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This LoRaWAN tool is for LoRaWAN developers who need know the details of LoRaWAN protocol.

With lorawan-parser, you can see all details of a LoRaWAN frame, like how is the frame structured, how data is encrypted and decrypted, what is DEVEUI / APPEUI / DEVADDR like etc.


  • LoRaWAN 1.0
    • V1.0.2 / V1.0.2B
  • Support both ABP and OTAA mode device
  • Colorful terminal outputs (Windows MiniTTY not supported)
  • Cross platform (Tested on Ubuntu, Lubuntu, Raspberry Pi, OpenWRT, Windows)
  • LoRaWAN V1.1
    • Work in progress
  • Support Semtech packet forwarder v1 and v2 protocol
  • Live parse LoRaWAN motes message (To support RisingHF gateway or Semtech IoT Start Kit)


Refer to util/test/main.c to know the usage of lorawan API.

After compile find lwp.exe/lwp under util/parser/ directory to parse the LoRaWAN frame.

Usage: lwp.exe [OPTIONS]
 -h, --help                     Help
 -v, --version                  Version 0.3.0

 -c, --burst-parse  <file>      Parse lwp json format file
 -m, --maccmd       <hex>       Parse MAC command
 -p, --parse        [hex]       Parse packet
 -g, --pack         [hex]       Generate packet
 -f, --pktfwd       [file]      Packet forwarder mode
     --join                     Analyze JR and JA

 -B, --band         <string>    PHY band EU868/US915/EU434/AU920/CN780/CN470
 -N, --nwkskey      <hex>       NwkSKey
 -A, --appskey      <hex>       AppSKey
 -K, --appkey       <hex>       AppKey

 -T, --type         <string>    Frame type (JR/JA/UU/UD/CU/CD/P)
 -D, --devaddr      <hex>       DevAddr
     --ack                      FCtrl ACK
     --aareq                    FCtrl ADRACKReq
     --adr                      FCtrl ADR
     --classb                   FCtrl CLASSB
     --fpending                 FCtrl FPENDING
 -O, --fopts        <hex>       FOpts, LoRaWAN Options
 -C                 <hex>       Frame counter (hex)
     --counter      <int>       Frame counter (int)
 -P                 <hex>       Port (hex)
     --port         <int>       Port (int)

     --appeui       <hex>       AppEui
     --deveui       <hex>       DevEui
     --anonce       <hex>       AppNonce (3 byets)
     --dnonce       <hex>       DevNonce (2 byets)
     --netid        <hex>       NetId (3 byets)
     --cflist       <hex>       CFList (16 bytes)
     --rx1droft     <int>       RX1DRoffset (0~7)
     --rx2dr        <int>       RX2DataRate (0~15)
     --rxdelay      <int>       RxDelay (0~15)
     --jr           <hex>       JoinRequest raw data
     --ja           <hex>       JoinAccept raw data

     --motes        <file>      Motes/Nodes JSON file
     --nodes        <file>      Same as --motes

 -b, --board        <file>      Board specific TX power table and RSSI offset
 -i, --iface        <string>    Network interface, default eth0

Default AppKey/NwkSKey/AppSKey 2B7E151628AED2A6ABF7158809CF4F3C

Pack LoRaWAN frame

# Unconfirmed uplink
$ ./lwp --pack "00112233" -T UU --devaddr 01111111 --adr --ack --counter 1113 --port 2

# Confirmed uplink without payload
$ ./lwp --pack -T CU --devaddr 01111111 --adr --ack --aareq --counter 1113

# Unconfirmed downlink
$ ./lwp --pack "00112233" -T UD --devaddr 01111111 --adr --ack --port 2 --counter 1113

# Confirmed downlink without payload, frame pending set
$ ./lwp --pack -T CD --devaddr 01111111 --adr --ack --pending --counter 1113

# Join request
$ ./lwp --pack -T JR --deveui 0123456789ABCDEF --appeui 0000000000000001 --dnonce ABCD

# Join accept, --dnonce is used to generate NwkSKey and AppSKey
$ ./lwp --pack -T JA --devaddr 0123456 --anonce ABCDEF --netid 000008 --rx1droft 0 --rx2dr 0 --rxdelay 1 --dnonce ABCD

Parse LoRaWAN frame

# Parser with specified keys
$ ./lwp --parse "40 11 11 11 01 A0 59 04 02 0F A0 9D 7C 61 F3 FA B7" --nwkskey 2B7E151628AED2A6ABF7158809CF4F3C --appskey 2B7E151628AED2A6ABF7158809CF4F3C --appkey 2B7E151628AED2A6ABF7158809CF4F3C

# Parse with default key
$ ./lwp --parse "40 11 11 11 01 A0 59 04 02 0F A0 9D 7C 61 F3 FA B7"


$ lwp -T CD -m "02 30 01"

Parse JoinRequest and JoinAccept

# Parse JR/JA pair
$ ./lwp --join --jr "0001000000000000860100000000000086F79FB4C20660" --ja "202D9583ABA736C80F9700DB420A010554" --appkey "86000000000000008600000000000000"

Burst Parse LoRaWAN Frame

$ ./lwp -c lwp-config.json

To go further, user could fill their own LoRaWAN frames in a json file to parse it.

Packet Forwarder Mode

$ ./lwp --pktfwd global_conf.template.json --board lwp-board.json --iface eth0



Depends on tools libtool, automake. To build:

# install tools if it is not there
sudo apt-get install autoconf libtool

cd lorawan-parser
autoreconf -i



lorawan-parser supports Codeblocks project. One could download Codeblocks from its official website.


Not supported yet. You are welcome to submit CMake patches.

Raspberry Pi

sudo apt-get install autoconf libtool
autoreconf -i

Big Endian Platform

Thank @huzhifeng help test on MIPS platform

autoreconf -i
./configure --enable-big-endian

Cross Compile

Raspberry Pi

git clone --depth 1

Add below path to system $PATH

// 64bits

// 32bits

Generate Makefile

./configure --host=arm-linux CC=arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc


lorawan-parser only handles frames of which real frame counter is less than 0xFFFF, this is because an exact LoRaWAN frame only record low 16bits of the frame, the parser alwarys assumes the high 16bits is zero.

Frame counter enhancement

API is updated to receive frame counter 16 most-significante bits passed from user. This makes it possible to emunate the frame counter most significante bits when a frame is known to be valid


Any kind of contributions are welcome, issue report, pull requests, WIKI, suggestions...

Before you send pull request, please try to make your code keep same style as the original one.


lorawan-paser and is licensed under The MIT License. Check LICENSE.txt for more information.

parson, AES, CMAC have its own licenses. Please follow links below to get the details.



LoRaWAN protocol parser and packer in C








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