A toolbox for zkSNARKS on Ethereum
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Latest commit 2d36bd5 Oct 11, 2018



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Zokrates is a toolbox for zkSNARKs on Ethereum.

This is a proof-of-concept implementation. It has not been tested for production.


Ethereum runs computations on all nodes of the network, resulting in high costs, limits in complexity, and low privacy. SNARKs have been enabling to only verify computations on-chain for a fraction of the cost of running them, but are hard to grasp and work with.

Zokrates bridges this gap. It helps you create offchain programs and link them to the Ethereum blockchain, expanding the possibilities for your Dapp.


Using Docker is currently the recommended way to get started with Zokrates.

docker run -ti zokrates/zokrates /bin/bash

Or build yourself with the following commands.

git clone https://github.com/JacobEberhardt/ZoKrates
cd ZoKrates
docker build -t zokrates .
docker run -ti zokrates /bin/bash
cd ZoKrates/target/release


First, create the textfile add.code and implement your program:

def main(field a, field b, field c) -> (field):
  return a + b + c

The keyword field declares the type of the parameters used as elements of the underlying finite field.

Then run the different phases of the protocol:

./zokrates compile -i 'add.code'
./zokrates setup
./zokrates compute-witness -a 1 2 3
./zokrates generate-proof
./zokrates export-verifier

API reference

Zokrates provides a command line interface. You can see an overview of the available subcommands by running



./zokrates compile -i /path/to/add.code

Compiles a .code file into ZoKrates internal representation of arithmetic circuits. Use the --gadgets flag if libsnark gadgets are being used in your code (e.g. sha256 hashing).

Creates a compiled .code file at ./out.code.


./zokrates compute-witness -a 1 2 3

Computes a witness for the compiled program found at ./out.code and arguments to the program. A witness is a valid assignment of the variables, which include the results of the computation.

Creates a witness file at ./witness


./zokrates setup

Generates a trusted setup for the compiled program found at ./out.code.

Creates a proving key and a verifying key at ./proving.key and ./verifying.key. These keys are derived from a source of randomness, commonly referred to as “toxic waste”. Anyone having access to the source of randomness can produce fake proofs that will be accepted by a verifier following the protocol.


./zokrates export-verifier

Using the verifying key at ./verifying.key, generates a Solidity contract which contains the generated verification key and a public function to verify a solution to the compiled program at ./out.code.

Creates a verifier contract at ./verifier.sol.


./zokrates generate-proof

Using the proving key at ./proving.key, generates a proof for a computation of the compiled program ./out.code resulting in ./witness.

Returns the proof, for example:

A = 0x45582d7906c967b1fd1cac0aad3efefa526e4cd888b8ecb5907b46c2eb1f781, 0x8158089a63a6aafa4afc3bbfd5ebf392e5ef61d0c5faf2e2445c9112450f29c
A_p = 0x5e4fe0bfa79a571b8918138ee5d7b3d0ad394c9bb8f7d2e1549f7e3c3bab7e9, 0x1708b5ba3d138e433406c792f679ae6902fc9f7c6131305a9a5f826dbe2d71fb
B = [0x34f5c5b7518597452e55a69bf9171a63837a98a1c1c1870b610b2cfe79c4573, 0x18e56afd179d67960db838a8fdb128eb78d5dd2c1ffcd564f9d0dada928ed71f], [0xf160ea8d2dc33b564a45c0998309b4bf5a050cc8f6288793b7401b37d1eb1a2, 0x23ade8ba2c64300b5ff90e18641516407054a21179829252fd87f1bd61a3be34]
B_p = 0xc88b87d45f90da42b9c455da16dad76996ef5b1e859a4f0db7dcef4f7e3b2fd, 0x20ed7c62dd8c6c47506e6db1d4837daa42ae80b931227153054539dcbf6f3778
C = 0x2c230cbffbcb6211d2cf8f434df291a413721e3bef5ada4030d532d14b6ea504, 0x21421565f75429d0922c8cf00b68e4da23c61670e787ce6a5de14a5a86ebdcb0
C_p = 0xce11fe724ce1ce183c15c4f5405d9607d6c769422aa9f62f4868478324a2f5, 0x1e585b35ed22ef32fd70ef960818f1514d1dd94b3517c127e782de24173c69f9
H = 0x2306e74a1a7e318d2d3c40cbea708b0e0b91cd1548c9db6261fc2bd815740978, 0xde538e4e99b0e20e84cdbbd3bc08c37bca0af21edd67faf52bc4027a9b00f7c
K = 0x1868436121f271e9fbf78a8f75bb4077e2d4f208891793fd5b468afc3b05c0e4, 0x1021c3ecb15c3fd7340d4eb5bf446e1ad457020e4f8b7cc82f8af64507a35fbe

Passed to the verifier contract, this proof can be checked. For example, using web3, a call would look like the following:

Verifier.at(<verifier contract address>).verifyTx(A, A_p, B, B_p, C, C_p, H, K, [...publicInputs, ...outputs])

Where A, ..., K are defined as above (adding brackets and quotes: A = ["0x123", "0x345"]), publicInputs are the public inputs supplied to witness generation and outputs are the results of the computation.


Run normal tests with

cargo test

and run long and expensive tests with

cargo test -- --ignored