Skip to content
Read-only root filesystem for Raspbian Stretch (using overlay)
Shell
Branch: master
Clone or download
Latest commit acbbd65 Apr 25, 2019
Permalink
Type Name Latest commit message Commit time
Failed to load latest commit information.
etc/initramfs-tools Delete modules Jan 19, 2019
LICENSE Create LICENSE Apr 25, 2019
README.md Update README.md Apr 8, 2019
install.sh
reboot-to-readonly-mode.sh
reboot-to-writable-mode.sh Create reboot-to-writable-mode.sh Jan 19, 2019

README.md

Read-only root filesystem for Raspbian Stretch

This repository contains some useful files that allow you to use a Raspberry PI using a readonly filesystem. After running install.sh everything will be set up and the system will reboot into read-only mode.

See instructions below to see how to switch to permanent or temporary write-mode.

This script is tested with a freshly deployed Raspbian image with "desktop and recommended software", specifically with the img file dated 2018-11-13, kernel 4.14. (Tested on a Rpi 3B+)

This files contains some ideas and code of the following projects:

Congratulate the original authors if these files work as expected.

Why use a read-only root filesystem

There can be many reasons to configure a read only root filesystem. In my case I use it on Raspberry Pi's which are used for narrowcasting, kiosk installations and dashboard applications. I have the read-only filesystem enabled for three reasons:

  • Extend microSD card lifespan.
  • Make sure the filesystem isn't corrupted by random power cut shut downs (the Rpi's get their power from USB ports on flatscreen TV's).
  • Undo any user changes and fix any user-induced errors by simply rebooting the Raspberry Pi.

How it works

The script uses an overlay filesystem. Basically the normal root storage device gets mounted in readonly bottom layer. A writable in-memory layer is configured on top of it. Any changes made will be written to the top layer and will not be written to the I/O device. There are two options to go back to write mode.

  1. The bottom layer can be remounted in readwrite mode, chroot to the mount point of the bottom layer and make changes there.
  2. Use the provided script in /root to disable or enable the overlayfs altogether after a reboot.

Read more about the overlay filesystem here: https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Overlay_filesystem

Setup

To get everything configured and to enable the read-only filesystem, you can simply paste these commands.

sudo apt-get -y install git
cd /home/pi
git clone https://github.com/JasperE84/root-ro.git
cd root-ro
chmod +x install.sh
sudo ./install.sh

The install.sh script will configure and immediately reboot the system into readonly mode.

Rebooting to permanent write-mode (disabling the overlay fs)

Execute

sudo /root/reboot-to-writable-mode.sh

Rebooting to permanent read-only mode (enabling the overlay fs)

Execute

sudo /root/reboot-to-readonly-mode.sh

Enabling temporary write access mode:

Write access can be enabled using following command.

sudo mount -o remount,rw /mnt/root-ro
# next command enables DNS in chroot because resolvconf service needs to read /run/resolvconf/resolv.conf
sudo mount -o bind /run /mnt/root-ro/run
chroot /mnt/root-ro

Exiting temporary write access mode:

Exit the chroot and re-mounting the filesystem:

exit
sudo mount -o remount,ro /mnt/root-ro

Original state

To return to the original state to allow easy apt-get update/upgrade and rpi-update, you need to add a comment mark to the "initramfs init.gz" line to the /boot/config.txt file.

You can’t perform that action at this time.