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DemoKin uses matrix demographic methods to compute expected (average) kin counts from demographic rates under a range of scenarios and assumptions. The package is an R-language implementation of Caswell (2019, 2020, 2022), and Caswell and Song (2021). It draws on previous theoretical development by Goodman, Keyfitz and Pullum (1974).


Download the stable version from CRAN:


Or you can install the development version from GitHub:

# install.packages("devtools")


Consider an average Swedish woman called ‘Focal.’ For this exercise, we assume a female closed population in which everyone experiences the Swedish 2015 mortality and fertility rates at each age throughout their life; i.e., the ‘time-invariant’ assumption in Caswell (2019).

We then ask:

What is the expected number of relatives of Focal over her life course?

Let’s explore this using the Swedish data already included with DemoKin.

swe_surv_2015 <- swe_px[,"2015"]
swe_asfr_2015 <- swe_asfr[,"2015"]
swe_2015 <- kin(p = swe_surv_2015, f = swe_asfr_2015, time_invariant = TRUE)

p is the survival probability by age from a life table and f are the age specific fertility ratios by age (see ?kin for details).

Now, we can visualize the implied kin counts (i.e., the average number of living kin) of Focal at age 35 using a network or ‘Keyfitz’ kinship diagram with the function plot_diagram:

# We need to reformat the data a little bit
kin_total <- swe_2015$kin_summary
# Keep only data for Focal's age 35
kin_total <- kin_total[kin_total$age_focal == 35 , c("kin", "count_living")]
names(kin_total) <- c("kin", "count")
plot_diagram(kin_total, rounding = 2)

Relatives are identified by a unique code:

DemoKin Labels_female Labels_male Labels_2sex
coa Cousins from older aunts Cousins from older uncles Cousins from older aunts/uncles
cya Cousins from younger aunts Cousins from younger uncles Cousins from younger aunts/uncles
c Cousins Cousins Cousins
d Daughters Brothers Siblings
gd Grand-daughters Grand-sons Grand-childrens
ggd Great-grand-daughters Great-grand-sons Great-grand-childrens
ggm Great-grandmothers Great-grandfathers Great-grandfparents
gm Grandmothers Grandfathers Grandparents
m Mother Father Parents
nos Nieces from older sisters Nephews from older brothers Niblings from older siblings
nys Nieces from younger sisters Nephews from younger brothers Niblings from younger siblings
n Nieces Nephews Niblings
oa Aunts older than mother Uncles older than fathers Aunts/Uncles older than parents
ya Aunts younger than mother Uncles younger than father Aunts/Uncles younger than parents
a Aunts Uncles Aunts/Uncles
os Older sisters Older brothers Older siblings
ys Younger sisters Younger brothers Younger siblings
s Sisters Brothers Siblings


For more details, including an extension to time-variant rates, deceased kin, and multi-state models in a one-sex framework, see the Reference_OneSex vignette; also accessible from DemoKin: vignette("Reference_OneSex", package = "DemoKin"). For two-sex models, see the Reference_TwoSex vignette; also accessible from DemoKin: vignette("Reference_TwoSex", package = "DemoKin"). If the vignette does not load, you may need to install the package as devtools::install_github("IvanWilli/DemoKin", build_vignettes = T).


Williams, Iván; Alburez-Gutierrez, Diego; Song, Xi; and Hal Caswell. (2021) DemoKin: An R package to implement demographic matrix kinship models. URL:


We thank Silvia Leek from the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research for designing the DemoKin logo. The logo includes elements that have been taken or adapted from this file, originally by Ansunando, CC BY-SA 4.0 via Wikimedia Commons. Sha Jiang provided useful comments for improving the package.

Get involved!

DemoKin is under constant development. If you’re interested in contributing, please get in touch, create an issue, or submit a pull request. We look forward to hearing from you!


Caswell, Hal. 2019. “The Formal Demography of Kinship: A Matrix Formulation.” Demographic Research 41 (September): 679–712.

———. 2020. “The Formal Demography of Kinship II: Multistate Models, Parity, and Sibship.” Demographic Research 42 (June): 1097–1146.

———. 2022. “The Formal Demography of Kinship IV: Two-Sex Models and Their Approximations.” Demographic Research 47 (September): 359–96.

Caswell, Hal, and Xi Song. 2021. “The Formal Demography of Kinship III: Kinship Dynamics with Time-Varying Demographic Rates.” Demographic Research 45 (August): 517–46.

Goodman, Leo A, Nathan Keyfitz, and Thomas W. Pullum. 1974. “Family Formation and the Frequency of Various Kinship Relationships.” Theoretical Population Biology, 27.


DemoKin estimates kinship distribution by type and age




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