A Rust library for PDF document manipulation.
Clone or download
Latest commit 789a5e5 Sep 19, 2018



Crates.io Build Status

A Rust library for PDF document manipulation.

Example Code

  • Create PDF document
extern crate lopdf;
use lopdf::{Document, Object, Stream};
use lopdf::content::{Content, Operation};

let mut doc = Document::with_version("1.5");
let pages_id = doc.new_object_id();
let font_id = doc.add_object(dictionary! {
	"Type" => "Font",
	"Subtype" => "Type1",
	"BaseFont" => "Courier",
let resources_id = doc.add_object(dictionary! {
	"Font" => dictionary! {
		"F1" => font_id,
let content = Content {
	operations: vec![
		Operation::new("BT", vec![]),
		Operation::new("Tf", vec!["F1".into(), 48.into()]),
		Operation::new("Td", vec![100.into(), 600.into()]),
		Operation::new("Tj", vec![Object::string_literal("Hello World!")]),
		Operation::new("ET", vec![]),
let content_id = doc.add_object(Stream::new(dictionary! {}, content.encode().unwrap()));
let page_id = doc.add_object(dictionary! {
	"Type" => "Page",
	"Parent" => pages_id,
	"Contents" => content_id,
let pages = dictionary! {
	"Type" => "Pages",
	"Kids" => vec![page_id.into()],
	"Count" => 1,
	"Resources" => resources_id,
	"MediaBox" => vec![0.into(), 0.into(), 595.into(), 842.into()],
doc.objects.insert(pages_id, Object::Dictionary(pages));
let catalog_id = doc.add_object(dictionary! {
	"Type" => "Catalog",
	"Pages" => pages_id,
doc.trailer.set("Root", catalog_id);
  • Modify PDF document
let mut doc = Document::load("example.pdf")?;
doc.version = "1.4".to_string();
doc.replace_text(1, "Hello World!", "Modified text!");


  • Why keeping everything in memory as high-level objects until finallay serializing the entire document?

    Normally a PDF document won't be very large, ranging form tens of KB to hundreds of MB. Memory size is not a bottle neck for today's computer. By keep the whole document in memory, stream length can be pre-calculated, no need to use a reference object for the Length entry, the resulting PDF file is smaller for distribution and faster for PDF consumers to process.

    Producing is a one-time effort, while consuming is many more.