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Overly Introspective Language
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README.md

OIL

Overly introspective language, version 2.3

Usage

oil.py hello_world.oil

Reference

A OIL file consists of a number of lines, seperated by newline characters. In general, any file is a valid OIL file, but most files won't do anything. The file is read in line-by-line by the interpreter, and the content of each line is put into a cell on the OIL tape. When the script starts execution, the tape can be imagined as a continuous sequence of fields, each of which holds the content of a line, but during execution, more fields can be added at any integer position.

Lines are parsed by first checking if all characters in the line are digits, in that case the value of the line is that integer. Otherwise, the value of the line is a string. The only datatypes are strings and integers. Whenever a string contains only digits, it becomes an integer.

The OIL tape is equipped with a directional (by default: positive) read-write head that starts at position 0 (i.e. in the first line). Whenever this reference talks about moving to the right etc., this has to be replaced by moving left if the direction got negative (see reverse).

The computation is executed in steps. At the beginning of every step, the head reads the command at its current position. Any values the head reads get forcibly converted to integers (any non-numeric string becomes 0). The head then executes the command the integer is linked to (see below). If a number doesn't have a command assigned to it, it executes the command nop. The commands may instruct the head to move to the right to read further arguments. At the end of most commands (all except jump, relative_jump, and conditional_jump, because they move the head manually) the head gets moved to the right again to be ready to read the next command. This process continues until either the command quit is executed, or the head tries to read a command from an empty cell. This doesn't apply to the process of reading arguments, or any other reads done within a command; in that case the value that is read will be 0 (but the cell will remain empty).

Commands

The list of commands follows. The labels are purely informative and can not be used instead of the numbers (they merely denote the names of the corresponding functions in the reference implementation). The final head movement is ommitted in this list.

  • nop (0): Do nothing.
  • copy (1): Advance the head, read argument A, advance the head , read argument B. Copy the value from the Ath cell to the Bth cell.
  • reverse (2): Reverse the direction; from now on the head moves in the other direction.
  • quit (3): Immediately quit the interpreter.
  • output (4): Advance the head, read argument A. Print the value of the Ath cell to stdout.
  • user_input (5): Advance the head, read argument A. Read a line of user input into the Ath cell.
  • jump (6): Advance the head, jump to the cell under the head.
  • relative_jump (7): Advance the head, read argument A, jump A blocks in the current direction.
  • increment (8): Advance the head, read argument A, increment the value in cell A.
  • decrement (9): Advance the head, read argument A, decrement the value in cell A.
  • conditional_jump (10): Advance the head, read argument A. Advance the head, read argument B. If the Ath cell's content is equal to that of cell B, advance the head once, otherwise advance the head twice. Now jump to the cell under the head.
  • newline (11): Print a newline character if this is the main script. Otherwise behaves like a nop.
  • explode (12): Explode a cell: Advance the head twice, reading the next two values (A, B). Convert the value from cell A into a string. Put its length in cell B, and each of its characters seperately into cells after B.
  • implode (13): Implode a string: Advance the head thrice, reading the next three values (A, B, C), and put the cell sequence that starts at cell A and is B cells long into cell C.
  • call (14): Call an external OIL script: Advance the head, read in the file name (relative to the working directory, or, if the file doesn't exist, relative to the location of the standard library). Advance the head again, read in the starting location of that script to write to. Advance the head again, read in the starting location of that script to read from. Then, a subinterpreter is started with that script. Anytime it would print something, it instead writes it to the main interpreter's writing location (advancing automatically). Anytime it would expect user input, it instead reads it from the next cell in the reading location. Effectively, this acts as a way to define something like functions.
  • random (15): Fill a given cell with a random value: First read the cell address, then an inclusive upper bound. Fill the cell with a pseudorandom number between 0 and that number. If the upper bound is negative, this is a nop instead.
  • ord (16): Advance the head twice, reading the next two values (A, B). Convert the value from cell A into a string. Put its length in cell B, and each of the numeric values of the codepoints of its characters seperately into cells after B.
  • chr (17): Advance the head thrice, reading the next three values (A, B, C), and put the codepoint sequence that starts at cell A and is B cells long into cell C, converted into the characters of that codepoint. An invalid codepoint maps to U+FFFD.

Standard Library

Starting with version 2.3, OIL comes with a small set of predefined OIL files called the Standard Library. In this reference implementation, these files are located in the lib folder.

The Standard Library contains some basic arithmetics operations, string handling and some miscellaneous functions. Read the source code of the files to find out more. Hah.

For the most part, these files adhere to the convention of printing newlines between outputs, in order to be callable directly, since the newline command (11) is ignored in sub-interpreter mode. Note however that the OIL interpreter will only try locating files in the Standard Library folder if called using the call command (14), not when called directly: Executing oil.py add will look for a file called add only in the working directory.

License

The interpreter is released under the MIT License, see LICENSE.md.

See also

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