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# Detecting CobaltStrike for Volatility
#
# How to use:
# 1. locate "cobaltstrikescan.py" in [Volatility_Plugins_Directory]
# ex) mv cobaltstrikescan.py /usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/volatility/plugins/malware
# 2. python vol.py [cobaltstrikescan | cobaltstrikeconfig ] -f images.mem --profile=Win7SP1x64
import volatility.plugins.taskmods as taskmods
import volatility.win32.tasks as tasks
import volatility.utils as utils
import volatility.debug as debug
import volatility.plugins.malware.malfind as malfind
import volatility.plugins.malware as malware
import re
from struct import pack, unpack, unpack_from, calcsize
from socket import inet_ntoa
try:
import yara
has_yara = True
except ImportError:
has_yara = False
cobaltstrike_sig = {
'namespace1' : 'rule CobaltStrike { \
strings: \
$v1 = { 73 70 72 6E 67 00} \
$v2 = { 69 69 69 69 69 69 69 69} \
condition: $v1 and $v2}'
}
CONF_PATTERNS = [{
'pattern': '\x69\x68\x69\x68\x69',
'cfg_size': 0x1000,
'cfg_info': [['\x00\x01\x00\x01\x00\x02', 'BeaconType\t\t:', 0x2], ['\x00\x02\x00\x01\x00\x02', 'Port\t\t\t:', 0x2], ['\x00\x03\x00\x02\x00\x04', 'Polling(ms)\t\t:', 0x4],
['\x00\x04\x00\x02\x00\x04', 'Unknown1\t\t:', 0x4], ['\x00\x05\x00\x01\x00\x02', 'Jitter\t\t\t:', 0x2], ['\x00\x06\x00\x01\x00\x02', 'Maxdns\t\t\t:', 0x2],
['\x00\x07\x00\x03\x01\x00', 'Unknown2\t\t:', 0x100], ['\x00\x08\x00\x03\x01\x00', 'C2Server\t\t:', 0x100], ['\x00\x09\x00\x03\x00\x80', 'UserAgent\t\t:', 0x80],
['\x00\x0a\x00\x03\x00\x40', 'HTTP_Method2_Path\t:', 0x40], ['\x00\x0b\x00\x03\x01\x00', 'Unknown3\t\t:', 0x100], ['\x00\x0c\x00\x03\x01\x00', 'Header1\t\t\t:', 0x100],
['\x00\x0d\x00\x03\x01\x00', 'Header2\t\t\t:', 0x100], ['\x00\x0e\x00\x03\x00\x40', 'Injection_Process\t:', 0x40], ['\x00\x0f\x00\x03\x00\x80', 'PipeName\t\t:', 0x80],
['\x00\x10\x00\x01\x00\x02', 'Year\t\t\t:', 0x2], ['\x00\x11\x00\x01\x00\x02', 'Month\t\t\t:', 0x2], ['\x00\x12\x00\x01\x00\x02', 'Day\t\t\t:', 0x2],
['\x00\x13\x00\x02\x00\x04', 'DNS_idle\t\t:', 0x4], ['\x00\x14\x00\x02\x00\x04', 'DNS_sleep(ms)\t\t:', 0x2], ['\x00\x1a\x00\x03\x00\x10', 'Method1\t\t\t:', 0x10],
['\x00\x1b\x00\x03\x00\x10', 'Method2\t\t\t:', 0x10], ['\x00\x1c\x00\x02\x00\x04', 'Unknown4\t\t:', 0x4], ['\x00\x1d\x00\x03\x00\x40', 'Spawnto_x86\t\t:', 0x40],
['\x00\x1e\x00\x03\x00\x40', 'Spawnto_x64\t\t:', 0x40], ['\x00\x1f\x00\x01\x00\x02', 'Unknown5\t\t:', 0x2], ['\x00\x20\x00\x03\x00\x80', 'Proxy_HostName\t\t:', 0x80],
['\x00\x21\x00\x03\x00\x40', 'Proxy_UserName\t\t:', 0x40], ['\x00\x22\x00\x03\x00\x40', 'Proxy_Password\t\t:', 0x40], ['\x00\x23\x00\x01\x00\x02', 'Proxy_AccessType\t:', 0x2],
['\x00\x24\x00\x01\x00\x02', 'create_remote_thread\t:', 0x2]]
}]
BEACONTYPE = {0x0: "0 (HTTP)", 0x1: "1 (Hybrid HTTP and DNS)", 0x8: "8 (HTTPS)"}
ACCESSTYPE = {0x1: "1 (use direct connection)", 0x2: "2 (use IE settings)", 0x4: "4 (use proxy server)"}
class cobaltstrikeScan(taskmods.DllList):
"""Detect processes infected with CobaltStrike malware"""
@staticmethod
def is_valid_profile(profile):
return (profile.metadata.get('os', 'unknown') == 'windows')
def get_vad_base(self, task, address):
for vad in task.VadRoot.traverse():
if address >= vad.Start and address < vad.End:
return vad.Start
return None
def calculate(self):
if not has_yara:
debug.error("Yara must be installed for this plugin")
addr_space = utils.load_as(self._config)
os = self.is_valid_profile(addr_space.profile)
if not os:
debug.error("This command does not support the selected profile.")
rules = yara.compile(sources=cobaltstrike_sig)
for task in self.filter_tasks(tasks.pslist(addr_space)):
scanner = malfind.VadYaraScanner(task=task, rules=rules)
for hit, address in scanner.scan():
vad_base_addr = self.get_vad_base(task, address)
yield task, vad_base_addr
break
def render_text(self, outfd, data):
self.table_header(outfd, [("Name", "20"),
("PID", "8"),
("Data VA", "[addrpad]")])
for task, start in data:
self.table_row(
outfd, task.ImageFileName, task.UniqueProcessId, start)
class cobaltstrikeConfig(cobaltstrikeScan):
"""Parse the CobaltStrike configuration"""
def get_vad_end(self, task, address):
for vad in task.VadRoot.traverse():
if address == vad.Start:
return vad.End + 1
return None
def decode_config(self, cfg_blob):
return "".join(chr(ord(cfg_offset) ^ 0x69) for cfg_offset in cfg_blob)
def parse_config(self, cfg_blob, nw, outfd):
outfd.write("[CobaltStrike Config Info]\n")
for pattern, name, size in nw['cfg_info']:
if name.count('Port'):
port = unpack_from('>H', cfg_blob, 0xE)[0]
outfd.write("%s %d\n" % (name, port))
continue
offset = cfg_blob.find(pattern)
if offset == -1:
outfd.write("%s\n" % name)
continue
config_data = cfg_blob[offset + 6:offset + 6 + size]
if name.count('Unknown'):
outfd.write("%s %s\n" % (name, repr(config_data)))
continue
if size == 2:
if name.count('BeaconType'):
outfd.write("%s %s\n" %
(name, BEACONTYPE[unpack('>H', config_data)[0]]))
elif name.count('AccessType'):
outfd.write(
"%s %s\n" % (name, ACCESSTYPE[unpack('>H', config_data)[0]]))
elif name.count('create_remote_thread'):
if unpack('>H', config_data)[0] != 0:
outfd.write("%s Enable\n" % name)
else:
outfd.write("%s Disable\n" % name)
else:
outfd.write(
"%s %d\n" % (name, unpack('>H', config_data)[0]))
elif size == 4:
if name.count('DNS_idle'):
outfd.write("%s %s\n" % (name, inet_ntoa(config_data)))
else:
outfd.write("%s %d\n" %
(name, unpack('>I', config_data)[0]))
else:
if name.count('Header'):
outfd.write("%s " % name)
cfg_offset = 3
flag = 0
while 1:
if cfg_offset > 255:
break
else:
if config_data[cfg_offset] != '\x00':
if config_data[cfg_offset + 1] != '\x00':
if flag:
outfd.write("\t\t\t: ")
outfd.write("%s\n" % config_data[
(cfg_offset + 1):].split('\x00')[0])
cfg_offset = config_data[cfg_offset:].find(
'\x00\x00\x00') + cfg_offset - 1
flag += 1
else:
cfg_offset += 4
continue
else:
cfg_offset += 4
continue
else:
outfd.write("%s %s\n" % (name, config_data))
def render_text(self, outfd, data):
delim = '-' * 70
for task, start in data:
proc_addr_space = task.get_process_address_space()
data = proc_addr_space.zread(
start, self.get_vad_end(task, start) - start)
for nw in CONF_PATTERNS:
cfg_addr = data.find(nw['pattern'])
if cfg_addr != -1:
break
else:
continue
outfd.write("config addr: %08X\n\n" % cfg_addr)
outfd.write("{0}\n".format(delim))
cfg_blob = data[cfg_addr:cfg_addr + nw['cfg_size']]
outfd.write("Process: %s (%d)\n\n" %
(task.ImageFileName, task.UniqueProcessId))
self.parse_config(self.decode_config(cfg_blob), nw, outfd)
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