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# # Collinear spin and magnetic systems
# In this example we consider iron in the BCC phase.
# To show that this material is ferromagnetic we will model it once
# allowing collinear spin polarization and once without
# and compare the resulting SCF energies. In particular
# the ground state can only be found if collinear spins are allowed.
# First we setup BCC iron without spin polarization
# using a single iron atom inside the unit cell.
using DFTK
a = 5.42352 # Bohr
lattice = a / 2 * [[-1 1 1];
[ 1 -1 1];
[ 1 1 -1]]
atoms = [ElementPsp(:Fe, psp=load_psp("hgh/lda/Fe-q8.hgh"))]
positions = [zeros(3)];
# To get the ground-state energy we use an LDA model and rather moderate
# discretisation parameters.
kgrid = [3, 3, 3] # k-point grid (Regular Monkhorst-Pack grid)
Ecut = 15 # kinetic energy cutoff in Hartree
model_nospin = model_LDA(lattice, atoms, positions, temperature=0.01)
basis_nospin = PlaneWaveBasis(model_nospin; kgrid, Ecut)
scfres_nospin = self_consistent_field(basis_nospin; tol=1e-6, mixing=KerkerDosMixing());
# Since we did not specify any initial magnetic moment on the iron atom,
# DFTK will automatically assume that a calculation with only spin-paired
# electrons should be performed. As a result the obtained ground state
# features no spin-polarization.
# Now we repeat the calculation, but give the iron atom an initial magnetic moment.
# For specifying the magnetic moment pass the desired excess of spin-up over spin-down
# electrons at each centre to the `Model` and the guess density functions.
# In this case we seek the state with as many spin-parallel
# ``d``-electrons as possible. In our pseudopotential model the 8 valence
# electrons are 2 pair of ``s``-electrons, 1 pair of ``d``-electrons
# and 4 unpaired ``d``-electrons giving a desired magnetic moment of `4` at the iron centre.
# The structure (i.e. pair mapping and order) of the `magnetic_moments` array needs to agree
# with the `atoms` array and `0` magnetic moments need to be specified as well.
magnetic_moments = [4];
# !!! tip "Units of the magnetisation and magnetic moments in DFTK"
# Unlike all other quantities magnetisation and magnetic moments in DFTK
# are given in units of the Bohr magneton ``μ_B``, which in atomic units has the
# value ``\frac{1}{2}``. Since ``μ_B`` is (roughly) the magnetic moment of
# a single electron the advantage is that one can directly think of these
# quantities as the excess of spin-up electrons or spin-up electron density.
# We repeat the calculation using the same model as before. DFTK now detects
# the non-zero moment and switches to a collinear calculation.
model = model_LDA(lattice, atoms, positions; magnetic_moments, temperature=0.01)
basis = PlaneWaveBasis(model; Ecut, kgrid)
ρ0 = guess_density(basis, magnetic_moments)
scfres = self_consistent_field(basis, tol=1e-6; ρ=ρ0, mixing=KerkerDosMixing());
# !!! note "Model and magnetic moments"
# DFTK does not store the `magnetic_moments` inside the `Model`, but only uses them
# to determine the lattice symmetries. This step was taken to keep `Model`
# (which contains the physical model) independent of the details of the numerical details
# such as the initial guess for the spin density.
# In direct comparison we notice the first, spin-paired calculation to be
# a little higher in energy
println("No magnetization: ",
println("Magnetic case: ",
println("Difference: ", -;
# Notice that with the small cutoffs we use to generate the online
# documentation the calculation is far from converged.
# With more realistic parameters a larger energy difference of about
# 0.1 Hartree is obtained.
# The spin polarization in the magnetic case is visible if we
# consider the occupation of the spin-up and spin-down Kohn-Sham orbitals.
# Especially for the ``d``-orbitals these differ rather drastically.
# For example for the first ``k``-point:
iup = 1
idown = iup + length(scfres.basis.kpoints) ÷ 2
@show scfres.occupation[iup][1:7]
@show scfres.occupation[idown][1:7];
# Similarly the eigenvalues differ
@show scfres.eigenvalues[iup][1:7]
@show scfres.eigenvalues[idown][1:7];
# !!! note "``k``-points in collinear calculations"
# For collinear calculations the `kpoints` field of the `PlaneWaveBasis` object contains
# each ``k``-point coordinate twice, once associated with spin-up and once with down-down.
# The list first contains all spin-up ``k``-points and then all spin-down ``k``-points,
# such that `iup` and `idown` index the same ``k``-point, but differing spins.
# We can observe the spin-polarization by looking at the density of states (DOS)
# around the Fermi level, where the spin-up and spin-down DOS differ.
using Plots
# Similarly the band structure shows clear differences between both spin components.
using Unitful
using UnitfulAtomic
plot_bandstructure(scfres; kline_density=6)