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# This file is a part of Julia. License is MIT: https://julialang.org/license
"""
Ptr{T}
A memory address referring to data of type `T`. However, there is no guarantee that the
memory is actually valid, or that it actually represents data of the specified type.
"""
Ptr
## converting pointers to an appropriate unsigned ##
"""
C_NULL
The C null pointer constant, sometimes used when calling external code.
"""
const C_NULL = bitcast(Ptr{Cvoid}, 0)
# TODO: deprecate these conversions. C doesn't even allow them.
# pointer to integer
convert(::Type{T}, x::Ptr) where {T<:Integer} = T(UInt(x))
# integer to pointer
convert(::Type{Ptr{T}}, x::Union{Int,UInt}) where {T} = Ptr{T}(x)
# pointer to pointer
convert(::Type{Ptr{T}}, p::Ptr{T}) where {T} = p
convert(::Type{Ptr{T}}, p::Ptr) where {T} = bitcast(Ptr{T}, p)
# object to pointer (when used with ccall)
"""
unsafe_convert(T, x)
Convert `x` to a C argument of type `T`
where the input `x` must be the return value of `cconvert(T, ...)`.
In cases where [`convert`](@ref) would need to take a Julia object
and turn it into a `Ptr`, this function should be used to define and perform
that conversion.
Be careful to ensure that a Julia reference to `x` exists as long as the result of this
function will be used. Accordingly, the argument `x` to this function should never be an
expression, only a variable name or field reference. For example, `x=a.b.c` is acceptable,
but `x=[a,b,c]` is not.
The `unsafe` prefix on this function indicates that using the result of this function after
the `x` argument to this function is no longer accessible to the program may cause undefined
behavior, including program corruption or segfaults, at any later time.
See also [`cconvert`](@ref)
"""
function unsafe_convert end
unsafe_convert(::Type{Ptr{UInt8}}, x::Symbol) = ccall(:jl_symbol_name, Ptr{UInt8}, (Any,), x)
unsafe_convert(::Type{Ptr{Int8}}, x::Symbol) = ccall(:jl_symbol_name, Ptr{Int8}, (Any,), x)
unsafe_convert(::Type{Ptr{UInt8}}, s::String) = convert(Ptr{UInt8}, pointer_from_objref(s)+sizeof(Int))
unsafe_convert(::Type{Ptr{Int8}}, s::String) = convert(Ptr{Int8}, pointer_from_objref(s)+sizeof(Int))
# convert strings to String etc. to pass as pointers
cconvert(::Type{Ptr{UInt8}}, s::AbstractString) = String(s)
cconvert(::Type{Ptr{Int8}}, s::AbstractString) = String(s)
unsafe_convert(::Type{Ptr{T}}, a::Array{T}) where {T} = ccall(:jl_array_ptr, Ptr{T}, (Any,), a)
unsafe_convert(::Type{Ptr{S}}, a::AbstractArray{T}) where {S,T} = convert(Ptr{S}, unsafe_convert(Ptr{T}, a))
unsafe_convert(::Type{Ptr{T}}, a::AbstractArray{T}) where {T} = error("conversion to pointer not defined for $(typeof(a))")
# unsafe pointer to array conversions
"""
unsafe_wrap(Array, pointer::Ptr{T}, dims; own = false)
Wrap a Julia `Array` object around the data at the address given by `pointer`,
without making a copy. The pointer element type `T` determines the array
element type. `dims` is either an integer (for a 1d array) or a tuple of the array dimensions.
`own` optionally specifies whether Julia should take ownership of the memory,
calling `free` on the pointer when the array is no longer referenced.
This function is labeled "unsafe" because it will crash if `pointer` is not
a valid memory address to data of the requested length.
"""
function unsafe_wrap(::Union{Type{Array},Type{Array{T}},Type{Array{T,N}}},
p::Ptr{T}, dims::NTuple{N,Int}; own::Bool = false) where {T,N}
ccall(:jl_ptr_to_array, Array{T,N}, (Any, Ptr{Cvoid}, Any, Int32),
Array{T,N}, p, dims, own)
end
function unsafe_wrap(::Union{Type{Array},Type{Array{T}},Type{Array{T,1}}},
p::Ptr{T}, d::Integer; own::Bool = false) where {T}
ccall(:jl_ptr_to_array_1d, Array{T,1},
(Any, Ptr{Cvoid}, Csize_t, Cint), Array{T,1}, p, d, own)
end
unsafe_wrap(Atype::Type, p::Ptr, dims::NTuple{N,<:Integer}; own::Bool = false) where {N} =
unsafe_wrap(Atype, p, convert(Tuple{Vararg{Int}}, dims), own = own)
"""
unsafe_load(p::Ptr{T}, i::Integer=1)
Load a value of type `T` from the address of the `i`th element (1-indexed) starting at `p`.
This is equivalent to the C expression `p[i-1]`.
The `unsafe` prefix on this function indicates that no validation is performed on the
pointer `p` to ensure that it is valid. Incorrect usage may segfault your program or return
garbage answers, in the same manner as C.
"""
unsafe_load(p::Ptr, i::Integer=1) = pointerref(p, Int(i), 1)
"""
unsafe_store!(p::Ptr{T}, x, i::Integer=1)
Store a value of type `T` to the address of the `i`th element (1-indexed) starting at `p`.
This is equivalent to the C expression `p[i-1] = x`.
The `unsafe` prefix on this function indicates that no validation is performed on the
pointer `p` to ensure that it is valid. Incorrect usage may corrupt or segfault your
program, in the same manner as C.
"""
unsafe_store!(p::Ptr{Any}, @nospecialize(x), i::Integer=1) = pointerset(p, x, Int(i), 1)
unsafe_store!(p::Ptr{T}, x, i::Integer=1) where {T} = pointerset(p, convert(T,x), Int(i), 1)
# convert a raw Ptr to an object reference, and vice-versa
"""
unsafe_pointer_to_objref(p::Ptr)
Convert a `Ptr` to an object reference. Assumes the pointer refers to a valid heap-allocated
Julia object. If this is not the case, undefined behavior results, hence this function is
considered "unsafe" and should be used with care.
"""
unsafe_pointer_to_objref(x::Ptr) = ccall(:jl_value_ptr, Any, (Ptr{Cvoid},), x)
"""
pointer_from_objref(x)
Get the memory address of a Julia object as a `Ptr`. The existence of the resulting `Ptr`
will not protect the object from garbage collection, so you must ensure that the object
remains referenced for the whole time that the `Ptr` will be used.
This function may not be called on immutable objects, since they do not have
stable memory addresses.
"""
function pointer_from_objref(@nospecialize(x))
@_inline_meta
typeof(x).mutable || error("pointer_from_objref cannot be used on immutable objects")
ccall(:jl_value_ptr, Ptr{Cvoid}, (Any,), x)
end
## limited pointer arithmetic & comparison ##
isequal(x::Ptr, y::Ptr) = (x === y)
isless(x::Ptr{T}, y::Ptr{T}) where {T} = x < y
==(x::Ptr, y::Ptr) = UInt(x) == UInt(y)
<(x::Ptr, y::Ptr) = UInt(x) < UInt(y)
-(x::Ptr, y::Ptr) = UInt(x) - UInt(y)
+(x::Ptr, y::Integer) = oftype(x, add_ptr(UInt(x), (y % UInt) % UInt))
-(x::Ptr, y::Integer) = oftype(x, sub_ptr(UInt(x), (y % UInt) % UInt))
+(x::Integer, y::Ptr) = y + x