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README.md

Mazes For Programmers Python Sources

CircleCI

Introduction

I'm reading the Mazes for Programmers book, but source code comes in Ruby and I like Python, so I decided to rewrite them as I read. And along the way add tests, both to make sure the conversion is ok and to see a more continuous way than having to write all basic stuff and an "ASCII renderer" before being able to see anything.

A small remark: Code is not a 1:1 copy of the book's. For example I built exporters instead of adding to_s and to_png methods, pathfinding is also a module that works over traversable grids (those with distances calculated), and a few other changes and extras.

Implemented algorithms

  • AldousBroder
  • BinaryTree
  • HuntAndKill
  • RecursiveBacktracker
  • Sidewinder
  • Wilson

Note: This list will grow as I progress with the book.

Implemented exporters

  • ASCIIExporter: outputs to console
+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|                       |
+   +   +   +---+---+   +
|   |   |   |           |
+---+   +---+---+   +   +
|       |           |   |
+---+---+---+---+   +   +
|                   |   |
+   +---+   +   +---+   +
|   |       |   |       |
+   +   +   +   +---+   +
|   |   |   |   |       |
+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  • PNGExporter: outputs to a PNG file on the project root folder (filename will be current datetime)

Depending on the pathfinding and coloring flags combination can draw the colored solution path or a "distance-colored map" from the center.

  • UnicodeExporter: outputs to console (prettier than raw ASCII)
┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
┃                       ┃
┃           ┏━━━━━━━    ┃
┃   ┃   ┃   ┃           ┃
┣━━━┛   ┣━━━┻━━━        ┃
┃       ┃           ┃   ┃
┣━━━━━━━┻━━━━━━━    ┃   ┃
┃                   ┃   ┃
┃   ┏━━━        ┏━━━┛   ┃
┃   ┃       ┃   ┃       ┃
┃   ┃       ┃   ┣━━━    ┃
┃   ┃   ┃   ┃   ┃       ┃
┗━━━┻━━━┻━━━┻━━━┻━━━━━━━┛

Wolfenstein 3D Exporter

Special section for my small hack that I'm fond of, a "different" exporter:

  • Wolf3DExporter: outputs to a LEV file, to be used from NMAP tool to import as a Wolfenstein 3D map. Level exit is at the pathfinding end (most distant cell from starting position), and on each dead-end there is an enemy soldier (when you attack one all will start to move around the map). Also outputs a PNG file with the maze solution. To be used with game_map_demo.py demo runner.

Sample small map playthrough (start at blue, end at red, enemy on deadend at white zone):

hint map Wolfenstein3D playthrough

Implemented pathfinding algorithms

  • Dijkstra: Uses cell distances to calculate maze solution. The actual "core" logic lives at Distances base class.
  • LongestPath: Calculates "a longest path" of the maze. There can be many as it selects a cell as starting point and could be other longer ones.

Setup

You just need to have installed make, docker and docker-compose.

Execute

Easiest way is to run the corresponding demo-xxxx make command, e.g.:

make demo-terminal rows=<value> cols=<value> algorithm=<value>

# example
make demo-terminal rows=10 cols=10 algorithm=AldousBroder

Run without arguments to see all available options

Available make commands that run algorithms:

  • demo-terminal
  • demo-image
  • demo-game-map
  • run-stats

An alternative is to open a shell into the container and then run from the inside any demo:

# start and enter into container
make shell

# then run desired demo
python3 demos/<filename>

Available demo runners:

  • terminal_demo.py
  • game_map_demo.py
  • image_demo.py
  • stats_demo.py

And read the instructions of required and optional parameters (run without arguments and it will explain usage).

Usually you have to choose a desired grid size (in number of rows and columns) and the algorithm to use. Optionally you can select a few other parameters.

Stats demo runs all available algorithms a certain number of times and gathers statistics and metrics, careful with launching it with big mazes as might take a while. Sample output:

PYTHONPATH=. python3 demos/stats_demo.py 25 25 --pathfinding
Rows: 25
columns: 25
Total cells: 625
Runs per algorithm: 100
Pathfinding: True
> running AldousBroder
> running BinaryTree
> running HuntAndKill
> running RecursiveBacktracker
> running Sidewinder
> running Wilson

Average dead-ends (deadends/total-cells, sorted by % desc):
           AldousBroder: 182/625 (29.12%)
                 Wilson: 181/625 (28.93%)
             Sidewinder: 171/625 (27.29%)
             BinaryTree: 156/625 (24.97%)
   RecursiveBacktracker: 065/625 (10.47%)
            HuntAndKill: 061/625 (9.73%)

Generation speed benchmark (seconds, sorted by average desc):
                 Wilson: avg: 0.641611 min: 0.235594 max: 2.173624
            HuntAndKill: avg: 0.078919 min: 0.059095 max: 0.101278
           AldousBroder: avg: 0.038898 min: 0.015946 max: 0.180922
   RecursiveBacktracker: avg: 0.005492 min: 0.005383 max: 0.006105
             BinaryTree: avg: 0.002130 min: 0.002074 max: 0.002359
             Sidewinder: avg: 0.002105 min: 0.002039 max: 0.002320

Pathfinding speed benchmark (seconds, sorted by average desc):
           AldousBroder: avg: 0.014295 min: 0.011494 max: 0.035487
   RecursiveBacktracker: avg: 0.012775 min: 0.012238 max: 0.014378
            HuntAndKill: avg: 0.012100 min: 0.011589 max: 0.013740
                 Wilson: avg: 0.011712 min: 0.011262 max: 0.013362
             Sidewinder: avg: 0.011641 min: 0.011314 max: 0.013308
             BinaryTree: avg: 0.011561 min: 0.011267 max: 0.013016

Testing

Note: Runs also linter tests, to conform with both mypy and flake8.

make test

Roadmap & TODOs

  • Of course finish the book and implement all main code and algorithms
  • Check in depth mypy doc to see why all the issues with Union, probably I'm doing something wrong and doesn't detects properly hierarchies, etc.
  • Check to improve Wolf3DExporter drawing of tiles so I can have bigger maps (each cell now uses 2x2 map tiles)
  • Implement more pathfinders -> (e.g. recursive backtracking as a maze solving algorithm)

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