Lazy in-place transformations of arrays
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test Implement pretty-printing Jul 5, 2018
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README.md

MappedArrays

Build Status

codecov.io

This package implements "lazy" in-place elementwise transformations of arrays for the Julia programming language. Explicitly, it provides a "view" M of an array A so that M[i] = f(A[i]) for a specified (but arbitrary) function f, without ever having to compute M explicitly (in the sense of allocating storage for M). The name of the package comes from the fact that M == map(f, A).

Usage

Single source arrays

julia> using MappedArrays

julia> a = [1,4,9,16]
4-element Array{Int64,1}:
  1
  4
  9
 16

julia> b = mappedarray(sqrt, a)
4-element mappedarray(sqrt, ::Array{Int64,1}) with eltype Float64:
 1.0
 2.0
 3.0
 4.0

julia> b[3]
3.0

Note that you can't set values in the array:

julia> b[3] = 2
ERROR: setindex! not defined for ReadonlyMappedArray{Float64,1,Array{Int64,1},typeof(sqrt)}
Stacktrace:
 [1] error(::String, ::Type) at ./error.jl:42
 [2] error_if_canonical_setindex at ./abstractarray.jl:1005 [inlined]
 [3] setindex!(::ReadonlyMappedArray{Float64,1,Array{Int64,1},typeof(sqrt)}, ::Int64, ::Int64) at ./abstractarray.jl:996
 [4] top-level scope at none:0

unless you also supply the inverse function, using mappedarray(f, finv, A):

julia> c = mappedarray(sqrt, x->x*x, a)
4-element mappedarray(sqrt, x->x * x, ::Array{Int64,1}) with eltype Float64:
 1.0
 2.0
 3.0
 4.0

julia> c[3]
3.0

julia> c[3] = 2
2

julia> a
4-element Array{Int64,1}:
  1
  4
  4
 16

Naturally, the "backing" array a has to be able to represent any value that you set:

julia> c[3] = 2.2
ERROR: InexactError: Int64(Int64, 4.840000000000001)
Stacktrace:
 [1] Type at ./float.jl:692 [inlined]
 [2] convert at ./number.jl:7 [inlined]
 [3] setindex! at ./array.jl:743 [inlined]
 [4] setindex!(::MappedArray{Float64,1,Array{Int64,1},typeof(sqrt),getfield(Main, Symbol("##5#6"))}, ::Float64, ::Int64) at /home/tim/.julia/dev/MappedArrays/src/MappedArrays.jl:173
 [5] top-level scope at none:0

because 2.2^2 = 4.84 is not representable as an Int. In contrast,

julia> a = [1.0, 4.0, 9.0, 16.0]
4-element Array{Float64,1}:
  1.0
  4.0
  9.0
 16.0

julia> c = mappedarray(sqrt, x->x*x, a)
4-element mappedarray(sqrt, x->x * x, ::Array{Float64,1}) with eltype Float64:
 1.0
 2.0
 3.0
 4.0

julia> c[3] = 2.2
2.2

julia> a
4-element Array{Float64,1}:
  1.0
  4.0
  4.840000000000001
 16.0

works without trouble.

So far our examples have all been one-dimensional, but this package also supports arbitrary-dimensional arrays:

julia> a = randn(3,5,2)
3×5×2 Array{Float64,3}:
[:, :, 1] =
  1.47716    0.323915   0.448389  -0.56426   2.67922
 -0.255123  -0.752548  -0.41303    0.306604  1.5196
  0.154179   0.425001  -1.95575   -0.982299  0.145111

[:, :, 2] =
 -0.799232  -0.301813  -0.457817  -0.115742  -1.22948
 -0.486558  -1.27959   -1.59661    1.05867    2.06828
 -0.315976  -0.188828  -0.567672   0.405086   1.06983

julia> b = mappedarray(abs, a)
3×5×2 mappedarray(abs, ::Array{Float64,3}) with eltype Float64:
[:, :, 1] =
 1.47716   0.323915  0.448389  0.56426   2.67922
 0.255123  0.752548  0.41303   0.306604  1.5196
 0.154179  0.425001  1.95575   0.982299  0.145111

[:, :, 2] =
 0.799232  0.301813  0.457817  0.115742  1.22948
 0.486558  1.27959   1.59661   1.05867   2.06828
 0.315976  0.188828  0.567672  0.405086  1.06983

Multiple source arrays

Just as map(f, a, b) can take multiple containers a and b, mappedarray can too:

julia> a = [0.1 0.2; 0.3 0.4]
2×2 Array{Float64,2}:
 0.1  0.2
 0.3  0.4

julia> b = [1 2; 3 4]
2×2 Array{Int64,2}:
 1  2
 3  4

julia> c = mappedarray(+, a, b)
2×2 mappedarray(+, ::Array{Float64,2}, ::Array{Int64,2}) with eltype Float64:
 1.1  2.2
 3.3  4.4

In some cases you can also supply an inverse function, which should return a tuple (one value for each input array):

julia> using ColorTypes

julia> redchan = [0.1 0.2; 0.3 0.4];

julia> greenchan = [0.8 0.75; 0.7 0.65];

julia> bluechan = [0 1; 0 1];

julia> m = mappedarray(RGB{Float64}, c->(red(c), green(c), blue(c)), redchan, greenchan, bluechan)
2×2 mappedarray(RGB{Float64}, getfield(Main, Symbol("##11#12"))(), ::Array{Float64,2}, ::Array{Float64,2}, ::Array{Int64,2}) with eltype RGB{Float64}:
 RGB{Float64}(0.1,0.8,0.0)  RGB{Float64}(0.2,0.75,1.0)
 RGB{Float64}(0.3,0.7,0.0)  RGB{Float64}(0.4,0.65,1.0)

 julia> m[1,2] = RGB(0,0,0)
RGB{N0f8}(0.0,0.0,0.0)

julia> redchan
2×2 Array{Float64,2}:
 0.1  0.0
 0.3  0.4

Note that in some cases the function or inverse-function is too complicated to print nicely in the summary line.

of_eltype

This package defines a convenience method, of_eltype, which "lazily-converts" arrays to a specific eltype. (It works simply by defining convert functions for both f and finv.)

Using of_eltype you can "convert" a series of arrays to a chosen element type:

julia> arrays = (rand(2,2), rand(Int,2,2), [0x01 0x03; 0x02 0x04])
([0.984799 0.871579; 0.106783 0.0619827], [-6481735407318330164 5092084295348224098; -6063116549749853620 -8721118838052351006], UInt8[0x01 0x03; 0x02 0x04])

julia> arraysT = map(A->of_eltype(Float64, A), arrays)
([0.984799 0.871579; 0.106783 0.0619827], [-6.48174e18 5.09208e18; -6.06312e18 -8.72112e18], [1.0 3.0; 2.0 4.0])

This construct is inferrable (type-stable), so it can be a useful means to "coerce" arrays to a common type. This can sometimes solve type-stability problems without requiring that one copy the data.