Utility Module Reference

dstarkebaum edited this page May 29, 2015 · 67 revisions

We just started working on documenting all of the utility functions. A great way to help out and become more familiar with the modules is to help us expand the documentation by editing the reference wiki. Feel free to adjust formatting, re-organize, whatever makes it easier for everyone to find the utility modules they need.

Common Utilities

Less common math stuff

Graphics

Specialized

math

`cleanMath( expr )`

Simplify formulas before display by removing, eg, + -, - -, and ^1 That is, remove redundant + or - signs. For example: "3 + -2^1" would become "3 - 2"

rand( num )

Returns a random int in [ 0, num ]

digits( n )

Returns an array of the digits of a nonnegative integer in reverse order

digits( 376 ) = [ 6, 7, 3 ]

integerToDigits( n )

Returns an array of the digits of a nonnegative integer. Returns an empty array if given a negative integer

integerToDigits( 376 ) = [ 3, 7, 6 ]
integerToDigits( -376 ) = [ ]

decimalDigits( n )

Returns an array of the digits of a (positive or negative) decimal number in reverse order The location of the decimal is lost, as well as the sign

decimalDigits ( -3.456 ) = [ 6, 5, 4, 3 ]

decimalPlaces( n )

Returns the number of digits after the decimal place of a (positive or negative) number

decimalPlaces ( -3.456 ) = 3

digitsToInteger( digits )

Returns an integer from an array of the digits

digitsToInteger([ 6, 7, 3 ]) = 673

padDigitsToNum( digits, num )

Given an array of digits, returns a new one padded with enough 0's (at the end) to make the array of minimum length num. Note that if "num" is less than the length of the array, the array will return unchanged

padDigitsToNum([ 1, 2 ], 4) = [ 1, 2, 0, 0 ]
padDigitsToNum([ 8, 7 ], 1) = [ 8, 7 ]

placesLeftOfDecimal

Returns exactly this array:
[ "one", "ten", "hundred", "thousand" ]

placesRightOfDecimal

Returns exactly this array:
[ "one", "tenth", "hundredth", "thousandth", "ten thousandth" ]

powerToPlace( power )

Returns the name of the place value as a string that corresponds to the given power of 10.

Note that this function is limited to the data contained in placesLeftOfDecimal and placesRightOfDecimal So it will give an error if power is larger than 3 or smaller than -4.

powerToPlace( 2 ) = "hundred"
powerToPlace( -1 ) = "tenth"

roundTowardsZero( a )

Returns the number a with the decimal part truncated.

 roundTowardsZero( 4.6 ) = 4
 roundTowardsZero( -5.9 ) = -5
 roundTowardsZero( 3.3 ) = 3

factorial

This function is supposed to be applied to a Natural number n and returns n! which is n * (n-1) * (n-2) * ... * 1 So for example: factorial(3) = 3! = 3 * 2 * 1 factorial(6) = 6! = 6 * 5* 4 * 3 * 2 * 1

getGCD( a, b )

Returns the greatest common divisor given two numbers, a and b.

getGCD(24,18) = 6

getLCM( a, b )

Returns lowest common multiple given two numbers, a and b.

getLCM(24,18) = 72

primes

Returns an array with all primes up to 100:

primes = [ 2, 3, 5, ... , 97]

getPrime()

Returns a random prime number < 100.

isPrime( n )

Checks if the given number n is prime for any natural number n.

isOdd( n )

Checks if the given number n is odd.

isOdd(24) = false

isEven( n )

Checks if the given number n is even.

isEven(24) = true

getOddComposite( min, max )

Returns a random odd composite number (that is not a prime number) between min and max. Default values are min = 0 and max = 100. Only returns numbers between 0 and 100, even if min < 0 or max > 100.

getEvenComposite( min, max )

Returns a random even composite number between min and max. Default values are min = 0 and max = 100. Only returns numbers between 0 and 100, even if min < 0 or max > 100.

getComposite()

Returns a random composite number between 0 and 100. Unlike getEvenComposite() and getOddComposite(), getComposite() does not take any arguments.

getPrimeFactorization( x )

Returns an array of the prime factors of x.

getPrimeFactorization( 54 ) = [2,3,3,3]

getFactors( number )

Gets all factors of the given number and returns them as an array in order.

getFactors( 12 ) = [1,2,3,4,6,12]

getNontrivialFactor( x )

Returns a random factor of x, but not 1 or x itself.

getMultiples( x, upperLimit)

Returns all the multiples of x that are less than or equal to upperLimit.

getMultiples(6,50) = [6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48]

splitRadical( x )

Simplifies a radical down to it's simplest form by extracting the biggest possible factor from the radical. Returns an array of two integers, the first being the number outside the radical sign (the extracted factor), and the second being the number still left under the radical sign.

Since 12 = 2 * 2 * 3, the factor 2 can be extracted from the radical and:

 splitRadical( 12 ) = [2,3]  

splitCube( x )

Simplifies a cube radical down to it's simplest form by extracting the biggest possible factor from the radical. Returns an array of two integers, the first being the number outside the radical sign (the extracted factor), and the second being the number still left under the radical sign.

Since 54 = 27 * 2 and 3 is the cube radical of 27, the factor 3 can be extracted from the radical and:

 splitCube( 54 ) = [2,3]  

randRange( min, max, count1, count2 )

Gets a random integer between min and max, inclusive.
If a count1 is passed, it gives an 1 dimensional array(1 x count1) of random numbers in the min - max range.
If a count2 is passed, it gives an 2 dimensional array(count1 x count2) of random numbers in the min - max range.

randRangeUnique( min, max, count )

Returns an array (of size count) of unique (that is of mutually different) random numbers between min and max

randRangeUniqueNonZero( min, max, count )

Returns an array (of size count) of unique (that is of mutually different) random numbers between min and max, that are not zero

randRangeWeighted( min, max, target, perc )

Gets a random integer between min and max with a perc chance of hitting target (which is assumed to be in the range, but it doesn't have to be).

randRangeExclude( min, max, excludes )

Gets a random integer between min and max that is never any of the values in the excludes array.

randRangeWeightedExclude( min, max, target, perc, excludes )

Get a random integer between min and max with a perc chance of hitting target (which is assumed to be in the range, but it doesn't have to be). It never returns any of the values in the excludes array.

randRangeNonZero( min, max )

Similar to randRange except that zeroes are excluded.

randFromArray( arr, count )

Returns a random member of the given array. If a count is passed, it gives an array of random members of the given array.

randFromArrayExclude( arr, excludes )

Gets a random value from the given array that is not in the excludes array.

roundTo(place, value)

Rounds given value to specified integer place. Negative values round left of the decimal.

 Example: roundTo(2, 123.456) returns 123.46

floorTo( precision, x )

Rounds x down to a number of decimal places specified by precision. If precision is negative, then x will be rounded down -precision places to the left of the decimal point.

 floorTo(2, 10.989) = 10.98
 floorTo(2, -10.989) = -10.99
 floorTo(-1, 189.98) = 180

ceilTo( precision, x )

Works the same way as floorTo(), but rounds x up instead of down.

toFraction( decimal, tolerance )

Returns a fraction equivalent to a decimal in the form of an array of integers. Tolerance is optional and is set to 2^-46 by default.

toFraction( 4/8 ) => [ 1, 2 ]
toFraction( 0.666 ) => [ 333, 500 ]
toFraction( 0.666, 0.001 ) => [ 2, 3 ]

shuffle( array, count )

Shuffles an array using a Fischer-Yates shuffle. If count is passed, returns an random sublist of that size.

sortNumbers( array )

Sorts numbers in an array.

truncate_to_max

restoreSign( x )

Returns 1 if x is positive, or -1 if x is negative.

isInt( x )

Returns true if x is an integer, or false if x is not an integer.

math-format

`negParens( n )`

Wraps a number in parenthesis if it is negative.

decimalFraction

reduce( n, d )

Reduces fraction to simplest form. Returns result as an array( n, d ).

toFractionTex

fraction( n, d, defraction, reduce, small, parens )

Formats the latex of the fraction n/d.

  • Will use latex's dfrac unless small is specified as truthy.
  • Will wrap the fraction in parentheses if necessary (ie, unless the fraction reduces to a positive integer) if parens is specified as truthy.
  • Will reduce the fraction n/d if reduce is specified as truthy.
  • Will defraction (spit out 0 if n is 0, spit out n if d is 1, or spit out undefined if d is 0) if defraction is specified as truthy.

mixedFractionFromImproper( n, d, defraction, reduce, small, parens )

Formats the latex of the mixed fraction equivalent of the improper fraction n/d.

For flags defraction, reduce, small, parens, see: mixedFraction()

mixedFraction( number, n, d, defraction, reduce, small, parens )

Formats the latex of the mixed fraction 'num n/d"

  • For negative numbers, if it is a mixed fraction, make sure the whole number portion is negative. '-5, 2/3' should be 'mixedFraction(-5,2,3)'. Do not put negative for both whole number and numerator portion.
  • Will use latex's dfrac unless small is specified as truthy.
  • Will wrap the fraction in parentheses if necessary (ie, unless the fraction reduces to a positive integer) if parens is specified as truthy.
  • Will reduce the fraction n/d if reduce is specified as truthy.
  • Will defract ( i.e. spit out 0 if n is 0, spit out n if d is 1, or spit out undefined if d is 0) if defraction is specified as truthy.

fractionReduce( n, d, small, parens )

Calls fraction with the reduce and defraction flag enabled. Additional parameters correspond to the remaining fraction flags.

fractionSmall

piFraction( d )

Converts a decimal number, d, into the equivalent fraction of pi.

piFraction( 1.57 ) = \frac{1}{2}\pi

reduces ( n, d )

Boolean returns true if the given fraction can be reduced.

fractionSimplification

mixedOrImproper

splitRadical( x )

Simplifies a radical down to it's simplest form. Returns an array of two integers, the first being the number outside the radical sign, and the second being the number inside the radical sign (same function as in math.js).

 splitRadical( 12 ) = [2,3]

formattedSquareRootOf

squareRootCanSimplify

cardinal

Cardinal

quadraticRoots ( a, b, c )

Returns a string with the expression for the formatted roots of the quadratic equation with coefficients a, b, and c. Depends on expression.js for formatting.

"x = \pm 3"

commafy

plus

randVar

Returns a random algebraic variable (such as "x", or "y" ) to use in expressions.

word-problems

`plural( ... )`

Pluralization helper

Return “s” if NUMBER is not 1:

plural( NUMBER )

If necessary, magically pluralize and return “NUMBER word”:

plural( NUMBER, singular )

Return “NUMBER word”:

plural( NUMBER, singular, plural )

If necessary, magically pluralize and return “word”:

plural( singular, NUMBER )

Return “word”:

plural( singular, plural, NUMBER )

person( i )

Returns a person’s name from the shuffled list

personVar( i )

Returns the lower case first letter of the person’s name

he( i )

Returns “he” or “she”

He( i )

Returns “He” or “She”

him( i )

Returns “him” or “her”

his( i )

Returns “his” or “her”

His( i )

Returns “His” or “Her”

An( word )

Returns “A”, or “An” if word starts with a vowel

an( word )

Returns “a”, or “an” if word starts with a vowel

vehicle( i )

Returns a type of vehicle from the shuffled list

vehicleVar( i )

Returns the lower case first letter of the vehicle type

course( i )

Returns the name of a course (algebra, Spanish, etc.) from the shuffled list

courseVar( i )

Returns the lower case first letter of the course name

exam( i )

Returns a synonym for exam (test, quiz, etc.) from the shuffled list

binop( i )

Returns an unusual character symbol (diamond, circle, etc.) from the shuffled list.

item ( i )

Returns an item that can be grouped

see also: group() groupVerb()

group( i )

Returns the name of a group of items

see also: item() groupVerb()

groupVerb( i )

Returns the verb describing grouping a type of item

see also: item() group()

store( i )

Returns a type of store/shop

storeItem( i, j )

Returns an item that can be bought at a particular store

  • i: which store in the shuffled list
  • j: which item in the shuffled list

see also: store

pizza( i )

Returns a round food item

exercise( i )

Returns a physical exercise

timeofday( i )

Returns a rough time of day (in the morning, at night, etc.)

school( i )

Returns the name of a school

clothing( i )

Returns an article of clothing

color( i )

Returns the name of a color

fruit( i )

Returns the name of a piece of fruit

deskItem( i )

Returns the name of an office supply

distance( i )

Returns a unit of distance (miles/kilometers)

rode( i )

Returns the past tense verb for an activity

see also: ride() bike() biked() biking()

ride( i )

Returns the infinitive verb for an activity

see also: rode() bike() biked() biking()

bike( i )

Returns the object noun for an activity

see also: rode() ride() biked() biking()

biked( i )

Returns a more specific past tense verb for an activity

see also: rode() ride() bike() biking()

biking( i )

Returns the present progressive tense verb for an activity

see also: rode() ride() bike() biked()

farmer( i )

Returns a type of farmer

see also: crop() field()

crop( i )

Returns the name of the crop grown by a farmer

see also: farmer() field()

field( i )

Returns the type of field used by a farmer

see also: farmer() crop()

side( i )

Returns “left” or “right”

shirtStyle( i )

Returns a style of shirt

spin

angles

calculus

trigFuncs

Array of trig basic trig functions. Currently includes sin, cos, and tan.

ddxTrigFuncs

Objects of functions to find the derivative of sin, cos, and tan respectively.

generateFunction( variable )

Generates a random differentiable expression object (function, derivative of the function, and incorrect derivatives)

Variable is what the function of differentiated with respect to. For example a variable of "x", would be the derivative with respect to x.

generateSpecialFunction( variable )

Similar to generateFunction, except with an emphasis on power rule, trig, and e^x / ln x derivatives.

ddxPolynomial( poly )

Finds the derivative of a polynomial. Poly is an instance of Polynomial object.

ddxPolynomialWrong1( poly )

Incorrectly finds the derivative of a polynomial by not decrementing exponents.

ddxPolynomialWrong2( poly )

Incorrectly finds the derivative of a polynomial by incrementing negative exponents.

ddxPolynomialWrong3( poly )

Incorrectly finds the derivative of a polynomial by reversing signs on all terms.

ddxPolynomialWrong4( poly )

Incorrectly finds the derivative of a polynomial by not multiplying coefficients.

ddxPolynomialWrong5( poly )

Incorrectly finds the derivative of a polynomial by flipping the signs on all terms.

congruence

convert-values

exponents

expressions

polynomials

Polynomial( minDegree, MaxDegree, coefs, variable, name)

Creates a new Polynomial object with a degree within the range ["minDegree", "MaxDegree"].

The "coefs" parameter is optional, but will assign the values given as coefficients.

The "variable" parameter will use the given symbol as the variable in the polynomial. (Tip: use randVar() to randomly select a variable.)

The "name" parameter creates an easy reference for the polynomial when generating hints.

graphie

`init( options )`

Initializes a graphie object with the specified range and scale
Args:
options an object containing the following attributes:
range: a 2-d array (ie. [ [ xStart, xEnd ], [ yStart, yEnd] ] )
optional
scale: an array of two numbers [xScale, yScale]

scaleVector( point )

Simply multiplies the x and y values of the point by the xScale and yScale respectively
Args:
point an array of two numbers

scalePoint( point )

Modifies the points to be positioned to scale
Args:
point an array of two numbers

circle( center, radius [, style ] )

Draws a circle on a graphie canvas with a center at the specified point.
Args:
center a point
radius a number
style optional style object

ellipse( center, radii [, style ] )

Draws a ellipse on a graphie canvas with a center at the specified point.
Args:
center a point
radii a point that is effectively the x radius and y radius
style optional style object

arc( center, radius, startAngle, endAngle, sector [, style] )

Draws a partial circle
Args:
center a point
radius a number
startAngle a number (degress)
endAngle a number (degrees)
sector a boolean - closes the arc by drawing lines from each endpoint of the arc to the center
style optional style object

Example: arc( [ 2, 1 ], 1, 0, 180, false, { style: BLUE } )
This creates an open, blue semicircle (top half of a circle).

path( points [, style ] )

Creates a path through each point specified in an array.
Args:
points an array of points
style optional style object

line( start, end [, style ] )

Args:
start a point
end a point
style optional style object

grid( xRange, yRange [, style ] )

Args:
xRange an array of two numbers (ie. [ xStart, xEnd ])
yRange an array of two numbers (ie. [ yStart, yEnd ])
style optional style object

label( location, text, [, position, latex, style ] )

Args:
location a point at the center unless position is specified
text a string
position a string matching one of the following: center, above, above right, right, below right, below, below left, left, above left. The default is center.
latex a boolean. The default is true.
style optional style object (note: labels use color: and labelOpacity: attributes).

plotParametric( fn, range )

Takes a function of x that returns a point, and a range.
See also plot

plotPolar( fn, range )

Takes a function of x and maps it to polar coordinates.
fn a function
range a range
style optional style object

plot

Draws the given function over the given range
Args:
fn a function that takes an x value and returns a y value.
range an array (ie. [ xStart, yStart ] )
style optional style object

style( attrs [, fn ] )

Sets the drawing style
Args:
attrs an object containing style attributes to change
fn an optional function.

If no function is supplied, the style changes will persist for this graphie object until they are explicitly changed again. If a function is supplied, the style changes will only apply to draw calls made inside the function.

graphie-geometry

graphie-arithmetic

graphie-helpers

graphie-polygon

derivative-intuition

kinematics

parabola-intuition

probability

slice-clone

stat

sum( values )

Returns the sum of the items in values

mean( values )

Returns the average (sum divided by number of items) of values

median( values )

Returns the median (middle number) after sorting values

mode( values )

Returns the mode (most frequently occurring number) in values, or returns false if no such number exists.

variance( values )

Returns the SAMPLE variance of values. Use this function when values represents a sample of a larger population.

variancePop( values )

Returns the POPULATION variance of values. Use this function when values represents an entire population (i.e. every data point is included in values).

stdDev( values )

Returns the SAMPLE standard deviation of values.

stdDevPop( values )

Returns the POPULATION standard deviation of values.

randGaussian( tgtMean, tgtStdDev, count )

Returns an array of count random variables drawn from a normal distribution where mean = tgtMean and standard deviation = tgtStdDev. Defaults to a standard normal distribution (tgtMean = 0 & tgtStdDev = 1)

gaussianPDF( mean, stddev, x )

Returns the relative likelihood of x coming from a normal distribution where mean = mean and standard deviation = stddev. This likelihood is a number greater than zero and less than 1.

zScores( z )

Returns the probability of a z-score less than or equal to z. z is measured in hundredths and must be between 0 and 309.

zScores( 196 ) returns 0.975, because a z-score of 1.96 is greater than 0.975 of all possible z-scores.

unit-circle