRTY_MASK) | PFLAG_DRAWN;
    /*
     * Draw traversal performs several drawing steps which must be executed
     * in the appropriate order:
     *
     *      1. Draw the background
     *      2. If necessary, save the canvas' layers to prepare for fading
     *      3. Draw view's content
     *      4. Draw children
     *      5. If necessary, draw the fading edges and restore layers
     *      6. Draw decorations (scrollbars for instance)
     */
    // Step 1, draw the background, if needed
    int saveCount;
    if (!dirtyOpaque) {
        drawBackground(canvas);
    }
    // skip step 2 & 5 if possible (common case)
    final int viewFlags = mViewFlags;
    boolean horizontalEdges = (viewFlags & FADING_EDGE_HORIZONTAL) != 0;
    boolean verticalEdges = (viewFlags & FADING_EDGE_VERTICAL) != 0;
    if (!verticalEdges && !horizontalEdges) {
        // Step 3, draw the content
        if (!dirtyOpaque) onDraw(canvas);
        // Step 4, draw the children
        dispatchDraw(canvas);
        // Overlay is part of the content and draws beneath Foreground
        if (mOverlay != null && !mOverlay.isEmpty()) {
            mOverlay.getOverlayView().dispatchDraw(canvas);
        }
        // Step 6, draw decorations (foreground, scrollbars)
        onDrawForeground(canvas);
        // we're done...
        return;
    }
    ...
}

draw方法中,官方对其的步骤进行了清晰的注释,我们来看下流程,在执行流程之前会检查绘制区域是否透明:

  • 1、绘制View背景,如果透明则不绘制
  • 2、如果需要,则保存画布的图层
  • 3、绘制View内容,如果透明则不绘制
  • 4、绘制子View————这个很重要
  • 5、如果需要,则绘制View的褪色边缘和恢复图层
  • 6、绘制装饰滚动条

这里最重要的步骤是第四步,绘制子View,现在我们来看下这个ViewGroup#dispatchDraw(canvas)方法,注意这里的View是一个DecorView,所以要在ViewGroup中去查看这个方法,View中的这个方法是一个空方法。

protected void dispatchDraw(Canvas canvas) {
    ...
    for (int i = 0; i < childrenCount; i++) {
        while (transientIndex >= 0 && mTransientIndices.get(transientIndex) == i) {
            final View transientChild = mTransientViews.get(transientIndex);
            if ((transientChild.mViewFlags & VISIBILITY_MASK) == VISIBLE ||
                    transientChild.getAnimation() != null) {
                more |= drawChild(canvas, transientChild, drawingTime);
            }
            transientIndex++;
            if (transientIndex >= transientCount) {
                transientIndex = -1;
            }
        }
        int childIndex = customOrder ? getChildDrawingOrder(childrenCount, i) : i;
        final View child = (preorderedList == null)
                ? children[childIndex] : preorderedList.get(childIndex);
        if ((child.mViewFlags & VISIBILITY_MASK) == VISIBLE || child.getAnimation() != null) {
            more |= drawChild(canvas, child, drawingTime);
        }
    }
    while (transientIndex >= 0) {
        // there may be additional transient views after the normal views
        final View transientChild = mTransientViews.get(transientIndex);
        if ((transientChild.mViewFlags & VISIBILITY_MASK) == VISIBLE ||
                transientChild.getAnimation() != null) {
            more |= drawChild(canvas, transientChild, drawingTime);
        }
        transientIndex++;
        if (transientIndex >= transientCount) {
            break;
        }
    }
    ...
}

上述代码对所有的子View进行遍历,并调用ViewGroup#drawChild方法。

protected boolean drawChild(Canvas canvas, View child, long drawingTime) {
    return child.draw(canvas, this, drawingTime);
}

drawChild又调用了子View的draw方法,这样绘制就传递了下去,当然这个draw方法和之前这一小节一开始介绍的View#draw方法并不一样,我们来看看

boolean draw(Canvas canvas, ViewGroup parent, long drawingTime) {
	...
	if (!drawingWithRenderNode) {
    	computeScroll();
    	sx = mScrollX;
    	sy = mScrollY;
	}
	...
    if (!drawingWithDrawingCache) {
        if (drawingWithRenderNode) {
            mPrivateFlags &= ~PFLAG_DIRTY_MASK;
            ((DisplayListCanvas) canvas).drawRenderNode(renderNode);
        } else {
            // Fast path for layouts with no backgrounds
            if ((mPrivateFlags & PFLAG_SKIP_DRAW) == PFLAG_SKIP_DRAW) {
                mPrivateFlags &= ~PFLAG_DIRTY_MASK;
                dispatchDraw(canvas);
            } else {
                draw(canvas);
            }
        }
    } else if (cache != null) {
        mPrivateFlags &= ~PFLAG_DIRTY_MASK;
        if (layerType == LAYER_TYPE_NONE) {
            // no layer paint, use temporary paint to draw bitmap
            Paint cachePaint = parent.mCachePaint;
            if (cachePaint == null) {
                cachePaint = new Paint();
                cachePaint.setDither(false);
                parent.mCachePaint = cachePaint;
            }
            cachePaint.setAlpha((int) (alpha * 255));
            canvas.drawBitmap(cache, 0.0f, 0.0f, cachePaint);
        } else {
            // use layer paint to draw the bitmap, merging the two alphas, but also restore
            int layerPaintAlpha = mLayerPaint.getAlpha();
            mLayerPaint.setAlpha((int) (alpha * layerPaintAlpha));
            canvas.drawBitmap(cache, 0.0f, 0.0f, mLayerPaint);
            mLayerPaint.setAlpha(layerPaintAlpha);
        }
    }
	...
}

上述代码会先判断之前是否进行过了绘制,如果没有则进入快速绘制通道,对没有背景的View进行绘制。判断是否需要跳过自身的draw绘制方法,如果跳过则进入dispatchDraw,不跳过则进入当前View的draw方法,即这一小节开头的draw方法,就此形成了循环。同时我们在这里看到了**computeScroll()**方法,也就印证了上一篇文章对于弹性滑动过程的描述。

流程图如下:


invalidate


三、小结

本文对上一篇遗留的问题postInvalidate与invalidate的区别进行了回答与分析,对invalidate的传递流程,以及View的绘制流程进行了源码分析,解答了invalidate是如何调用computeScroll()的问题。如果在阅读过程中,有任何疑问与问题,欢迎与我联系。

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