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Table of Contents

Product Roles and Hierarchy

  • Management and Leadership
    • Chief Product Officer (CPO)
    • VP Product Management (VP, SVP, EVP)
    • Senior Director, Product Management
    • Director, Product Management
    • Group Product Manager
  • Contributor
    • Principal Product Manager
    • Senior Product Manager
    • Product Manager
    • Associate Product Manager
    • Product Owner

The Product Manager vs. Product Owner

Product Vision and Strategy

  • Product vision
    • The needs addressed, problems solve, and the WHY
  • Product strategy
    • Plan to achieve product vision and goals
    • Manifested as the roadmap
      • Identify and state needs and alignment with vision
      • Use scenario-based planning
      • Consist of releases
      • Should always be dynamic and fluid, and expectations/communications managed as such
    • Outcome-driven innovation (ODI) and JTBD
      • Customers don't buy products and services; they hire various solutions at various times to get a wide array of jobs done.
      • Investment themes are designed to be addressed on "a percentage of resources to be made available basis." Not in the backlog.
        • Along with epics help with prioritization and determining roadmaps
    • Investment/strategic themes

Product Management 5 Ds

  • Discovery
    • Process elements
      • Interviews
      • Workshops
      • Research (potential users, market, competitors, industry)
      • Define business value
      • Meetings
    • Deliverables
      • Product vision
      • Product Strategy, manifested as a prioritized feature roadmap
      • Release planning
      • Business case
  • Define
    • Process elements
      • Convert discovery findings to deliverables listed below
    • Deliverables
      • Core functionality
      • Product artifacts: Themes, epics, features, user stories, tasks, ...
      • Requirements and acceptance criteria definition
      • Conceptual system design
      • Flow diagrams, user journey diagrams, etc.
      • User personas
      • Data models and entity relationships
      • Functional and non-functional specification
      • Identify must-haves, performance, and delighter features (Kano model)
      • Identify ways to make product sticky
      • System/Software architecture and selection of technologies
      • Information architecture
      • Functional, non-functional, and technical requirements
      • Use cases
      • Internationalization
      • Security
  • Design
    • Process elements
      • Design deliverables below based on product/feature definition and requirements
    • Deliverables
      • User experience (UX) and user interface (UI) design
      • Interaction design
      • Sketches
      • Wireframes, mockups, interactive prototypes, assets (images)
      • Functional, non-functional, and technical design assets
      • Application states
      • Test plan
      • Usability testing
        • "Traditional" or "discount" usability testing
        • RITE Method - Rapid Iterative Testing and Evaluation
  • Develop
    • Process elements
      • Build system components (hardware, firmware, network connectivity, software) per define and design phase deliverables
      • Release management and/or continuous delivery
      • Testing/Quality Assurance
        • Unit testing
        • Integration testing
        • User acceptance testing (UAT)
        • Automated testing
        • Qualitative and quantitative
        • Agile testing matrix
    • Deliverables
      • Code
      • Hardware/firmware/sensor/connectivity solutions and infrastructure
      • Documentation, including user and technical
      • Software/hardware/firmware (in the IoT case) working products and features, which may include combinations of user interfaces, APIs, SDKs, hardware, sensors, network connectivity, and so on.
  • Deploy
    • Process elements
      • Devops
      • Environment setup and management
      • Address non-functional requirements (e.g., scalability, availability, ...)
    • Deliverables
      • IoT and digital products deployed and operating in production environments
      • Training
      • Documentation (release notes, updates, API, etc.)
      • Installation and implementation
      • Support and maintenance
      • System monitoring


  • JTBD and importance vs satisfaction (four quadrants) | under-served needs
    • Opportunity (top left)
    • Competitive market (top right)
    • Not worth going after (bottom half)
  • Kano model (customer delight vs product function)
    • Categories
      • Must have
      • Performance
      • Delighter
    • Notes
      • Today's must have is tomorrow's delighter
  • Pareto: Identify which 20% of features are likely to create 80% of the value/impact
  • CoD/CoS: Cost of delay, class of service, and risk
    • CoS
      • Expedite - Unacceptable cost of delay
      • Fixed-date - Step function cost of delay
      • Standard - Linear cost of delay
      • Intangible - Intangible cost of delay
  • Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) - Value Divided by Effort
  • Buy a feature
  • KJ method, affinity diagramming/grouping
    • Brainstorm on sticky notes
    • Group items together and name the groups
    • Vote on or rank the groups
  • Score carding
  • Weighted shortest job first (WSJF)
    • Priority = Cost of delay / Job duration
    • Jobs that deliver the highest value (i.e., cost of delay) and can be implemented in the shortest duration are of the highest priority for implementation
  • Cost benefit analysis (financial measures)
  • Opportunity scoring
  • Three feature buckets
  • Story mapping and slides
  • Pandora method
  • Value vs complexity (graph and quadrants)
  • Weighted scoring
    • Benefit (positive)
    • Cost (negative)

UX Design Iceberg

  • Visual design
    • Color
    • Typography
    • Design principles
    • Look and feel
    • Aesthetics
  • Interaction design
    • All interactions and messages, notifications, flow, errors, etc.
  • Information architecture
    • Page and navigation structure
    • Sitemap best representative
  • Conceptual design

MVP Characteristics

  • Delightful
  • Usable
  • Reliable
  • Functional

Technology Adoption

  • Innovators - Techies
  • Early adopters - Visionaries
  • Early majority - Pragmatists
  • Late majority - Conservatives
  • Laggards - Skeptics

Considerations and Tradeoffs

  • Iron triangle
    • No silver bullet for magically delivering fixed scope by a fixed date with fixed resources, requires difficult business­based trade­off decisions
  • Design by committee (collaboration vs consensus)
    • Godin - "Nothing is what happens when everyone has to agree"
    • Consistently produces weak results

Product Market Fit

  • Product
    • UX
    • Feature set
    • Value proposition
  • Market
    • Under-served needs
    • Target customer

Pricing and Service Levels

  • Service level agreement (SLA)
    • Mean time between failures (MTBF)
    • Mean time to repair/recovery (MTTR)

Risk Management

  • ROAM model
    • Resolved:­ the risk has been answered and avoided or eliminated
    • Owned: the risk has been allocated to someone who has responsibility for doing something about it
    • Accepted: the risk has been accepted and it has been agreed that        nothing will be done about it
    • Mitigated:­ action has been taken so the risk has been mitigated,        either reducing the likelihood or reducing the impact
  • Key risks
    • Value risk: would anyone buy this or choose to use it?
    • Usability risk: would they be able to figure out how to use it?
    • Feasibility risk: can our engineers build this with the technology        available, the time available, and the skill­sets available on the team?
    • Stakeholder risk: are the different parts of the company ok with this proposed solution?
    • Business viability risk (whether this solution also works for the various aspects of our business)

Learning Resources

Product Management Glossary, Jargon, and Effective Communication

Product Management Tools