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Apache2 - Mod_bw v0.92

Author : Ivan Barrera A. (Bruce)

HomePage : Http://Ivn.cl

Release Date : 20-Jul-2010

Status : Stable

License : Licensed under the Apache Software License v2.0 It must be included as LICENSE in this package.

Platform : Linux/x86 (Tested with Fedora Core 4, Suse, etc) Linux/x86_64 (Redhat Enterprise 4) FreeBSD/x86 (Tested on 5.2) MacOS X/Ppc x86 (Tested on both platforms) Solaris 8/sparc (Some notes on compile) Microsoft Windows (Win XP, Win2003, Win7. Others should work) HP-UX 11 (Thanks to Soumendu Bhattacharya for testing)

Notes : This is a stable version of mod_bw. It should work with almost any MPM (tested with WinNT/prefork/Worker MPM).

           We are reaching the End of mod_bw series 0.x. As soon as this
           last changes are confirmed by the users (perhaps some changes
           at request), i'll set this release to version 1.0 final.

Limitations : This mod doesn't know how fast the client is downloading a file, so it just divides the bw assigned between the users. MaxConnections works only for the given scope. (i.e , all will limit maxconnections from all,not per ip or user)

Changelog :

2010-07-20 : Fixed ap_get_server_banner unknown on older apache version

2010-05-27 : Fixed weird behaviour on Windows Hosts. (mod_bw.txt) Added high resolution timers for windows. (speed improvements) Fixed stupid bug that caused crash when mod is enabled but there is not a single limit.

2010-05-24 : Code Cleanup. No more warnings or stuff in Visual Studio

2010-04-28 : Bruce's Birthday Gift : A callback to the stats of the mod :)

2010-04-06 : Fixed "Invisible" memory leak. Only seen when serving HUGE streams.

2010-03-10 : Fixed MinBandwidth screwing limits. Another unsigned/signed screw up.


Some time ago, Jacky Yuen contacted me about a bug in the mod. It didn't look like the mod's fault, but i took a deeper look.

The issue :

On his windows server (win2003, and XP) the mod was working, but was unable to reach high speeds (1MB/s). (i heard something like this before, and all you need is to change the packet size). However, doing this, didn't fix the issue. I tried this on my server, and i was able to get about 500KB/s. Setting the packet size to 16384 gave me 1MB/s. Jacky told me he still had problems, so i tried all windows systems i got around. A windows 2003 server, a Windows 7 (32bits) showed the problem (max speed was 490KB/s) . A Windows 7 64bits and Win 2003 SP2 didnt. The most awesome part, is that if you run Google Chrome, a Flash application, or Windows Media Player, the mod is able to deliver up to 1MB/s.

Took me a while, but i found that Windows doesnt run a high resolution timer all the time. In the servers with the issue, the timer run every 10 ms. Whenever you run some of the mentioned apps, they set the timer to the highest speed possible (in my equipment, 1 ms). This setting affects all other applications, so the mod was able to sleep small times to deliver data as it needed. So, i wrote 2 fixes. The first one, i didnt wanted to, but i made the mod to set the timer to the highest resolution possible (it is written to the logs if you want to peek). And the second, is to avoid waiting small times to send data. Minimum time to sleep is 200ms now, and data is adjusted for this. (only for windows). Both fixes are under defines that will compile just for windows, so linux users won't notice any changes. The good thing, for windows users, is that with this fixes, i've been able to get speeds up to 2.45MB/s under windows!. Using apache by itself, i just got 1.2MB/s. Just enabling the mod and setting a high limit, the speed got pumped up.

That's it. Now i'll be back working on the next release.

-- (previous readme.txt text follows dated 24/May/2010)

Again... It has been a while since i've upted the code. (work, personal life, money issues, the same stuff we all fight daily) However, that doesn't mean i forgot about it. I've just been working my
*** off. I've got many emails with suggestions, some bugs, etc.. I'm doing one of the last updates of this line of mod_bw (0.x). It's mainly a couple of bugfix, and a little callback to get stats on the running mod. I hope it wont break anything.. (of course i've tested it a lot).

Ah!, i said this is one of the last updates. Yes. This is because this line of code is limiting the possibilities of the mod, so i've started a new mod_bw using other set of techniques. (so, it is highly experimental, and uses completely new instructions). This new branch of the mod was born thanks to the email sent by Borislav Borislavov (icn.bg), who needed some special features to be implemented, not possible with the current code. So, if you wanted the mod to do per-ip limiting, traffic limiting, etc.. keep checking my site. I'll be releasing a new branch of mod_bw to public soon. (Unfortunately, it won't be released under the Apache license yet).

Now, back to this mod :

First, i've fixed two annoying bugs.

  • MinBandWidth -1 was screwing things up sometimes. All because i was using an unsigned integer to store the -1. Yeah, my bad.
  • The limiting handler was leaking memory. A few bytes at a time, but for large files (really, really large) this could mean one of the apache childs consuming almost all memory. Thanks to Christian Spielberger who insisted and helped me to find this. (i was sure there was something.. but my servers recycle apache childs pretty often). Fun Fact : I found the bug, was cleaning my test code, and he sent me an email with the exact same solution i came up. Great minds think alike, eh ? :)

Then, i made a status callback for the mod. This callback will show some stats on the running mod, for each memory segment used to limit bandwidth. Is it a simple stat. However, i received many emails asking for this.

This is easy to achieve :

In your admin vhost (if you have one.. If not, any vhost you want to check), use a location to set a handler for the callback.

Suppose the vhost for 127.0.0.1 :

<location /modbw> SetHandler modbw-handler

Now you can get information of the mod by visiting http://127.0.0.1/modbw You can get the same information in csv format at http://127.0.0.1/modbw?csv

Please, test this changes, let me know how it works. If you have some ideas (i.e. information to add in the stats), post them. If it can or can't be done in this branch of the mod, i'll let you know.


Contents :

1 .- Notices

1.1 - ChangeLog and TODO

1.2 - Important Caveats

2 .- Installing

2.1 - Windows

2.2 - Linux

3 .- Getting it to Work, Directives

3.1 - BandWidthModule

3.2 - ForceBandWidthModule

3.3 - BandWidth

3.4 - MinBandWidth

3.5 - LargeFileLimit

3.6 - BandWidthPacket

3.7 - BandWidthError

3.8 - MaxConnection

3.9 - Status Callback

4 .- Examples

4.1 - Misc Examples

5 .- FAQ


1.- Notices

1.1 - ChangeLog & TODO :

This has been moved to the files ChangeLog and TODO.

1.2 - Important Caveats :

There is a couple situations in which you might get unexpected results with mod_bw. From the emails i've got, most of this situations are when using mod_proxy, and sometimes mod_php. If you are using one of this mods, and you see mod_bw output in the error log but there is no limiting being done, the first think you have to try, is to change the LoadModule directive on httpd.conf. Put mod_bw directive as the first one in the list, and then all the others. (or at least, put it before mod_proxy and mod_php). This should fix the issue.

Also, there are some static values defined in the code, that might cause weird issues in specific cases. The main two, are listed here :

#define MAX_VHOSTS 1024
#define MAX_BUF 1024

For the new status page, the mod assumes you wont have more than 1024 mod_bw enabled virtual hosts. If you do, please, change this number. It won't cause any troubles, it just mean the max number of "spaces" to reserve when storing the vhost names in memory. If you dont fix this number, only the first MAX_VHOSTS vhosts will show at the status page.

The second line, is the length of the temporal space the mod uses to create some strings. If you have really long vhost names, you might find the status page shows these names truncated at some point, and show incorrect info. You will need to increase this number.


2.- How To Install :

2.1 - Windows

In Windows, you have to download the binary dll from the site (or compile one yourself) that matches your apache version, and Install it under modules on your apache tree. Then edit httpd.conf, and add the LoadModule sentence. If there is no matching binary dll with your version of apache (the latest) you can ask me to compile it for you. Post a message in the home site as a feature request.

Example :

Download mod_bw-2.2.14.dll from the home site, to c:\apache2\modules
Edit httpd.conf, and add LoadModule bw_module modules/mod_bw-2.2.14.dll
Restart Apache.

2.2 - Linux

Well.. (under *nix) you have to compile it.. (unless your distribution has it available as a package. Many already do ! Thanks !)

REQUIREMENTS :

You will need apache2 headers in the include path. In redhat/suse or others this mean apache-devel or httpd-devel installed. (or any other that provides http/apr headers and apxs2 tool) You also need support for SHM in your OS. Usually you will have this.

For this to work, you MUST have apxs (or apxs2) installed. You might need to use its full path (i.e. /usr/sbin/apxs .....). Well, you have to do this :

apxs -i -a -c mod_bw.c or apxs2 -i -a -c mod_bw.c

This will bring out some stuff... nothing to worry (unless you see an error). If it says ok, then you are ready. Restart apache (service httpd restart on redhat, mandrake, and others... apachectl restart .. rcapache2 restart or... well, you should know)

Note On Solaris Users :

If you got problems compiling it on Solaris, remember to check you have libgcc correctly installed, and the ld_library_path set up correctly. I didnt, so i compiled this way :

export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:/usr/local/lib apxs -i -a -c mod_bw.c -L/usr/local/lib -lgcc_s

And then started apache, and everything worked fine.

Note On SuSe Users :

You NEED to have installed apache2 header files (apache2-devel rpm). Otherwise you'll get lots of include files error.

If you didn't manage to get it installed, drop me a letter. But please be sure you tried everything. Sometimes it is just a forgotten step.


3.- Getting it to Work :

Ok.. this is the most confusing part. This mod, is able to limit bandwidth usage on every virtual host or directory. htaccess files will not be supported on this branch. (0.x)

  • Configuration Directives

3.1 - BandWidthModule [On|Off]

You need to set this to On for the mod to work.. By default, the mod is

disabled, and wont limit anything.

Example :

          BandWidthModule On

3.2 - ForceBandWidthModule [On|Off]

By default, the mod wont catch every request.
If you enable it, every request will be processed by the mod.

Example :

          (normal use)
          AddOutputFilterByType MOD_BW text/html text/plain

          (enabling Force)
          ForceBandWidthModule On

3.3 - BandWidth [From] [bytes/s]

This takes 2 parameters. From is the origin of the connections. It could

be a full host, part of a domain, an ip address, a network mask (i.e 192.168.0.0/24 or 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0) or all. The second parameter indicates the total speed available to the Origin. If speed is 0, there is no limit.

Example :

        BandWidth localhost 10240
        BandWidth 192.168.218.5 0

        ( Order is relevant. First entries have precedence )


As for version 0.8, an user agent matching capability was introduced.
If you want to limit all clients using certain browser, you can limit
doing this :

        BandWidth u:[User-Agent] [bytes/s]

User agent is a regular expression which will match the one sent by the
browser. This is easier to explain with examples :

Example :

        BandWidth "u:^Mozilla/5(.*)" 10240
        BandWidth "u:wget" 102400
        
First one, will match a browser that identifies itself as Mozilla/5(etc)

Second one, will match a browser that has wget in any part of its id.

3.4 - MinBandWidth [From] [bytes/s]

This takes 2 parameters. From is the origin of the connections. It could

be a full host, part of a domain, an ip address, a network mask (i.e 192.168.0.0/24 or 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0) or all. The second parameter indicates the minimun speed each client will have. What does this mean ? If you have a total of 100kbytes speed, and you put MinBandWidth at 50kbytes, it doesnt matter how many clients you have, all of them will have a minimun of 50kbytes of total speed to download. If speed is 0, you will be using the default minimun (256 bytes/s). There is a special value of -1. This value means that each client will have a top speed determined by the BandWidth directive. See the examples.

Examples :

          BandWidth    all 102400
          MinBandWidth all 50000

The example above will set a top speed of 100kb for the 1º

client. If more clients come, it will be splitted accordingly but everyone will have at least 50kb (even if you have 50 clients)

          BandWidth    all 50000
          MinBandWidth all -1

This example, makes everyone have 50kb as top speed.

3.5 - LargeFileLimit [Type] [Minimum Size] [bytes/s]

Type, is the last part of a file, or * for all. You can use .tgz to match 

only tar-compressed files, .avi to match video files, or * to match all. Minimum Size, is the size (in kbytes) of the file, to be matched. That way you can match huge video files that hog your bandwidth. The last parameter... is obvious. The speed allowed.

Example :

         LargeFileLimit .avi 500 10240

This limits .avi files over (or equal to) 500kb to 10kbytes/s

3.6 - BandWidthPacket [Size]

Probably you never need to touch this. It defaults to 8192 which is good

for almost any speed. It must be a size between 1024 and 131072. A Small packet will cause the top speed to be lower, and the mod using more time splitting. If you use a Size too big, the mod will adjust it to lower speeds. If you are using the mod in high speed networks, this is, you want to set limits of megabits/s, you will be better using packet sizes of 16384, or 32768.

3.7 - BandWidthError [Error]

This directive is useful to deliver a personalized error code.
By default, when maxconnections is reached, the mod will issue a 503 

HTTP_SERVICE_UNAVAILABLE code. For some users, it is annoying to have an error message, and don't knowing why. You could use an ErrorDocument to point error 503 to a page explaining that you are under a heavy load of connections, but sometimes 503 is issued by the server for other reasons. So, with this directive, you can set the error code to return when maxconnections is reached. You can use any error code between 300 and 599. Please note, that some of the error codes are already used, so before using any number, take a look to a list of the codes (search for http error codes in google). When testing, i've used the error code 510, which hasn't been defined yet.

And Example, with Personalized Error Page :

  ErrorDocument 510 /errors/maxconexceeded.html
  BandWidthError 510

Note : Sometimes, the personalized page didn't appear. I'm not sure, but
in many cases, it got fixed, by making the page size over 1024bytes.
Anyways, if you need help using ErrorDocument, refer to the apache
Documentation.

3.8 - MaxConnection [From] [Max]

This takes 2 parameters. From is the origin of the connections. It could

be a full host, part of a domain, an ip address, a network mask (i.e 192.168.0.0/24 or 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0) or all. The second parameter, is the max connections allowed from the origin. Any connection over Max, will get a 503 Service Temporarily Unavailable

There is a catch. You NEED to have a BandWidth limit for the same origin.

It doesnt need to be a low limit. But you need one. (unlimited, doesn't count) You might wonder why. It's because im using them same memory space of the bandwidth limit to count the connections, so i can save memory space. If you dont put a BandWidth using the same origin, MaxConnections will be ignored.

Example :

          BandWidth all 102400000
          MaxConnection all 20
          
or

          BandWidth all 102400000
          BandWidth 192.168.0.0/24 10240
          MaxConnection all 20
          MaxConnection 192.168.0.0/24 5


As for version 0.8, an user agent matching capability was introduced.
If you want to limit all clients using certain browser, you can limit
doing this :

        MaxConnection u:[User-Agent] [Max]

User agent is a regular expression which will match the one sent by the
browser. This is easier to explain with examples :

Example :

        MaxConnection "u:^Mozilla/5(.*)" 5
        MaxConnection "u:wget" 5

First one, will match a browser that identifies itself as Mozilla/5(etc) Second one, will match a browser that has wget in any part of its id.

Please, rememeber that every speed, will depend mostly on your connection. You can't get more speed if you dont have it.

Remember also.. if you dont follow the instructions, and get some weird results, recheck your config before sending me an email.

3.9 - Status Callback

Since v0.9, the mod can display a simple status page, showing stats from

the running mod. This stats show the exact information being used by the mod to do the limiting in that second.

For this to work, you need to set a handler on any vhost. You might want 

to set this under an admin vhost, or set some policies to make it private. Your call.

Example (let's assume the vhost is for 127.0.0.1) :

<location /modbw> SetHandler modbw-handler

Now, you can get the status info at http://127.0.0.1/modbw
( Or download a CSV of the stats at http://127.0.0.1/modbw?csv )

The information provided is the following :

id   : 0                // This is just a correlative number for each config.
name : work.ivn.cl,all  // The vhost name, and the scope of the rule
lock : 0                // If the memory segment is being used (0 = no)
count: 0                // Number of users connected to this rule
bw   : 0                // Bandwidth currently being used by the rule
bytes: 0                // Number of bytes last sent. Only true if count>0
hits : 0                // Number of times anyone has accesed this rule.

Simple, yet useful !

4.- Examples

4.1 - Misc examples

Limit every user to a max of 10Kb/s on a vhost :

<Virtualhost *>
  BandwidthModule On
  ForceBandWidthModule On
  Bandwidth all 10240
  MinBandwidth all -1
  Servername www.example.com
</Virtualhost>


Limit al internal users (lan) to 1000 kb/s with a minimum of 50kb/s , and 

files greater than 500kb to 50kb/s.

<Virtualhost *>
  BandwidthModule On
  ForceBandWidthModule On
  Bandwidth all 1024000
  MinBandwidth all 50000
  LargeFileLimit * 500 50000
  Servername www.example.com
</Virtualhost>


Limit avi and mpg extensions to 20kb/s.

<Virtualhost *>
  BandwidthModule On
  ForceBandWidthModule On
  LargeFileLimit .avi 1 20000
  LargeFileLimit .mpg 1 20000
  Servername www.example.com
</Virtualhost>


Using it the "right" way, with output filter by mime type (for text) 

to 5kb/s:

<Virtualhost *>
  BandwidthModule On
  AddOutputFilterByType MOD_BW text/html text/plain
  Bandwidth all 5000
  Servername www.example.com 
</Virtualhost>


If you need help on doing more complex setup, post over GitHub.

5.- FAQ

(No particular order)

1.- Why should i use mod_bw ?

If you want to restrict the top speed a site is able to use, or limit the max connections allowed per site, or just to try the mod. Some people told me, they use it primarily to stop small sites hogging all the bandwidth when serving video, images, or other content.

2.- How do i ... ?

First, read the documentation. it is pretty straightforward to use. If you can't make it work, or if you want to ask for a feature, visit the GitHub site, and post a request. Remember to read the documentation and the faq. If the request is already posted, i'll just delete the duplicates.

3.- What's the difference with mod_bwshare, mod_throttle, etc ?

The main difference, is that this mod, is aimed to the Apache 2 API. Some other differences, is, how this mod works, and the directives it implements. I took some ideas from other mods, as the shared memory implementation (mod_bandwidth2 from Tim Verhoeven). Most of the directives, are in origin from mod_bandwidth for apache 1.

4.- How does it works ?

The mod, will set a shared memory holding all of the configuration you make. In this space, it will also, keep a "count" of the info currently using (as current connections, bw used, time, and bytes sent). When you assign a bw limit, the mod will "split" the data, and will send it piece by piece, with a small delay between pieces. The delay will be adjusted so at least 1 piece is sent in a second, thus eviting browser timeout. If there are two or more clients downloading from the same vhost, the limit will be "splitted" too. So, if you have a bw limit of 16Kb and two clients, each one will have 8Kb to download. You can also set a fixed download rate, so each client will have a fixed maximun download rate. This is a simple explanation of how this works. Take a look at the code if you want to know more about it.

5.- Can you make it do ... ?

Post a request for a feature through GitHub.

6.- Can you make mod_bw work for ... ?

See question 5. Anyways, if i dont own (or have access) to the hardware needed, i won't be able to help you.

7.- I'm having some trouble in windows ...

Well, thanks to the guys at Microsoft, who kindly offered access to MSDN to the Apache Community, the dll's i post on my site are produced using licensed Visual C, and i can help with any Windows Issue! Post or send me your problem. I'll be glad to (try to) help.

8.- The mod is not limiting certain Directory

Ok... first, read the documentation. Then the FAQ. If it isn't working, then look if you have defined correctly the limits within that directory. If you have a limit in a vhost, and inside the vhost, a directory with another limit, a new context with the configs of the directory is created, and only have the configurations you added there.

In example :

<VirtualHost *> BandWidthModule On BandWidth all 16384 LargeFileLimit * 500 4096 LargeFileLimit * 100 1024

This wont limit Directory / to 16384. The Directory wont "inherit" the settings from the vhost if you use some of the mod's directives.


Ivan Barrera A.

Ivn Systems Software

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