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# This file is a part of Julia. License is MIT: https://julialang.org/license
## Functions to compute the reduced shape
# for reductions that expand 0 dims to 1
reduced_indices(a::AbstractArray, region) = reduced_indices(indices(a), region)
# for reductions that keep 0 dims as 0
reduced_indices0(a::AbstractArray, region) = reduced_indices0(indices(a), region)
function reduced_indices(inds::Indices{N}, d::Int, rd::AbstractUnitRange) where N
d < 1 && throw(ArgumentError("dimension must be ≥ 1, got $d"))
if d == 1
return (oftype(inds[1], rd), tail(inds)...)
elseif 1 < d <= N
return tuple(inds[1:d-1]..., oftype(inds[d], rd), inds[d+1:N]...)::typeof(inds)
else
return inds
end
end
reduced_indices(inds::Indices, d::Int) = reduced_indices(inds, d, OneTo(1))
function reduced_indices0(inds::Indices{N}, d::Int) where N
d < 1 && throw(ArgumentError("dimension must be ≥ 1, got $d"))
if d <= N
return reduced_indices(inds, d, (inds[d] == OneTo(0) ? OneTo(0) : OneTo(1)))
else
return inds
end
end
function reduced_indices(inds::Indices{N}, region) where N
rinds = [inds...]
for i in region
isa(i, Integer) || throw(ArgumentError("reduced dimension(s) must be integers"))
d = Int(i)
if d < 1
throw(ArgumentError("region dimension(s) must be ≥ 1, got $d"))
elseif d <= N
rinds[d] = oftype(rinds[d], OneTo(1))
end
end
tuple(rinds...)::typeof(inds)
end
function reduced_indices0(inds::Indices{N}, region) where N
rinds = [inds...]
for i in region
isa(i, Integer) || throw(ArgumentError("reduced dimension(s) must be integers"))
d = Int(i)
if d < 1
throw(ArgumentError("region dimension(s) must be ≥ 1, got $d"))
elseif d <= N
rinds[d] = oftype(rinds[d], (rinds[d] == OneTo(0) ? OneTo(0) : OneTo(1)))
end
end
tuple(rinds...)::typeof(inds)
end
###### Generic reduction functions #####
## initialization
for (Op, initfun) in ((:(typeof(+)), :zero), (:(typeof(*)), :one), (:(typeof(scalarmax)), :typemin), (:(typeof(scalarmin)), :typemax), (:(typeof(max)), :typemin), (:(typeof(min)), :typemax))
@eval initarray!{T}(a::AbstractArray{T}, ::$(Op), init::Bool) = (init && fill!(a, $(initfun)(T)); a)
end
for (Op, initval) in ((:(typeof(&)), true), (:(typeof(|)), false))
@eval initarray!(a::AbstractArray, ::$(Op), init::Bool) = (init && fill!(a, $initval); a)
end
reducedim_initarray(A::AbstractArray, region, v0, ::Type{R}) where {R} = fill!(similar(A,R,reduced_indices(A,region)), v0)
reducedim_initarray(A::AbstractArray, region, v0::T) where {T} = reducedim_initarray(A, region, v0, T)
reducedim_initarray0(A::AbstractArray, region, v0, ::Type{R}) where {R} = fill!(similar(A,R,reduced_indices0(A,region)), v0)
reducedim_initarray0(A::AbstractArray, region, v0::T) where {T} = reducedim_initarray0(A, region, v0, T)
# TODO: better way to handle reducedim initialization
#
# The current scheme is basically following Steven G. Johnson's original implementation
#
promote_union(T::Union) = promote_type(promote_union(T.a), promote_union(T.b))
promote_union(T) = T
function reducedim_init(f, op::typeof(+), A::AbstractArray, region)
_reducedim_init(f, op, zero, sum, A, region)
end
function reducedim_init(f, op::typeof(*), A::AbstractArray, region)
_reducedim_init(f, op, one, prod, A, region)
end
function _reducedim_init(f, op, fv, fop, A, region)
T = promote_union(eltype(A))
if method_exists(zero, Tuple{Type{T}})
x = f(zero(T))
z = op(fv(x), fv(x))
Tr = typeof(z) == typeof(x) && !isbits(T) ? T : typeof(z)
else
z = fv(fop(f, A))
Tr = typeof(z)
end
return reducedim_initarray(A, region, z, Tr)
end
reducedim_init(f, op::typeof(max), A::AbstractArray, region) = reducedim_init(f, scalarmax, A, region)
reducedim_init(f, op::typeof(min), A::AbstractArray, region) = reducedim_init(f, scalarmin, A, region)
reducedim_init(f::Union{typeof(abs),typeof(abs2)}, op::typeof(max), A::AbstractArray, region) = reducedim_init(f, scalarmax, A, region)
reducedim_init(f, op::typeof(scalarmax), A::AbstractArray{T}, region) where {T} = reducedim_initarray0(A, region, typemin(f(zero(T))))
reducedim_init(f, op::typeof(scalarmin), A::AbstractArray{T}, region) where {T} = reducedim_initarray0(A, region, typemax(f(zero(T))))
reducedim_init(f::Union{typeof(abs),typeof(abs2)}, op::typeof(scalarmax), A::AbstractArray{T}, region) where {T} =
reducedim_initarray(A, region, zero(f(zero(T))))
reducedim_init(f, op::typeof(&), A::AbstractArray, region) = reducedim_initarray(A, region, true)
reducedim_init(f, op::typeof(|), A::AbstractArray, region) = reducedim_initarray(A, region, false)
# specialize to make initialization more efficient for common cases
for (IT, RT) in ((CommonReduceResult, :(eltype(A))), (SmallSigned, :Int), (SmallUnsigned, :UInt))
T = Union{[AbstractArray{t} for t in uniontypes(IT)]..., [AbstractArray{Complex{t}} for t in uniontypes(IT)]...}
@eval begin
reducedim_init(f::typeof(identity), op::typeof(+), A::$T, region) =
reducedim_initarray(A, region, zero($RT))
reducedim_init(f::typeof(identity), op::typeof(*), A::$T, region) =
reducedim_initarray(A, region, one($RT))
reducedim_init(f::Union{typeof(abs),typeof(abs2)}, op::typeof(+), A::$T, region) =
reducedim_initarray(A, region, real(zero($RT)))
reducedim_init(f::Union{typeof(abs),typeof(abs2)}, op::typeof(*), A::$T, region) =
reducedim_initarray(A, region, real(one($RT)))
end
end
reducedim_init(f::Union{typeof(identity),typeof(abs),typeof(abs2)}, op::typeof(+), A::AbstractArray{Bool}, region) =
reducedim_initarray(A, region, 0)
## generic (map)reduction
has_fast_linear_indexing(a::AbstractArray) = false
has_fast_linear_indexing(a::Array) = true
function check_reducedims(R, A)
# Check whether R has compatible dimensions w.r.t. A for reduction
#
# It returns an integer value (useful for choosing implementation)
# - If it reduces only along leading dimensions, e.g. sum(A, 1) or sum(A, (1, 2)),
# it returns the length of the leading slice. For the two examples above,
# it will be size(A, 1) or size(A, 1) * size(A, 2).
# - Otherwise, e.g. sum(A, 2) or sum(A, (1, 3)), it returns 0.
#
ndims(R) <= ndims(A) || throw(DimensionMismatch("cannot reduce $(ndims(A))-dimensional array to $(ndims(R)) dimensions"))
lsiz = 1
had_nonreduc = false
for i = 1:ndims(A)
Ri, Ai = indices(R, i), indices(A, i)
sRi, sAi = length(Ri), length(Ai)
if sRi == 1
if sAi > 1
if had_nonreduc
lsiz = 0 # to reduce along i, but some previous dimensions were non-reducing
else
lsiz *= sAi # if lsiz was set to zero, it will stay to be zero
end
end
else
Ri == Ai || throw(DimensionMismatch("reduction on array with indices $(indices(A)) with output with indices $(indices(R))"))
had_nonreduc = true
end
end
return lsiz
end
function _mapreducedim!(f, op, R::AbstractArray, A::AbstractArray)
lsiz = check_reducedims(R,A)
isempty(A) && return R
if has_fast_linear_indexing(A) && lsiz > 16
# use mapreduce_impl, which is probably better tuned to achieve higher performance
nslices = div(_length(A), lsiz)
ibase = first(linearindices(A))-1
for i = 1:nslices
@inbounds R[i] = op(R[i], mapreduce_impl(f, op, A, ibase+1, ibase+lsiz))
ibase += lsiz
end
return R
end
indsAt, indsRt = safe_tail(indices(A)), safe_tail(indices(R)) # handle d=1 manually
keep, Idefault = Broadcast.shapeindexer(indsAt, indsRt)
if reducedim1(R, A)
# keep the accumulator as a local variable when reducing along the first dimension
i1 = first(indices1(R))
@inbounds for IA in CartesianRange(indsAt)
IR = Broadcast.newindex(IA, keep, Idefault)
r = R[i1,IR]
@simd for i in indices(A, 1)
r = op(r, f(A[i, IA]))
end
R[i1,IR] = r
end
else
@inbounds for IA in CartesianRange(indsAt)
IR = Broadcast.newindex(IA, keep, Idefault)
@simd for i in indices(A, 1)
R[i,IR] = op(R[i,IR], f(A[i,IA]))
end
end
end
return R
end
mapreducedim!(f, op, R::AbstractArray, A::AbstractArray) =
(_mapreducedim!(f, op, R, A); R)
reducedim!(op, R::AbstractArray{RT}, A::AbstractArray) where {RT} =
mapreducedim!(identity, op, R, A, zero(RT))
"""
mapreducedim(f, op, A, region[, v0])
Evaluates to the same as `reducedim(op, map(f, A), region, f(v0))`, but is generally
faster because the intermediate array is avoided.
```jldoctest
julia> a = reshape(collect(1:16), (4,4))
4×4 Array{Int64,2}:
1 5 9 13
2 6 10 14
3 7 11 15
4 8 12 16
julia> mapreducedim(isodd, *, a, 1)
1×4 Array{Bool,2}:
false false false false
julia> mapreducedim(isodd, |, a, 1, true)
1×4 Array{Bool,2}:
true true true true
```
"""
mapreducedim(f, op, A::AbstractArray, region, v0) =
mapreducedim!(f, op, reducedim_initarray(A, region, v0), A)
mapreducedim(f, op, A::AbstractArray, region) =
mapreducedim!(f, op, reducedim_init(f, op, A, region), A)
"""
reducedim(f, A, region[, v0])
Reduce 2-argument function `f` along dimensions of `A`. `region` is a vector specifying the
dimensions to reduce, and `v0` is the initial value to use in the reductions. For `+`, `*`,
`max` and `min` the `v0` argument is optional.
The associativity of the reduction is implementation-dependent; if you need a particular
associativity, e.g. left-to-right, you should write your own loop. See documentation for
[`reduce`](@ref).
```jldoctest
julia> a = reshape(collect(1:16), (4,4))
4×4 Array{Int64,2}:
1 5 9 13
2 6 10 14
3 7 11 15
4 8 12 16
julia> reducedim(max, a, 2)
4×1 Array{Int64,2}:
13
14
15
16
julia> reducedim(max, a, 1)
1×4 Array{Int64,2}:
4 8 12 16
```
"""
reducedim(op, A::AbstractArray, region, v0) = mapreducedim(identity, op, A, region, v0)
reducedim(op, A::AbstractArray, region) = mapreducedim(identity, op, A, region)
##### Specific reduction functions #####
"""
sum(A, dims)
Sum elements of an array over the given dimensions.
```jldoctest
julia> A = [1 2; 3 4]
2×2 Array{Int64,2}:
1 2
3 4
julia> sum(A, 1)
1×2 Array{Int64,2}:
4 6
julia> sum(A, 2)
2×1 Array{Int64,2}:
3
7
```
"""
sum(A, dims)
"""
sum!(r, A)
Sum elements of `A` over the singleton dimensions of `r`, and write results to `r`.
```jldoctest
julia> A = [1 2; 3 4]
2×2 Array{Int64,2}:
1 2
3 4
julia> sum!([1; 1], A)
2-element Array{Int64,1}:
3
7
julia> sum!([1 1], A)
1×2 Array{Int64,2}:
4 6
```
"""
sum!(r, A)
"""
prod(A, dims)
Multiply elements of an array over the given dimensions.
```jldoctest
julia> A = [1 2; 3 4]
2×2 Array{Int64,2}:
1 2
3 4
julia> prod(A, 1)
1×2 Array{Int64,2}:
3 8
julia> prod(A, 2)
2×1 Array{Int64,2}:
2
12
```
"""
prod(A, dims)
"""
prod!(r, A)
Multiply elements of `A` over the singleton dimensions of `r`, and write results to `r`.
```jldoctest
julia> A = [1 2; 3 4]
2×2 Array{Int64,2}:
1 2
3 4
julia> prod!([1; 1], A)
2-element Array{Int64,1}:
2
12
julia> prod!([1 1], A)
1×2 Array{Int64,2}:
3 8
```
"""
prod!(r, A)
"""
maximum(A, dims)
Compute the maximum value of an array over the given dimensions. See also the
[`max(a,b)`](@ref) function to take the maximum of two or more arguments,
which can be applied elementwise to arrays via `max.(a,b)`.
```jldoctest
julia> A = [1 2; 3 4]
2×2 Array{Int64,2}:
1 2
3 4
julia> maximum(A, 1)
1×2 Array{Int64,2}:
3 4
julia> maximum(A, 2)
2×1 Array{Int64,2}:
2
4
```
"""
maximum(A, dims)
"""
maximum!(r, A)
Compute the maximum value of `A` over the singleton dimensions of `r`, and write results to `r`.
```jldoctest
julia> A = [1 2; 3 4]
2×2 Array{Int64,2}:
1 2
3 4
julia> maximum!([1; 1], A)
2-element Array{Int64,1}:
2
4
julia> maximum!([1 1], A)
1×2 Array{Int64,2}:
3 4
```
"""
maximum!(r, A)
"""
minimum(A, dims)
Compute the minimum value of an array over the given dimensions. See also the
[`min(a,b)`](@ref) function to take the minimum of two or more arguments,
which can be applied elementwise to arrays via `min.(a,b)`.
```jldoctest
julia> A = [1 2; 3 4]
2×2 Array{Int64,2}:
1 2
3 4
julia> minimum(A, 1)
1×2 Array{Int64,2}:
1 2
julia> minimum(A, 2)
2×1 Array{Int64,2}:
1
3
```
"""
minimum(A, dims)
"""
minimum!(r, A)
Compute the minimum value of `A` over the singleton dimensions of `r`, and write results to `r`.
```jldoctest
julia> A = [1 2; 3 4]
2×2 Array{Int64,2}:
1 2
3 4
julia> minimum!([1; 1], A)
2-element Array{Int64,1}:
1
3
julia> minimum!([1 1], A)
1×2 Array{Int64,2}:
1 2
```
"""
minimum!(r, A)
"""
all(A, dims)
Test whether all values along the given dimensions of an array are `true`.
```jldoctest
julia> A = [true false; true true]
2×2 Array{Bool,2}:
true false
true true
julia> all(A, 1)
1×2 Array{Bool,2}:
true false
julia> all(A, 2)
2×1 Array{Bool,2}:
false
true
```
"""
all(A::AbstractArray, dims)
"""
all!(r, A)
Test whether all values in `A` along the singleton dimensions of `r` are `true`, and write results to `r`.
```jldoctest
julia> A = [true false; true false]
2×2 Array{Bool,2}:
true false
true false
julia> all!([1; 1], A)
2-element Array{Int64,1}:
0
0
julia> all!([1 1], A)
1×2 Array{Int64,2}:
1 0
```
"""
all!(r, A)
"""
any(A, dims)
Test whether any values along the given dimensions of an array are `true`.
```jldoctest
julia> A = [true false; true false]
2×2 Array{Bool,2}:
true false
true false
julia> any(A, 1)
1×2 Array{Bool,2}:
true false
julia> any(A, 2)
2×1 Array{Bool,2}:
true
true
```
"""
any(::AbstractArray,dims)
"""
any!(r, A)
Test whether any values in `A` along the singleton dimensions of `r` are `true`, and write
results to `r`.
```jldoctest
julia> A = [true false; true false]
2×2 Array{Bool,2}:
true false
true false
julia> any!([1; 1], A)
2-element Array{Int64,1}:
1
1
julia> any!([1 1], A)
1×2 Array{Int64,2}:
1 0
```
"""
any!(r, A)
for (fname, op) in [(:sum, :+), (:prod, :*),
(:maximum, :scalarmax), (:minimum, :scalarmin),
(:all, :&), (:any, :|)]
fname! = Symbol(fname, '!')
@eval begin
$(fname!)(f::Function, r::AbstractArray, A::AbstractArray; init::Bool=true) =
mapreducedim!(f, $(op), initarray!(r, $(op), init), A)
$(fname!)(r::AbstractArray, A::AbstractArray; init::Bool=true) = $(fname!)(identity, r, A; init=init)
$(fname)(f::Function, A::AbstractArray, region) =
mapreducedim(f, $(op), A, region)
$(fname)(A::AbstractArray, region) = $(fname)(identity, A, region)
end
end
##### findmin & findmax #####
function findminmax!(f, Rval, Rind, A::AbstractArray{T,N}) where {T,N}
(isempty(Rval) || isempty(A)) && return Rval, Rind
lsiz = check_reducedims(Rval, A)
for i = 1:N
indices(Rval, i) == indices(Rind, i) || throw(DimensionMismatch("Find-reduction: outputs must have the same indices"))
end
# If we're reducing along dimension 1, for efficiency we can make use of a temporary.
# Otherwise, keep the result in Rval/Rind so that we traverse A in storage order.
indsAt, indsRt = safe_tail(indices(A)), safe_tail(indices(Rval))
keep, Idefault = Broadcast.shapeindexer(indsAt, indsRt)
k = 0
if reducedim1(Rval, A)
i1 = first(indices1(Rval))
@inbounds for IA in CartesianRange(indsAt)
IR = Broadcast.newindex(IA, keep, Idefault)
tmpRv = Rval[i1,IR]
tmpRi = Rind[i1,IR]
for i in indices(A,1)
k += 1
tmpAv = A[i,IA]
if f(tmpAv, tmpRv)
tmpRv = tmpAv
tmpRi = k
end
end
Rval[i1,IR] = tmpRv
Rind[i1,IR] = tmpRi
end
else
@inbounds for IA in CartesianRange(indsAt)
IR = Broadcast.newindex(IA, keep, Idefault)
for i in indices(A, 1)
k += 1
tmpAv = A[i,IA]
if f(tmpAv, Rval[i,IR])
Rval[i,IR] = tmpAv
Rind[i,IR] = k
end
end
end
end
Rval, Rind
end
"""
findmin!(rval, rind, A, [init=true]) -> (minval, index)
Find the minimum of `A` and the corresponding linear index along singleton
dimensions of `rval` and `rind`, and store the results in `rval` and `rind`.
"""
function findmin!(rval::AbstractArray, rind::AbstractArray, A::AbstractArray;
init::Bool=true)
findminmax!(<, initarray!(rval, scalarmin, init), rind, A)
end
"""
findmin(A, region) -> (minval, index)
For an array input, returns the value and index of the minimum over the given region.
```jldoctest
julia> A = [1 2; 3 4]
2×2 Array{Int64,2}:
1 2
3 4
julia> findmin(A, 1)
([1 2], [1 3])
julia> findmin(A, 2)
([1; 3], [1; 2])
```
"""
function findmin(A::AbstractArray{T}, region) where T
if isempty(A)
return (similar(A, reduced_indices0(A, region)),
similar(dims->zeros(Int, dims), reduced_indices0(A, region)))
end
return findminmax!(<, reducedim_initarray0(A, region, typemax(T)),
similar(dims->zeros(Int, dims), reduced_indices0(A, region)), A)
end
"""
findmax!(rval, rind, A, [init=true]) -> (maxval, index)
Find the maximum of `A` and the corresponding linear index along singleton
dimensions of `rval` and `rind`, and store the results in `rval` and `rind`.
"""
function findmax!(rval::AbstractArray, rind::AbstractArray, A::AbstractArray;
init::Bool=true)
findminmax!(>, initarray!(rval, scalarmax, init), rind, A)
end
"""
findmax(A, region) -> (maxval, index)
For an array input, returns the value and index of the maximum over the given region.
```jldoctest
julia> A = [1 2; 3 4]
2×2 Array{Int64,2}:
1 2
3 4
julia> findmax(A,1)
([3 4], [2 4])
julia> findmax(A,2)
([2; 4], [3; 4])
```
"""
function findmax(A::AbstractArray{T}, region) where T
if isempty(A)
return (similar(A, reduced_indices0(A,region)),
similar(dims->zeros(Int, dims), reduced_indices0(A,region)))
end
return findminmax!(>, reducedim_initarray0(A, region, typemin(T)),
similar(dims->zeros(Int, dims), reduced_indices0(A, region)), A)
end
reducedim1(R, A) = length(indices1(R)) == 1