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/**********************************************************************

process.c -

$Author$
created at: Tue Aug 10 14:30:50 JST 1993

Copyright (C) 1993-2007 Yukihiro Matsumoto
Copyright (C) 2000 Network Applied Communication Laboratory, Inc.
Copyright (C) 2000 Information-technology Promotion Agency, Japan

**********************************************************************/

#include "ruby/ruby.h"
#include "ruby/io.h"
#include "ruby/util.h"
#include "internal.h"
#include "vm_core.h"

#include <stdio.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <signal.h>
#ifdef HAVE_STDLIB_H
#include <stdlib.h>
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_UNISTD_H
#include <unistd.h>
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_FCNTL_H
#include <fcntl.h>
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_PROCESS_H
#include <process.h>
#endif

#include <time.h>
#include <ctype.h>

#ifndef EXIT_SUCCESS
#define EXIT_SUCCESS 0
#endif
#ifndef EXIT_FAILURE
#define EXIT_FAILURE 1
#endif

#ifdef HAVE_SYS_WAIT_H
# include <sys/wait.h>
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_SYS_RESOURCE_H
# include <sys/resource.h>
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_SYS_PARAM_H
# include <sys/param.h>
#endif
#ifndef MAXPATHLEN
# define MAXPATHLEN 1024
#endif
#include "ruby/st.h"

#ifdef __EMX__
#undef HAVE_GETPGRP
#endif

#include <sys/stat.h>
#if defined(__native_client__) && defined(NACL_NEWLIB)
# include "nacl/stat.h"
# include "nacl/unistd.h"
#endif


#ifdef HAVE_SYS_TIMES_H
#include <sys/times.h>
#endif

#ifdef HAVE_PWD_H
#include <pwd.h>
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_GRP_H
#include <grp.h>
#endif

#define numberof(array) (int)(sizeof(array)/sizeof((array)[0]))

#if defined(HAVE_TIMES) || defined(_WIN32)
static VALUE rb_cProcessTms;
#endif

#ifndef WIFEXITED
#define WIFEXITED(w) (((w) & 0xff) == 0)
#endif
#ifndef WIFSIGNALED
#define WIFSIGNALED(w) (((w) & 0x7f) > 0 && (((w) & 0x7f) < 0x7f))
#endif
#ifndef WIFSTOPPED
#define WIFSTOPPED(w) (((w) & 0xff) == 0x7f)
#endif
#ifndef WEXITSTATUS
#define WEXITSTATUS(w) (((w) >> 8) & 0xff)
#endif
#ifndef WTERMSIG
#define WTERMSIG(w) ((w) & 0x7f)
#endif
#ifndef WSTOPSIG
#define WSTOPSIG WEXITSTATUS
#endif

#if defined(__APPLE__) && ( defined(__MACH__) || defined(__DARWIN__) ) && !defined(__MacOS_X__)
#define __MacOS_X__ 1
#endif

#if defined(__FreeBSD__) || defined(__NetBSD__) || defined(__OpenBSD__) || defined(__bsdi__)
#define HAVE_44BSD_SETUID 1
#define HAVE_44BSD_SETGID 1
#endif

#ifdef __NetBSD__
#undef HAVE_SETRUID
#undef HAVE_SETRGID
#endif

#ifdef BROKEN_SETREUID
#define setreuid ruby_setreuid
int setreuid(rb_uid_t ruid, rb_uid_t euid);
#endif
#ifdef BROKEN_SETREGID
#define setregid ruby_setregid
int setregid(rb_gid_t rgid, rb_gid_t egid);
#endif

#if defined(HAVE_44BSD_SETUID) || defined(__MacOS_X__)
#if !defined(USE_SETREUID) && !defined(BROKEN_SETREUID)
#define OBSOLETE_SETREUID 1
#endif
#if !defined(USE_SETREGID) && !defined(BROKEN_SETREGID)
#define OBSOLETE_SETREGID 1
#endif
#endif

#define preserving_errno(stmts) \
do {int saved_errno = errno; stmts; errno = saved_errno;} while (0)


/*
* call-seq:
* Process.pid -> fixnum
*
* Returns the process id of this process. Not available on all
* platforms.
*
* Process.pid #=> 27415
*/

static VALUE
get_pid(void)
{
    rb_secure(2);
    return PIDT2NUM(getpid());
}


/*
* call-seq:
* Process.ppid -> fixnum
*
* Returns the process id of the parent of this process. Returns
* untrustworthy value on Win32/64. Not available on all platforms.
*
* puts "I am #{Process.pid}"
* Process.fork { puts "Dad is #{Process.ppid}" }
*
* <em>produces:</em>
*
* I am 27417
* Dad is 27417
*/

static VALUE
get_ppid(void)
{
    rb_secure(2);
    return PIDT2NUM(getppid());
}


/*********************************************************************
*
* Document-class: Process::Status
*
* <code>Process::Status</code> encapsulates the information on the
* status of a running or terminated system process. The built-in
* variable <code>$?</code> is either +nil+ or a
* <code>Process::Status</code> object.
*
* fork { exit 99 } #=> 26557
* Process.wait #=> 26557
* $?.class #=> Process::Status
* $?.to_i #=> 25344
* $? >> 8 #=> 99
* $?.stopped? #=> false
* $?.exited? #=> true
* $?.exitstatus #=> 99
*
* Posix systems record information on processes using a 16-bit
* integer. The lower bits record the process status (stopped,
* exited, signaled) and the upper bits possibly contain additional
* information (for example the program's return code in the case of
* exited processes). Pre Ruby 1.8, these bits were exposed directly
* to the Ruby program. Ruby now encapsulates these in a
* <code>Process::Status</code> object. To maximize compatibility,
* however, these objects retain a bit-oriented interface. In the
* descriptions that follow, when we talk about the integer value of
* _stat_, we're referring to this 16 bit value.
*/

static VALUE rb_cProcessStatus;

VALUE
rb_last_status_get(void)
{
    return GET_THREAD()->last_status;
}

void
rb_last_status_set(int status, rb_pid_t pid)
{
    rb_thread_t *th = GET_THREAD();
    th->last_status = rb_obj_alloc(rb_cProcessStatus);
    rb_iv_set(th->last_status, "status", INT2FIX(status));
    rb_iv_set(th->last_status, "pid", PIDT2NUM(pid));
}

static void
rb_last_status_clear(void)
{
    GET_THREAD()->last_status = Qnil;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* stat.to_i -> fixnum
* stat.to_int -> fixnum
*
* Returns the bits in _stat_ as a <code>Fixnum</code>. Poking
* around in these bits is platform dependent.
*
* fork { exit 0xab } #=> 26566
* Process.wait #=> 26566
* sprintf('%04x', $?.to_i) #=> "ab00"
*/

static VALUE
pst_to_i(VALUE st)
{
    return rb_iv_get(st, "status");
}

#define PST2INT(st) NUM2INT(pst_to_i(st))

/*
* call-seq:
* stat.pid -> fixnum
*
* Returns the process ID that this status object represents.
*
* fork { exit } #=> 26569
* Process.wait #=> 26569
* $?.pid #=> 26569
*/

static VALUE
pst_pid(VALUE st)
{
    return rb_attr_get(st, rb_intern("pid"));
}

static void
pst_message(VALUE str, rb_pid_t pid, int status)
{
    rb_str_catf(str, "pid %ld", (long)pid);
    if (WIFSTOPPED(status)) {
int stopsig = WSTOPSIG(status);
const char *signame = ruby_signal_name(stopsig);
if (signame) {
rb_str_catf(str, " stopped SIG%s (signal %d)", signame, stopsig);
}
else {
rb_str_catf(str, " stopped signal %d", stopsig);
}
    }
    if (WIFSIGNALED(status)) {
int termsig = WTERMSIG(status);
const char *signame = ruby_signal_name(termsig);
if (signame) {
rb_str_catf(str, " SIG%s (signal %d)", signame, termsig);
}
else {
rb_str_catf(str, " signal %d", termsig);
}
    }
    if (WIFEXITED(status)) {
rb_str_catf(str, " exit %d", WEXITSTATUS(status));
    }
#ifdef WCOREDUMP
    if (WCOREDUMP(status)) {
rb_str_cat2(str, " (core dumped)");
    }
#endif
}


/*
* call-seq:
* stat.to_s -> string
*
* Show pid and exit status as a string.
*
* system("false")
* p $?.to_s #=> "pid 12766 exit 1"
*
*/

static VALUE
pst_to_s(VALUE st)
{
    rb_pid_t pid;
    int status;
    VALUE str;

    pid = NUM2PIDT(pst_pid(st));
    status = PST2INT(st);

    str = rb_str_buf_new(0);
    pst_message(str, pid, status);
    return str;
}


/*
* call-seq:
* stat.inspect -> string
*
* Override the inspection method.
*
* system("false")
* p $?.inspect #=> "#<Process::Status: pid 12861 exit 1>"
*
*/

static VALUE
pst_inspect(VALUE st)
{
    rb_pid_t pid;
    int status;
    VALUE vpid, str;

    vpid = pst_pid(st);
    if (NIL_P(vpid)) {
        return rb_sprintf("#<%s: uninitialized>", rb_class2name(CLASS_OF(st)));
    }
    pid = NUM2PIDT(vpid);
    status = PST2INT(st);

    str = rb_sprintf("#<%s: ", rb_class2name(CLASS_OF(st)));
    pst_message(str, pid, status);
    rb_str_cat2(str, ">");
    return str;
}


/*
* call-seq:
* stat == other -> true or false
*
* Returns +true+ if the integer value of _stat_
* equals <em>other</em>.
*/

static VALUE
pst_equal(VALUE st1, VALUE st2)
{
    if (st1 == st2) return Qtrue;
    return rb_equal(pst_to_i(st1), st2);
}


/*
* call-seq:
* stat & num -> fixnum
*
* Logical AND of the bits in _stat_ with <em>num</em>.
*
* fork { exit 0x37 }
* Process.wait
* sprintf('%04x', $?.to_i) #=> "3700"
* sprintf('%04x', $? & 0x1e00) #=> "1600"
*/

static VALUE
pst_bitand(VALUE st1, VALUE st2)
{
    int status = PST2INT(st1) & NUM2INT(st2);

    return INT2NUM(status);
}


/*
* call-seq:
* stat >> num -> fixnum
*
* Shift the bits in _stat_ right <em>num</em> places.
*
* fork { exit 99 } #=> 26563
* Process.wait #=> 26563
* $?.to_i #=> 25344
* $? >> 8 #=> 99
*/

static VALUE
pst_rshift(VALUE st1, VALUE st2)
{
    int status = PST2INT(st1) >> NUM2INT(st2);

    return INT2NUM(status);
}


/*
* call-seq:
* stat.stopped? -> true or false
*
* Returns +true+ if this process is stopped. This is only
* returned if the corresponding <code>wait</code> call had the
* <code>WUNTRACED</code> flag set.
*/

static VALUE
pst_wifstopped(VALUE st)
{
    int status = PST2INT(st);

    if (WIFSTOPPED(status))
return Qtrue;
    else
return Qfalse;
}


/*
* call-seq:
* stat.stopsig -> fixnum or nil
*
* Returns the number of the signal that caused _stat_ to stop
* (or +nil+ if self is not stopped).
*/

static VALUE
pst_wstopsig(VALUE st)
{
    int status = PST2INT(st);

    if (WIFSTOPPED(status))
return INT2NUM(WSTOPSIG(status));
    return Qnil;
}


/*
* call-seq:
* stat.signaled? -> true or false
*
* Returns +true+ if _stat_ terminated because of
* an uncaught signal.
*/

static VALUE
pst_wifsignaled(VALUE st)
{
    int status = PST2INT(st);

    if (WIFSIGNALED(status))
return Qtrue;
    else
return Qfalse;
}


/*
* call-seq:
* stat.termsig -> fixnum or nil
*
* Returns the number of the signal that caused _stat_ to
* terminate (or +nil+ if self was not terminated by an
* uncaught signal).
*/

static VALUE
pst_wtermsig(VALUE st)
{
    int status = PST2INT(st);

    if (WIFSIGNALED(status))
return INT2NUM(WTERMSIG(status));
    return Qnil;
}


/*
* call-seq:
* stat.exited? -> true or false
*
* Returns +true+ if _stat_ exited normally (for
* example using an <code>exit()</code> call or finishing the
* program).
*/

static VALUE
pst_wifexited(VALUE st)
{
    int status = PST2INT(st);

    if (WIFEXITED(status))
return Qtrue;
    else
return Qfalse;
}


/*
* call-seq:
* stat.exitstatus -> fixnum or nil
*
* Returns the least significant eight bits of the return code of
* _stat_. Only available if <code>exited?</code> is
* +true+.
*
* fork { } #=> 26572
* Process.wait #=> 26572
* $?.exited? #=> true
* $?.exitstatus #=> 0
*
* fork { exit 99 } #=> 26573
* Process.wait #=> 26573
* $?.exited? #=> true
* $?.exitstatus #=> 99
*/

static VALUE
pst_wexitstatus(VALUE st)
{
    int status = PST2INT(st);

    if (WIFEXITED(status))
return INT2NUM(WEXITSTATUS(status));
    return Qnil;
}


/*
* call-seq:
* stat.success? -> true, false or nil
*
* Returns +true+ if _stat_ is successful, +false+ if not.
* Returns +nil+ if <code>exited?</code> is not +true+.
*/

static VALUE
pst_success_p(VALUE st)
{
    int status = PST2INT(st);

    if (!WIFEXITED(status))
return Qnil;
    return WEXITSTATUS(status) == EXIT_SUCCESS ? Qtrue : Qfalse;
}


/*
* call-seq:
* stat.coredump? -> true or false
*
* Returns +true+ if _stat_ generated a coredump
* when it terminated. Not available on all platforms.
*/

static VALUE
pst_wcoredump(VALUE st)
{
#ifdef WCOREDUMP
    int status = PST2INT(st);

    if (WCOREDUMP(status))
return Qtrue;
    else
return Qfalse;
#else
    return Qfalse;
#endif
}

#if !defined(HAVE_WAITPID) && !defined(HAVE_WAIT4)
#define NO_WAITPID
static st_table *pid_tbl;

struct wait_data {
    rb_pid_t pid;
    int status;
};

static int
wait_each(rb_pid_t pid, int status, struct wait_data *data)
{
    if (data->status != -1) return ST_STOP;

    data->pid = pid;
    data->status = status;
    return ST_DELETE;
}

static int
waitall_each(rb_pid_t pid, int status, VALUE ary)
{
    rb_last_status_set(status, pid);
    rb_ary_push(ary, rb_assoc_new(PIDT2NUM(pid), rb_last_status_get()));
    return ST_DELETE;
}
#else
struct waitpid_arg {
    rb_pid_t pid;
    int *st;
    int flags;
};
#endif

static VALUE
rb_waitpid_blocking(void *data)
{
    rb_pid_t result;
#ifndef NO_WAITPID
    struct waitpid_arg *arg = data;
#endif

#if defined NO_WAITPID
    result = wait(data);
#elif defined HAVE_WAITPID
    result = waitpid(arg->pid, arg->st, arg->flags);
#else /* HAVE_WAIT4 */
    result = wait4(arg->pid, arg->st, arg->flags, NULL);
#endif

    return (VALUE)result;
}

rb_pid_t
rb_waitpid(rb_pid_t pid, int *st, int flags)
{
    rb_pid_t result;
#ifndef NO_WAITPID
    struct waitpid_arg arg;

  retry:
    arg.pid = pid;
    arg.st = st;
    arg.flags = flags;
    result = (rb_pid_t)rb_thread_blocking_region(rb_waitpid_blocking, &arg,
RUBY_UBF_PROCESS, 0);
    if (result < 0) {
if (errno == EINTR) {
            RUBY_VM_CHECK_INTS();
            goto retry;
        }
return (rb_pid_t)-1;
    }
#else /* NO_WAITPID */
    if (pid_tbl) {
st_data_t status, piddata = (st_data_t)pid;
if (pid == (rb_pid_t)-1) {
struct wait_data data;
data.pid = (rb_pid_t)-1;
data.status = -1;
st_foreach(pid_tbl, wait_each, (st_data_t)&data);
if (data.status != -1) {
rb_last_status_set(data.status, data.pid);
return data.pid;
}
}
else if (st_delete(pid_tbl, &piddata, &status)) {
rb_last_status_set(*st = (int)status, pid);
return pid;
}
    }

    if (flags) {
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "can't do waitpid with flags");
    }

    for (;;) {
result = (rb_pid_t)rb_thread_blocking_region(rb_waitpid_blocking,
st, RUBY_UBF_PROCESS, 0);
if (result < 0) {
if (errno == EINTR) {
rb_thread_schedule();
continue;
}
return (rb_pid_t)-1;
}
if (result == pid || pid == (rb_pid_t)-1) {
break;
}
if (!pid_tbl)
pid_tbl = st_init_numtable();
st_insert(pid_tbl, pid, (st_data_t)st);
if (!rb_thread_alone()) rb_thread_schedule();
    }
#endif
    if (result > 0) {
rb_last_status_set(*st, result);
    }
    return result;
}


/* [MG]:FIXME: I wasn't sure how this should be done, since ::wait()
has historically been documented as if it didn't take any arguments
despite the fact that it's just an alias for ::waitpid(). The way I
have it below is more truthful, but a little confusing.

I also took the liberty of putting in the pid values, as they're
pretty useful, and it looked as if the original 'ri' output was
supposed to contain them after "[...]depending on the value of
aPid:".

The 'ansi' and 'bs' formats of the ri output don't display the
definition list for some reason, but the plain text one does.
*/

/*
* call-seq:
* Process.wait() -> fixnum
* Process.wait(pid=-1, flags=0) -> fixnum
* Process.waitpid(pid=-1, flags=0) -> fixnum
*
* Waits for a child process to exit, returns its process id, and
* sets <code>$?</code> to a <code>Process::Status</code> object
* containing information on that process. Which child it waits on
* depends on the value of _pid_:
*
* > 0:: Waits for the child whose process ID equals _pid_.
*
* 0:: Waits for any child whose process group ID equals that of the
* calling process.
*
* -1:: Waits for any child process (the default if no _pid_ is
* given).
*
* < -1:: Waits for any child whose process group ID equals the absolute
* value of _pid_.
*
* The _flags_ argument may be a logical or of the flag values
* <code>Process::WNOHANG</code> (do not block if no child available)
* or <code>Process::WUNTRACED</code> (return stopped children that
* haven't been reported). Not all flags are available on all
* platforms, but a flag value of zero will work on all platforms.
*
* Calling this method raises a SystemCallError if there are no child
* processes. Not available on all platforms.
*
* include Process
* fork { exit 99 } #=> 27429
* wait #=> 27429
* $?.exitstatus #=> 99
*
* pid = fork { sleep 3 } #=> 27440
* Time.now #=> 2008-03-08 19:56:16 +0900
* waitpid(pid, Process::WNOHANG) #=> nil
* Time.now #=> 2008-03-08 19:56:16 +0900
* waitpid(pid, 0) #=> 27440
* Time.now #=> 2008-03-08 19:56:19 +0900
*/

static VALUE
proc_wait(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE vpid, vflags;
    rb_pid_t pid;
    int flags, status;

    rb_secure(2);
    flags = 0;
    if (argc == 0) {
pid = -1;
    }
    else {
rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "02", &vpid, &vflags);
pid = NUM2PIDT(vpid);
if (argc == 2 && !NIL_P(vflags)) {
flags = NUM2UINT(vflags);
}
    }
    if ((pid = rb_waitpid(pid, &status, flags)) < 0)
rb_sys_fail(0);
    if (pid == 0) {
rb_last_status_clear();
return Qnil;
    }
    return PIDT2NUM(pid);
}


/*
* call-seq:
* Process.wait2(pid=-1, flags=0) -> [pid, status]
* Process.waitpid2(pid=-1, flags=0) -> [pid, status]
*
* Waits for a child process to exit (see Process::waitpid for exact
* semantics) and returns an array containing the process id and the
* exit status (a <code>Process::Status</code> object) of that
* child. Raises a SystemCallError if there are no child processes.
*
* Process.fork { exit 99 } #=> 27437
* pid, status = Process.wait2
* pid #=> 27437
* status.exitstatus #=> 99
*/

static VALUE
proc_wait2(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE pid = proc_wait(argc, argv);
    if (NIL_P(pid)) return Qnil;
    return rb_assoc_new(pid, rb_last_status_get());
}


/*
* call-seq:
* Process.waitall -> [ [pid1,status1], ...]
*
* Waits for all children, returning an array of
* _pid_/_status_ pairs (where _status_ is a
* <code>Process::Status</code> object).
*
* fork { sleep 0.2; exit 2 } #=> 27432
* fork { sleep 0.1; exit 1 } #=> 27433
* fork { exit 0 } #=> 27434
* p Process.waitall
*
* <em>produces</em>:
*
* [[30982, #<Process::Status: pid 30982 exit 0>],
* [30979, #<Process::Status: pid 30979 exit 1>],
* [30976, #<Process::Status: pid 30976 exit 2>]]
*/

static VALUE
proc_waitall(void)
{
    VALUE result;
    rb_pid_t pid;
    int status;

    rb_secure(2);
    result = rb_ary_new();
#ifdef NO_WAITPID
    if (pid_tbl) {
st_foreach(pid_tbl, waitall_each, result);
    }
#else
    rb_last_status_clear();
#endif

    for (pid = -1;;) {
#ifdef NO_WAITPID
pid = wait(&status);
#else
pid = rb_waitpid(-1, &status, 0);
#endif
if (pid == -1) {
if (errno == ECHILD)
break;
#ifdef NO_WAITPID
if (errno == EINTR) {
rb_thread_schedule();
continue;
}
#endif
rb_sys_fail(0);
}
#ifdef NO_WAITPID
rb_last_status_set(status, pid);
#endif
rb_ary_push(result, rb_assoc_new(PIDT2NUM(pid), rb_last_status_get()));
    }
    return result;
}

static inline ID
id_pid(void)
{
    ID pid;
    CONST_ID(pid, "pid");
    return pid;
}

static VALUE
detach_process_pid(VALUE thread)
{
    return rb_thread_local_aref(thread, id_pid());
}

static VALUE
detach_process_watcher(void *arg)
{
    rb_pid_t cpid, pid = (rb_pid_t)(VALUE)arg;
    int status;

    while ((cpid = rb_waitpid(pid, &status, 0)) == 0) {
/* wait while alive */
    }
    return rb_last_status_get();
}

VALUE
rb_detach_process(rb_pid_t pid)
{
    VALUE watcher = rb_thread_create(detach_process_watcher, (void*)(VALUE)pid);
    rb_thread_local_aset(watcher, id_pid(), PIDT2NUM(pid));
    rb_define_singleton_method(watcher, "pid", detach_process_pid, 0);
    return watcher;
}


/*
* call-seq:
* Process.detach(pid) -> thread
*
* Some operating systems retain the status of terminated child
* processes until the parent collects that status (normally using
* some variant of <code>wait()</code>. If the parent never collects
* this status, the child stays around as a <em>zombie</em> process.
* <code>Process::detach</code> prevents this by setting up a
* separate Ruby thread whose sole job is to reap the status of the
* process _pid_ when it terminates. Use <code>detach</code>
* only when you do not intent to explicitly wait for the child to
* terminate.
*
* The waiting thread returns the exit status of the detached process
* when it terminates, so you can use <code>Thread#join</code> to
* know the result. If specified _pid_ is not a valid child process
* ID, the thread returns +nil+ immediately.
*
* The waiting thread has <code>pid</code> method which returns the pid.
*
* In this first example, we don't reap the first child process, so
* it appears as a zombie in the process status display.
*
* p1 = fork { sleep 0.1 }
* p2 = fork { sleep 0.2 }
* Process.waitpid(p2)
* sleep 2
* system("ps -ho pid,state -p #{p1}")
*
* <em>produces:</em>
*
* 27389 Z
*
* In the next example, <code>Process::detach</code> is used to reap
* the child automatically.
*
* p1 = fork { sleep 0.1 }
* p2 = fork { sleep 0.2 }
* Process.detach(p1)
* Process.waitpid(p2)
* sleep 2
* system("ps -ho pid,state -p #{p1}")
*
* <em>(produces no output)</em>
*/

static VALUE
proc_detach(VALUE obj, VALUE pid)
{
    rb_secure(2);
    return rb_detach_process(NUM2PIDT(pid));
}

static int forked_child = 0;

#ifdef SIGPIPE
static RETSIGTYPE (*saved_sigpipe_handler)(int) = 0;
#endif

#ifdef SIGPIPE
static RETSIGTYPE
sig_do_nothing(int sig)
{
}
#endif

/* This function should be async-signal-safe. Actually it is. */
static void
before_exec_async_signal_safe(void)
{
#ifdef SIGPIPE
    /*
* Some OS commands don't initialize signal handler properly. Thus we have
* to reset signal handler before exec(). Otherwise, system() and similar
* child process interaction might fail. (e.g. ruby -e "system 'yes | ls'")
* [ruby-dev:12261]
*/
    saved_sigpipe_handler = signal(SIGPIPE, sig_do_nothing); /* async-signal-safe */
#endif
}

static void
before_exec_non_async_signal_safe(void)
{
    if (!forked_child) {
/*
* On Mac OS X 10.5.x (Leopard) or earlier, exec() may return ENOTSUPP
* if the process have multiple threads. Therefore we have to kill
* internal threads temporary. [ruby-core:10583]
*/
rb_thread_stop_timer_thread(0);
    }
}

static void
before_exec(void)
{
    before_exec_non_async_signal_safe();
    before_exec_async_signal_safe();
}

/* This function should be async-signal-safe. Actually it is. */
static void
after_exec_async_signal_safe(void)
{
#ifdef SIGPIPE
    signal(SIGPIPE, saved_sigpipe_handler); /* async-signal-safe */
#endif
}

static void
after_exec_non_async_signal_safe(void)
{
    rb_thread_reset_timer_thread();
    rb_thread_start_timer_thread();

    forked_child = 0;
}

static void
after_exec(void)
{
    after_exec_async_signal_safe();
    after_exec_non_async_signal_safe();
}

#define before_fork() before_exec()
#define after_fork() (GET_THREAD()->thrown_errinfo = 0, after_exec())

#include "dln.h"

static void
security(const char *str)
{
    if (rb_env_path_tainted()) {
if (rb_safe_level() > 0) {
rb_raise(rb_eSecurityError, "Insecure PATH - %s", str);
}
    }
}

#if defined(HAVE_FORK) && !defined(__native_client__)

/* try_with_sh and exec_with_sh should be async-signal-safe. Actually it is.*/
#define try_with_sh(prog, argv, envp) ((saved_errno == ENOEXEC) ? exec_with_sh((prog), (argv), (envp)) : (void)0)
static void
exec_with_sh(const char *prog, char **argv, char **envp)
{
    *argv = (char *)prog;
    *--argv = (char *)"sh";
    if (envp)
        execve("/bin/sh", argv, envp); /* async-signal-safe */
    else
        execv("/bin/sh", argv); /* async-signal-safe */
}

#else
#define try_with_sh(prog, argv, envp) (void)0
#endif

/* This function should be async-signal-safe. Actually it is. */
static int
proc_exec_cmd(const char *prog, VALUE argv_str, VALUE envp_str)
{
#ifdef __native_client__
    rb_notimplement();
    UNREACHABLE;
#else
    char **argv;
    char **envp;
# if defined(__EMX__) || defined(OS2)
    char **new_argv = NULL;
# endif

    argv = ARGVSTR2ARGV(argv_str);

    if (!prog) {
errno = ENOENT;
return -1;
    }

# if defined(__EMX__) || defined(OS2)
    {
# define COMMAND "cmd.exe"
char *extension;

if ((extension = strrchr(prog, '.')) != NULL && STRCASECMP(extension, ".bat") == 0) {
char *p;
int n;

for (n = 0; argv[n]; n++)
/* no-op */;
new_argv = ALLOC_N(char*, n + 2);
for (; n > 0; n--)
new_argv[n + 1] = argv[n];
new_argv[1] = strcpy(ALLOC_N(char, strlen(argv[0]) + 1), argv[0]);
for (p = new_argv[1]; *p != '\0'; p++)
if (*p == '/')
*p = '\\';
new_argv[0] = COMMAND;
argv = new_argv;
prog = dln_find_exe_r(argv[0], 0, fbuf, sizeof(fbuf));
if (!prog) {
errno = ENOENT;
return -1;
}
}
    }
# endif /* __EMX__ */
    envp = envp_str ? (char **)RSTRING_PTR(envp_str) : NULL;
    if (envp_str)
        execve(prog, argv, envp); /* async-signal-safe */
    else
        execv(prog, argv); /* async-signal-safe */
    preserving_errno(try_with_sh(prog, argv, envp)); /* try_with_sh() is async-signal-safe. */
# if defined(__EMX__) || defined(OS2)
    if (new_argv) {
xfree(new_argv[0]);
xfree(new_argv);
    }
# endif
    return -1;
#endif
}

/* deprecated */
static int
proc_exec_v(char **argv, const char *prog)
{
    char fbuf[MAXPATHLEN];

    if (!prog)
        prog = argv[0];
    prog = dln_find_exe_r(prog, 0, fbuf, sizeof(fbuf));
    if (!prog) {
        errno = ENOENT;
        return -1;
    }
    before_exec();
    execv(prog, argv);
    preserving_errno(try_with_sh(prog, argv, 0); after_exec());
    return -1;
}

/* deprecated */
int
rb_proc_exec_n(int argc, VALUE *argv, const char *prog)
{
#define ARGV_COUNT(n) ((n)+1)
#define ARGV_SIZE(n) (sizeof(char*) * ARGV_COUNT(n))
#define ALLOC_ARGV(n, v) ALLOCV_N(char*, (v), ARGV_COUNT(n))

    char **args;
    int i;
    int ret = -1;
    VALUE v;

    args = ALLOC_ARGV(argc+1, v);
    for (i=0; i<argc; i++) {
args[i] = RSTRING_PTR(argv[i]);
    }
    args[i] = 0;
    if (args[0]) {
ret = proc_exec_v(args, prog);
    }
    ALLOCV_END(v);
    return ret;

#undef ARGV_COUNT
#undef ARGV_SIZE
#undef ALLOC_ARGV
}

/* This function should be async-signal-safe. Actually it is. */
static int
proc_exec_sh(const char *str, VALUE envp_str)
{
#ifdef __native_client__
    rb_notimplement();
    UNREACHABLE;
#else
    const char *s;

    s = str;
    while (*s == ' ' || *s == '\t' || *s == '\n')
s++;

    if (!*s) {
        errno = ENOENT;
        return -1;
    }

#ifdef _WIN32
    rb_w32_spawn(P_OVERLAY, (char *)str, 0);
    return -1;
#else
#if defined(__CYGWIN32__) || defined(__EMX__)
    {
        char fbuf[MAXPATHLEN];
        char *shell = dln_find_exe_r("sh", 0, fbuf, sizeof(fbuf));
        int status = -1;
        if (shell)
            execl(shell, "sh", "-c", str, (char *) NULL);
        else
            status = system(str);
        if (status != -1)
            exit(status);
    }
#else
    if (envp_str)
        execle("/bin/sh", "sh", "-c", str, (char *)NULL, (char **)RSTRING_PTR(envp_str)); /* async-signal-safe */
    else
        execl("/bin/sh", "sh", "-c", str, (char *)NULL); /* async-signal-safe */
#endif
    return -1;
#endif /* _WIN32 */
#endif
}

int
rb_proc_exec(const char *str)
{
    int ret;
    before_exec();
    ret = proc_exec_sh(str, Qfalse);
    preserving_errno(after_exec());
    return ret;
}

static void
mark_exec_arg(void *ptr)
{
    struct rb_execarg *eargp = ptr;
    if (eargp->use_shell)
        rb_gc_mark(eargp->invoke.sh.shell_script);
    else {
        rb_gc_mark(eargp->invoke.cmd.command_name);
        rb_gc_mark(eargp->invoke.cmd.command_abspath);
        rb_gc_mark(eargp->invoke.cmd.argv_str);
        rb_gc_mark(eargp->invoke.cmd.argv_buf);
    }
    rb_gc_mark(eargp->redirect_fds);
    rb_gc_mark(eargp->envp_str);
    rb_gc_mark(eargp->envp_buf);
    rb_gc_mark(eargp->dup2_tmpbuf);
    rb_gc_mark(eargp->rlimit_limits);
    rb_gc_mark(eargp->fd_dup2);
    rb_gc_mark(eargp->fd_close);
    rb_gc_mark(eargp->fd_open);
    rb_gc_mark(eargp->fd_dup2_child);
    rb_gc_mark(eargp->env_modification);
    rb_gc_mark(eargp->chdir_dir);
}

static void
free_exec_arg(void *ptr)
{
    xfree(ptr);
}

static size_t
memsize_exec_arg(const void *ptr)
{
    return ptr ? sizeof(struct rb_execarg) : 0;
}

static const rb_data_type_t exec_arg_data_type = {
  "exec_arg",
  {mark_exec_arg, free_exec_arg, memsize_exec_arg},
};

#if defined(_WIN32)
#define HAVE_SPAWNV 1
#endif

#if !defined(HAVE_FORK) && defined(HAVE_SPAWNV)
# define USE_SPAWNV 1
#else
# define USE_SPAWNV 0
#endif
#ifndef P_NOWAIT
# define P_NOWAIT _P_NOWAIT
#endif

#if USE_SPAWNV
#if defined(_WIN32)
#define proc_spawn_cmd_internal(argv, prog) rb_w32_aspawn(P_NOWAIT, (prog), (argv))
#else
static rb_pid_t
proc_spawn_cmd_internal(char **argv, char *prog)
{
    char fbuf[MAXPATHLEN];
    rb_pid_t status;

    if (!prog)
prog = argv[0];
    security(prog);
    prog = dln_find_exe_r(prog, 0, fbuf, sizeof(fbuf));
    if (!prog)
return -1;

    before_exec();
    status = spawnv(P_NOWAIT, prog, (const char **)argv);
    if (status == -1 && errno == ENOEXEC) {
*argv = (char *)prog;
*--argv = (char *)"sh";
status = spawnv(P_NOWAIT, "/bin/sh", (const char **)argv);
after_exec();
if (status == -1) errno = ENOEXEC;
    }
    rb_last_status_set(status == -1 ? 127 : status, 0);
    return status;
}
#endif

static rb_pid_t
proc_spawn_cmd(char **argv, VALUE prog, struct rb_execarg *eargp)
{
    rb_pid_t pid = -1;

    if (argv[0]) {
#if defined(_WIN32)
DWORD flags = 0;
if (eargp->new_pgroup_given && eargp->new_pgroup_flag) {
flags = CREATE_NEW_PROCESS_GROUP;
}
pid = rb_w32_aspawn_flags(P_NOWAIT, prog ? RSTRING_PTR(prog) : 0, argv, flags);
#else
pid = proc_spawn_cmd_internal(argv, prog ? RSTRING_PTR(prog) : 0);
#endif
    }
    return pid;
}

#if defined(_WIN32)
#define proc_spawn_sh(str) rb_w32_spawn(P_NOWAIT, (str), 0)
#else
static rb_pid_t
proc_spawn_sh(char *str)
{
    char fbuf[MAXPATHLEN];
    rb_pid_t status;

    char *shell = dln_find_exe_r("sh", 0, fbuf, sizeof(fbuf));
    before_exec();
    status = spawnl(P_NOWAIT, (shell ? shell : "/bin/sh"), "sh", "-c", str, (char*)NULL);
    rb_last_status_set(status == -1 ? 127 : status, 0);
    after_exec();
    return status;
}
#endif
#endif

static VALUE
hide_obj(VALUE obj)
{
    RBASIC(obj)->klass = 0;
    return obj;
}

static VALUE
check_exec_redirect_fd(VALUE v, int iskey)
{
    VALUE tmp;
    int fd;
    if (FIXNUM_P(v)) {
        fd = FIX2INT(v);
    }
    else if (SYMBOL_P(v)) {
        ID id = SYM2ID(v);
        if (id == rb_intern("in"))
            fd = 0;
        else if (id == rb_intern("out"))
            fd = 1;
        else if (id == rb_intern("err"))
            fd = 2;
        else
            goto wrong;
    }
    else if (!NIL_P(tmp = rb_check_convert_type(v, T_FILE, "IO", "to_io"))) {
        rb_io_t *fptr;
        GetOpenFile(tmp, fptr);
        if (fptr->tied_io_for_writing)
            rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "duplex IO redirection");
        fd = fptr->fd;
    }
    else {
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "wrong exec redirect");
    }
    if (fd < 0) {
      wrong:
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "negative file descriptor");
    }
#ifdef _WIN32
    else if (fd >= 3 && iskey) {
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "wrong file descriptor (%d)", fd);
    }
#endif
    return INT2FIX(fd);
}

static VALUE
check_exec_redirect1(VALUE ary, VALUE key, VALUE param)
{
    if (ary == Qfalse) {
        ary = hide_obj(rb_ary_new());
    }
    if (!RB_TYPE_P(key, T_ARRAY)) {
        VALUE fd = check_exec_redirect_fd(key, !NIL_P(param));
        rb_ary_push(ary, hide_obj(rb_assoc_new(fd, param)));
    }
    else {
        int i, n=0;
        for (i = 0 ; i < RARRAY_LEN(key); i++) {
            VALUE v = RARRAY_PTR(key)[i];
            VALUE fd = check_exec_redirect_fd(v, !NIL_P(param));
            rb_ary_push(ary, hide_obj(rb_assoc_new(fd, param)));
            n++;
        }
    }
    return ary;
}

static void
check_exec_redirect(VALUE key, VALUE val, struct rb_execarg *eargp)
{
    VALUE param;
    VALUE path, flags, perm;
    ID id;

    switch (TYPE(val)) {
      case T_SYMBOL:
        id = SYM2ID(val);
        if (id == rb_intern("close")) {
            param = Qnil;
            eargp->fd_close = check_exec_redirect1(eargp->fd_close, key, param);
        }
        else if (id == rb_intern("in")) {
            param = INT2FIX(0);
            eargp->fd_dup2 = check_exec_redirect1(eargp->fd_dup2, key, param);
        }
        else if (id == rb_intern("out")) {
            param = INT2FIX(1);
            eargp->fd_dup2 = check_exec_redirect1(eargp->fd_dup2, key, param);
        }
        else if (id == rb_intern("err")) {
            param = INT2FIX(2);
            eargp->fd_dup2 = check_exec_redirect1(eargp->fd_dup2, key, param);
        }
        else {
            rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "wrong exec redirect symbol: %s",
                                   rb_id2name(id));
        }
        break;

      case T_FILE:
        val = check_exec_redirect_fd(val, 0);
        /* fall through */
      case T_FIXNUM:
        param = val;
        eargp->fd_dup2 = check_exec_redirect1(eargp->fd_dup2, key, param);
        break;

      case T_ARRAY:
        path = rb_ary_entry(val, 0);
        if (RARRAY_LEN(val) == 2 && SYMBOL_P(path) &&
            SYM2ID(path) == rb_intern("child")) {
            param = check_exec_redirect_fd(rb_ary_entry(val, 1), 0);
            eargp->fd_dup2_child = check_exec_redirect1(eargp->fd_dup2_child, key, param);
        }
        else {
            FilePathValue(path);
            flags = rb_ary_entry(val, 1);
            if (NIL_P(flags))
                flags = INT2NUM(O_RDONLY);
            else if (RB_TYPE_P(flags, T_STRING))
                flags = INT2NUM(rb_io_modestr_oflags(StringValueCStr(flags)));
            else
                flags = rb_to_int(flags);
            perm = rb_ary_entry(val, 2);
            perm = NIL_P(perm) ? INT2FIX(0644) : rb_to_int(perm);
            param = hide_obj(rb_ary_new3(3, hide_obj(rb_str_dup(path)),
                                            flags, perm));
            eargp->fd_open = check_exec_redirect1(eargp->fd_open, key, param);
        }
        break;

      case T_STRING:
        path = val;
        FilePathValue(path);
        if (RB_TYPE_P(key, T_FILE))
            key = check_exec_redirect_fd(key, 1);
        if (FIXNUM_P(key) && (FIX2INT(key) == 1 || FIX2INT(key) == 2))
            flags = INT2NUM(O_WRONLY|O_CREAT|O_TRUNC);
        else
            flags = INT2NUM(O_RDONLY);
        perm = INT2FIX(0644);
        param = hide_obj(rb_ary_new3(3, hide_obj(rb_str_dup(path)),
                                        flags, perm));
        eargp->fd_open = check_exec_redirect1(eargp->fd_open, key, param);
        break;

      default:
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "wrong exec redirect action");
    }

}

#if defined(HAVE_SETRLIMIT) && defined(NUM2RLIM)
static int rlimit_type_by_lname(const char *name);
#endif

int
rb_execarg_addopt(VALUE execarg_obj, VALUE key, VALUE val)
{
    struct rb_execarg *eargp = rb_execarg_get(execarg_obj);

    ID id;
#if defined(HAVE_SETRLIMIT) && defined(NUM2RLIM)
    int rtype;
#endif

    rb_secure(2);

    switch (TYPE(key)) {
      case T_SYMBOL:
        id = SYM2ID(key);
#ifdef HAVE_SETPGID
        if (id == rb_intern("pgroup")) {
            pid_t pgroup;
            if (eargp->pgroup_given) {
                rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "pgroup option specified twice");
            }
            if (!RTEST(val))
                pgroup = -1; /* asis(-1) means "don't call setpgid()". */
            else if (val == Qtrue)
                pgroup = 0; /* new process group. */
            else {
                pgroup = NUM2PIDT(val);
                if (pgroup < 0) {
                    rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "negative process group ID : %ld", (long)pgroup);
                }
            }
            eargp->pgroup_given = 1;
            eargp->pgroup_pgid = pgroup;
        }
        else
#endif
#ifdef _WIN32
        if (id == rb_intern("new_pgroup")) {
            if (eargp->new_pgroup_given) {
                rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "new_pgroup option specified twice");
            }
            eargp->new_pgroup_given = 1;
            eargp->new_pgroup_flag = RTEST(val) ? 1 : 0;
        }
        else
#endif
#if defined(HAVE_SETRLIMIT) && defined(NUM2RLIM)
        if (strncmp("rlimit_", rb_id2name(id), 7) == 0 &&
            (rtype = rlimit_type_by_lname(rb_id2name(id)+7)) != -1) {
            VALUE ary = eargp->rlimit_limits;
            VALUE tmp, softlim, hardlim;
            if (eargp->rlimit_limits == Qfalse)
                ary = eargp->rlimit_limits = hide_obj(rb_ary_new());
            else
                ary = eargp->rlimit_limits;
            tmp = rb_check_array_type(val);
            if (!NIL_P(tmp)) {
                if (RARRAY_LEN(tmp) == 1)
                    softlim = hardlim = rb_to_int(rb_ary_entry(tmp, 0));
                else if (RARRAY_LEN(tmp) == 2) {
                    softlim = rb_to_int(rb_ary_entry(tmp, 0));
                    hardlim = rb_to_int(rb_ary_entry(tmp, 1));
                }
                else {
                    rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "wrong exec rlimit option");
                }
            }
            else {
                softlim = hardlim = rb_to_int(val);
            }
            tmp = hide_obj(rb_ary_new3(3, INT2NUM(rtype), softlim, hardlim));
            rb_ary_push(ary, tmp);
        }
        else
#endif
        if (id == rb_intern("unsetenv_others")) {
            if (eargp->unsetenv_others_given) {
                rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "unsetenv_others option specified twice");
            }
            eargp->unsetenv_others_given = 1;
            eargp->unsetenv_others_do = RTEST(val) ? 1 : 0;
        }
        else if (id == rb_intern("chdir")) {
            if (eargp->chdir_given) {
                rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "chdir option specified twice");
            }
            FilePathValue(val);
            eargp->chdir_given = 1;
            eargp->chdir_dir = hide_obj(rb_str_dup(val));
        }
        else if (id == rb_intern("umask")) {
mode_t cmask = NUM2MODET(val);
            if (eargp->umask_given) {
                rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "umask option specified twice");
            }
            eargp->umask_given = 1;
            eargp->umask_mask = cmask;
        }
        else if (id == rb_intern("close_others")) {
            if (eargp->close_others_given) {
                rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "close_others option specified twice");
            }
            eargp->close_others_given = 1;
            eargp->close_others_do = RTEST(val) ? 1 : 0;
        }
        else if (id == rb_intern("in")) {
            key = INT2FIX(0);
            goto redirect;
        }
        else if (id == rb_intern("out")) {
            key = INT2FIX(1);
            goto redirect;
        }
        else if (id == rb_intern("err")) {
            key = INT2FIX(2);
            goto redirect;
        }
        else {
return ST_STOP;
        }
        break;

      case T_FIXNUM:
      case T_FILE:
      case T_ARRAY:
redirect:
        check_exec_redirect(key, val, eargp);
        break;

      default:
return ST_STOP;
    }

    RB_GC_GUARD(execarg_obj);
    return ST_CONTINUE;
}

int
rb_exec_arg_addopt(struct rb_exec_arg *e, VALUE key, VALUE val)
{
    return rb_execarg_addopt(e->execarg_obj, key, val);
}

static int
check_exec_options_i(st_data_t st_key, st_data_t st_val, st_data_t arg)
{
    VALUE key = (VALUE)st_key;
    VALUE val = (VALUE)st_val;
    VALUE execarg_obj = (VALUE)arg;
    if (rb_execarg_addopt(execarg_obj, key, val) != ST_CONTINUE) {
if (SYMBOL_P(key))
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "wrong exec option symbol: %"PRIsVALUE,
key);
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "wrong exec option");
    }
    return ST_CONTINUE;
}

static int
check_exec_options_i_extract(st_data_t st_key, st_data_t st_val, st_data_t arg)
{
    VALUE key = (VALUE)st_key;
    VALUE val = (VALUE)st_val;
    VALUE *args = (VALUE *)arg;
    VALUE execarg_obj = args[0];
    if (rb_execarg_addopt(execarg_obj, key, val) != ST_CONTINUE) {
VALUE nonopts = args[1];
if (NIL_P(nonopts)) args[1] = nonopts = rb_hash_new();
rb_hash_aset(nonopts, key, val);
    }
    return ST_CONTINUE;
}

static int
check_exec_fds_1(struct rb_execarg *eargp, VALUE h, int maxhint, VALUE ary)
{
    long i;

    if (ary != Qfalse) {
        for (i = 0; i < RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
            VALUE elt = RARRAY_PTR(ary)[i];
            int fd = FIX2INT(RARRAY_PTR(elt)[0]);
            if (RTEST(rb_hash_lookup(h, INT2FIX(fd)))) {
                rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "fd %d specified twice", fd);
            }
            if (ary == eargp->fd_open || ary == eargp->fd_dup2)
                rb_hash_aset(h, INT2FIX(fd), Qtrue);
            else if (ary == eargp->fd_dup2_child)
                rb_hash_aset(h, INT2FIX(fd), RARRAY_PTR(elt)[1]);
            else /* ary == eargp->fd_close */
                rb_hash_aset(h, INT2FIX(fd), INT2FIX(-1));
            if (maxhint < fd)
                maxhint = fd;
            if (ary == eargp->fd_dup2 || ary == eargp->fd_dup2_child) {
                fd = FIX2INT(RARRAY_PTR(elt)[1]);
                if (maxhint < fd)
                    maxhint = fd;
            }
        }
    }
    return maxhint;
}

static VALUE
check_exec_fds(struct rb_execarg *eargp)
{
    VALUE h = rb_hash_new();
    VALUE ary;
    int maxhint = -1;
    long i;

    maxhint = check_exec_fds_1(eargp, h, maxhint, eargp->fd_dup2);
    maxhint = check_exec_fds_1(eargp, h, maxhint, eargp->fd_close);
    maxhint = check_exec_fds_1(eargp, h, maxhint, eargp->fd_open);
    maxhint = check_exec_fds_1(eargp, h, maxhint, eargp->fd_dup2_child);

    if (eargp->fd_dup2_child) {
        ary = eargp->fd_dup2_child;
        for (i = 0; i < RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
            VALUE elt = RARRAY_PTR(ary)[i];
            int newfd = FIX2INT(RARRAY_PTR(elt)[0]);
            int oldfd = FIX2INT(RARRAY_PTR(elt)[1]);
            int lastfd = oldfd;
            VALUE val = rb_hash_lookup(h, INT2FIX(lastfd));
            long depth = 0;
            while (FIXNUM_P(val) && 0 <= FIX2INT(val)) {
                lastfd = FIX2INT(val);
                val = rb_hash_lookup(h, val);
                if (RARRAY_LEN(ary) < depth)
                    rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "cyclic child fd redirection from %d", oldfd);
                depth++;
            }
            if (val != Qtrue)
                rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "child fd %d is not redirected", oldfd);
            if (oldfd != lastfd) {
                VALUE val2;
                rb_ary_store(elt, 1, INT2FIX(lastfd));
                rb_hash_aset(h, INT2FIX(newfd), INT2FIX(lastfd));
                val = INT2FIX(oldfd);
                while (FIXNUM_P(val2 = rb_hash_lookup(h, val))) {
                    rb_hash_aset(h, val, INT2FIX(lastfd));
                    val = val2;
                }
            }
        }
    }

    eargp->close_others_maxhint = maxhint;
    return h;
}

static void
rb_check_exec_options(VALUE opthash, VALUE execarg_obj)
{
    if (RHASH_EMPTY_P(opthash))
        return;
    st_foreach(RHASH_TBL(opthash), check_exec_options_i, (st_data_t)execarg_obj);
}

VALUE
rb_execarg_extract_options(VALUE execarg_obj, VALUE opthash)
{
    VALUE args[2];
    if (RHASH_EMPTY_P(opthash))
        return Qnil;
    args[0] = execarg_obj;
    args[1] = Qnil;
    st_foreach(RHASH_TBL(opthash), check_exec_options_i_extract, (st_data_t)args);
    return args[1];
}

static int
check_exec_env_i(st_data_t st_key, st_data_t st_val, st_data_t arg)
{
    VALUE key = (VALUE)st_key;
    VALUE val = (VALUE)st_val;
    VALUE env = (VALUE)arg;
    char *k;

    k = StringValueCStr(key);
    if (strchr(k, '='))
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "environment name contains a equal : %s", k);

    if (!NIL_P(val))
        StringValueCStr(val);

    rb_ary_push(env, hide_obj(rb_assoc_new(key, val)));

    return ST_CONTINUE;
}

static VALUE
rb_check_exec_env(VALUE hash)
{
    VALUE env;

    env = hide_obj(rb_ary_new());
    st_foreach(RHASH_TBL(hash), check_exec_env_i, (st_data_t)env);

    return env;
}

static VALUE
rb_check_argv(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE tmp, prog;
    int i;
    const char *name = 0;

    rb_check_arity(argc, 1, UNLIMITED_ARGUMENTS);

    prog = 0;
    tmp = rb_check_array_type(argv[0]);
    if (!NIL_P(tmp)) {
if (RARRAY_LEN(tmp) != 2) {
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "wrong first argument");
}
prog = RARRAY_PTR(tmp)[0];
argv[0] = RARRAY_PTR(tmp)[1];
SafeStringValue(prog);
StringValueCStr(prog);
prog = rb_str_new_frozen(prog);
name = RSTRING_PTR(prog);
    }
    for (i = 0; i < argc; i++) {
SafeStringValue(argv[i]);
argv[i] = rb_str_new_frozen(argv[i]);
StringValueCStr(argv[i]);
    }
    security(name ? name : RSTRING_PTR(argv[0]));
    return prog;
}

static VALUE
rb_exec_getargs(int *argc_p, VALUE **argv_p, int accept_shell, VALUE *env_ret, VALUE *opthash_ret)
{
    VALUE hash, prog;

    if (0 < *argc_p) {
        hash = rb_check_hash_type((*argv_p)[*argc_p-1]);
        if (!NIL_P(hash)) {
            *opthash_ret = hash;
            (*argc_p)--;
        }
    }

    if (0 < *argc_p) {
        hash = rb_check_hash_type((*argv_p)[0]);
        if (!NIL_P(hash)) {
            *env_ret = hash;
            (*argc_p)--;
            (*argv_p)++;
        }
    }
    prog = rb_check_argv(*argc_p, *argv_p);
    if (!prog) {
        prog = (*argv_p)[0];
        if (accept_shell && *argc_p == 1) {
            *argc_p = 0;
            *argv_p = 0;
        }
    }
    return prog;
}

#ifndef _WIN32
struct string_part {
    const char *ptr;
    size_t len;
};

static int
compare_posix_sh(const void *key, const void *el)
{
    const struct string_part *word = key;
    int ret = strncmp(word->ptr, el, word->len);
    if (!ret && ((const char *)el)[word->len]) ret = -1;
    return ret;
}
#endif

static void
rb_exec_fillarg(VALUE prog, int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE env, VALUE opthash, VALUE execarg_obj)
{
    struct rb_execarg *eargp = rb_execarg_get(execarg_obj);
    char fbuf[MAXPATHLEN];

    MEMZERO(eargp, struct rb_execarg, 1);

    if (!NIL_P(opthash)) {
        rb_check_exec_options(opthash, execarg_obj);
    }
    if (!NIL_P(env)) {
        env = rb_check_exec_env(env);
        eargp->env_modification = env;
    }

    eargp->use_shell = argc == 0;
    if (eargp->use_shell)
        eargp->invoke.sh.shell_script = prog;
    else
        eargp->invoke.cmd.command_name = prog;

#ifndef _WIN32
    if (eargp->use_shell) {
static const char posix_sh_cmds[][9] = {
"!", /* reserved */
".", /* special built-in */
"break", /* special built-in */
"case", /* reserved */
"colon", /* special built-in */
"continue", /* special built-in */
"do", /* reserved */
"done", /* reserved */
"elif", /* reserved */
"else", /* reserved */
"esac", /* reserved */
"eval", /* special built-in */
"exec", /* special built-in */
"exit", /* special built-in */
"export", /* special built-in */
"fi", /* reserved */
"for", /* reserved */
"if", /* reserved */
"in", /* reserved */
"readonly", /* special built-in */
"return", /* special built-in */
"set", /* special built-in */
"shift", /* special built-in */
"then", /* reserved */
"times", /* special built-in */
"trap", /* special built-in */
"unset", /* special built-in */
"until", /* reserved */
"while", /* reserved */
};
const char *p;
struct string_part first = {0, 0};
        int has_meta = 0;
        /*
* meta characters:
*
* * Pathname Expansion
* ? Pathname Expansion
* {} Grouping Commands
* [] Pathname Expansion
* <> Redirection
* () Grouping Commands
* ~ Tilde Expansion
* & AND Lists, Asynchronous Lists
* | OR Lists, Pipelines
* \ Escape Character
* $ Parameter Expansion
* ; Sequential Lists
* ' Single-Quotes
* ` Command Substitution
* " Double-Quotes
* \n Lists
*
* # Comment
* = Assignment preceding command name
* % (used in Parameter Expansion)
*/
        for (p = RSTRING_PTR(prog); *p; p++) {
if (*p == ' ' || *p == '\t') {
if (first.ptr && !first.len) first.len = p - first.ptr;
}
else {
if (!first.ptr) first.ptr = p;
}
            if (!has_meta && strchr("*?{}[]<>()~&|\\$;'`\"\n#", *p))
                has_meta = 1;
if (!first.len) {
if (*p == '=') {
has_meta = 1;
}
else if (*p == '/') {
first.len = 0x100; /* longer than any posix_sh_cmds */
}
}
if (has_meta)
                break;
        }
if (!has_meta && first.ptr) {
if (!first.len) first.len = p - first.ptr;
if (first.len > 0 && first.len <= sizeof(posix_sh_cmds[0]) &&
bsearch(&first, posix_sh_cmds, numberof(posix_sh_cmds), sizeof(posix_sh_cmds[0]), compare_posix_sh))
has_meta = 1;
}
if (!has_meta) {
            /* avoid shell since no shell meta charactor found. */
            eargp->use_shell = 0;
        }
        if (!eargp->use_shell) {
            VALUE argv_buf;
            argv_buf = hide_obj(rb_str_buf_new(0));
            p = RSTRING_PTR(prog);
            while (*p) {
                while (*p == ' ' || *p == '\t')
                    p++;
                if (*p) {
const char *w = p;
                    while (*p && *p != ' ' && *p != '\t')
                        p++;
                    rb_str_buf_cat(argv_buf, w, p-w);
                    rb_str_buf_cat(argv_buf, "", 1); /* append '\0' */
                }
            }
            eargp->invoke.cmd.argv_buf = argv_buf;
            eargp->invoke.cmd.command_name = hide_obj(rb_str_new_cstr(RSTRING_PTR(argv_buf)));
        }
    }
#endif

    if (!eargp->use_shell) {
const char *abspath;
        abspath = dln_find_exe_r(RSTRING_PTR(eargp->invoke.cmd.command_name), 0, fbuf, sizeof(fbuf));
if (abspath)
eargp->invoke.cmd.command_abspath = rb_str_new_cstr(abspath);
else
eargp->invoke.cmd.command_abspath = Qnil;
    }

    if (!eargp->use_shell && !eargp->invoke.cmd.argv_buf) {
        int i;
        VALUE argv_buf;
        argv_buf = rb_str_buf_new(0);
        hide_obj(argv_buf);
        for (i = 0; i < argc; i++) {
            rb_str_buf_cat2(argv_buf, StringValueCStr(argv[i]));
            rb_str_buf_cat(argv_buf, "", 1); /* append '\0' */
        }
        eargp->invoke.cmd.argv_buf = argv_buf;
    }

    if (!eargp->use_shell) {
        const char *p, *ep, *null=NULL;
        VALUE argv_str;
        argv_str = hide_obj(rb_str_buf_new(sizeof(char*) * (argc + 2)));
        rb_str_buf_cat(argv_str, (char *)&null, sizeof(null)); /* place holder for /bin/sh of try_with_sh. */
        p = RSTRING_PTR(eargp->invoke.cmd.argv_buf);
        ep = p + RSTRING_LEN(eargp->invoke.cmd.argv_buf);
        while (p < ep) {
            rb_str_buf_cat(argv_str, (char *)&p, sizeof(p));
            p += strlen(p) + 1;
        }
        rb_str_buf_cat(argv_str, (char *)&null, sizeof(null)); /* terminator for execve. */
        eargp->invoke.cmd.argv_str = argv_str;
    }
    RB_GC_GUARD(execarg_obj);
}

VALUE
rb_execarg_new(int argc, VALUE *argv, int accept_shell)
{
    VALUE execarg_obj;
    struct rb_execarg *eargp;
    execarg_obj = TypedData_Make_Struct(rb_cData, struct rb_execarg, &exec_arg_data_type, eargp);
    hide_obj(execarg_obj);
    rb_execarg_init(argc, argv, accept_shell, execarg_obj);
    return execarg_obj;
}

struct rb_execarg
*rb_execarg_get(VALUE execarg_obj)
{
    struct rb_execarg *eargp;
    TypedData_Get_Struct(execarg_obj, struct rb_execarg, &exec_arg_data_type, eargp);
    return eargp;
}

VALUE
rb_execarg_init(int argc, VALUE *argv, int accept_shell, VALUE execarg_obj)
{
    struct rb_execarg *eargp = rb_execarg_get(execarg_obj);
    VALUE prog, ret;
    VALUE env = Qnil, opthash = Qnil;
    prog = rb_exec_getargs(&argc, &argv, accept_shell, &env, &opthash);
    rb_exec_fillarg(prog, argc, argv, env, opthash, execarg_obj);
    ret = eargp->use_shell ? eargp->invoke.sh.shell_script : eargp->invoke.cmd.command_name;
    RB_GC_GUARD(execarg_obj);
    return ret;
}

VALUE
rb_exec_arg_init(int argc, VALUE *argv, int accept_shell, struct rb_exec_arg *e)
{
    return rb_execarg_init(argc, argv, accept_shell, e->execarg_obj);
}

void
rb_execarg_setenv(VALUE execarg_obj, VALUE env)
{
    struct rb_execarg *eargp = rb_execarg_get(execarg_obj);
    env = !NIL_P(env) ? rb_check_exec_env(env) : Qfalse;
    eargp->env_modification = env;
}

static int
fill_envp_buf_i(st_data_t st_key, st_data_t st_val, st_data_t arg)
{
    VALUE key = (VALUE)st_key;
    VALUE val = (VALUE)st_val;
    VALUE envp_buf = (VALUE)arg;

    rb_str_buf_cat2(envp_buf, StringValueCStr(key));
    rb_str_buf_cat2(envp_buf, "=");
    rb_str_buf_cat2(envp_buf, StringValueCStr(val));
    rb_str_buf_cat(envp_buf, "", 1); /* append '\0' */

    return ST_CONTINUE;
}


static long run_exec_dup2_tmpbuf_size(long n);

void
rb_execarg_fixup(VALUE execarg_obj)
{
    struct rb_execarg *eargp = rb_execarg_get(execarg_obj);
    int unsetenv_others;
    VALUE envopts;
    VALUE ary;

    eargp->redirect_fds = check_exec_fds(eargp);

    ary = eargp->fd_dup2;
    if (ary != Qfalse) {
        size_t len = run_exec_dup2_tmpbuf_size(RARRAY_LEN(ary));
        VALUE tmpbuf = hide_obj(rb_str_new(0, len));
        rb_str_set_len(tmpbuf, len);
        eargp->dup2_tmpbuf = tmpbuf;
    }

    unsetenv_others = eargp->unsetenv_others_given && eargp->unsetenv_others_do;
    envopts = eargp->env_modification;
    if (unsetenv_others || envopts != Qfalse) {
        VALUE envtbl, envp_str, envp_buf;
        char *p, *ep;
        if (unsetenv_others) {
            envtbl = rb_hash_new();
        }
        else {
            envtbl = rb_const_get(rb_cObject, rb_intern("ENV"));
            envtbl = rb_convert_type(envtbl, T_HASH, "Hash", "to_hash");
        }
        hide_obj(envtbl);
        if (envopts != Qfalse) {
            st_table *stenv = RHASH_TBL(envtbl);
            long i;
            for (i = 0; i < RARRAY_LEN(envopts); i++) {
                VALUE pair = RARRAY_PTR(envopts)[i];
                VALUE key = RARRAY_PTR(pair)[0];
                VALUE val = RARRAY_PTR(pair)[1];
                if (NIL_P(val)) {
                    st_data_t stkey = (st_data_t)key;
                    st_delete(stenv, &stkey, NULL);
                }
                else {
                    st_insert(stenv, (st_data_t)key, (st_data_t)val);
                }
            }
        }
        envp_buf = rb_str_buf_new(0);
        hide_obj(envp_buf);
        st_foreach(RHASH_TBL(envtbl), fill_envp_buf_i, (st_data_t)envp_buf);
        envp_str = rb_str_buf_new(sizeof(char*) * (RHASH_SIZE(envtbl) + 1));
        hide_obj(envp_str);
        p = RSTRING_PTR(envp_buf);
        ep = p + RSTRING_LEN(envp_buf);
        while (p < ep) {
            rb_str_buf_cat(envp_str, (char *)&p, sizeof(p));
            p += strlen(p) + 1;
        }
        p = NULL;
        rb_str_buf_cat(envp_str, (char *)&p, sizeof(p));
        eargp->envp_str = envp_str;
        eargp->envp_buf = envp_buf;

        /*
char **tmp_envp = (char **)RSTRING_PTR(envp_str);
while (*tmp_envp) {
printf("%s\n", *tmp_envp);
tmp_envp++;
}
*/
    }
    RB_GC_GUARD(execarg_obj);
}

void
rb_exec_arg_fixup(struct rb_exec_arg *e)
{
    rb_execarg_fixup(e->execarg_obj);
}

static int rb_exec_without_timer_thread(const struct rb_execarg *eargp, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen);

/*
* call-seq:
* exec([env,] command... [,options])
*
* Replaces the current process by running the given external _command_.
* _command..._ is one of following forms.
*
* commandline : command line string which is passed to the standard shell
* cmdname, arg1, ... : command name and one or more arguments (no shell)
* [cmdname, argv0], arg1, ... : command name, argv[0] and zero or more arguments (no shell)
*
* If single string is given as the command,
* it is taken as a command line that is subject to shell expansion before being executed.
*
* The standard shell means always <code>"/bin/sh"</code> on Unix-like systems,
* <code>ENV["RUBYSHELL"]</code> or <code>ENV["COMSPEC"]</code> on Windows NT series, and
* similar.
*
* If two or more +string+ given,
* the first is taken as a command name and
* the rest are passed as parameters to command with no shell expansion.
*
* If a two-element array at the beginning of the command,
* the first element is the command to be executed,
* and the second argument is used as the <code>argv[0]</code> value,
* which may show up in process listings.
*
* In order to execute the command, one of the <code>exec(2)</code>
* system calls is used, so the running command may inherit some of the environment
* of the original program (including open file descriptors).
* This behavior is modified by env and options.
* See <code>spawn</code> for details.
*
* Raises SystemCallError if the command couldn't execute (typically
* <code>Errno::ENOENT</code> when it was not found).
*
* This method modifies process attributes according to _options_
* (details described in <code>spawn</code>)
* before <code>exec(2)</code> system call.
* The modified attributes may be retained when <code>exec(2)</code> system call fails.
* For example, hard resource limits is not restorable.
* If it is not acceptable, consider to create a child process using <code>spawn</code> or <code>system</code>.
*
* exec "echo *" # echoes list of files in current directory
* # never get here
*
*
* exec "echo", "*" # echoes an asterisk
* # never get here
*/

VALUE
rb_f_exec(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE execarg_obj, fail_str;
    struct rb_execarg *eargp;
#define CHILD_ERRMSG_BUFLEN 80
    char errmsg[CHILD_ERRMSG_BUFLEN] = { '\0' };

    execarg_obj = rb_execarg_new(argc, argv, TRUE);
    eargp = rb_execarg_get(execarg_obj);
    rb_execarg_fixup(execarg_obj);
    fail_str = eargp->use_shell ? eargp->invoke.sh.shell_script : eargp->invoke.cmd.command_name;

#ifdef __MacOS_X__
    rb_exec_without_timer_thread(eargp, errmsg, sizeof(errmsg));
#else
    rb_exec_async_signal_safe(eargp, errmsg, sizeof(errmsg));
#endif
    RB_GC_GUARD(execarg_obj);
    if (errmsg[0])
        rb_sys_fail(errmsg);
    rb_sys_fail_str(fail_str);
    return Qnil; /* dummy */
}

#define ERRMSG(str) do { if (errmsg && 0 < errmsg_buflen) strlcpy(errmsg, (str), errmsg_buflen); } while (0)

/*#define DEBUG_REDIRECT*/
#if defined(DEBUG_REDIRECT)

#include <stdarg.h>

static void
ttyprintf(const char *fmt, ...)
{
    va_list ap;
    FILE *tty;
    int save = errno;
#ifdef _WIN32
    tty = fopen("con", "w");
#else
    tty = fopen("/dev/tty", "w");
#endif
    if (!tty)
        return;

    va_start(ap, fmt);
    vfprintf(tty, fmt, ap);
    va_end(ap);
    fclose(tty);
    errno = save;
}

static int
redirect_dup(int oldfd)
{
    int ret;
    ret = dup(oldfd);
    ttyprintf("dup(%d) => %d\n", oldfd, ret);
    return ret;
}

static int
redirect_dup2(int oldfd, int newfd)
{
    int ret;
    ret = dup2(oldfd, newfd);
    ttyprintf("dup2(%d, %d)\n", oldfd, newfd);
    return ret;
}

static int
redirect_close(int fd)
{
    int ret;
    ret = close(fd);
    ttyprintf("close(%d)\n", fd);
    return ret;
}

static int
redirect_open(const char *pathname, int flags, mode_t perm)
{
    int ret;
    ret = open(pathname, flags, perm);
    ttyprintf("open(\"%s\", 0x%x, 0%o) => %d\n", pathname, flags, perm, ret);
    return ret;
}

#else
#define redirect_dup(oldfd) dup(oldfd)
#define redirect_dup2(oldfd, newfd) dup2((oldfd), (newfd))
#define redirect_close(fd) close(fd)
#define redirect_open(pathname, flags, perm) open((pathname), (flags), (perm))
#endif

static int
save_redirect_fd(int fd, struct rb_execarg *sargp, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    if (sargp) {
        VALUE newary;
        int save_fd = redirect_dup(fd);
        if (save_fd == -1) {
            if (errno == EBADF)
                return 0;
            ERRMSG("dup");
            return -1;
        }
        rb_update_max_fd(save_fd);
        newary = sargp->fd_dup2;
        if (newary == Qfalse) {
            newary = hide_obj(rb_ary_new());
            sargp->fd_dup2 = newary;
        }
        rb_ary_push(newary,
                    hide_obj(rb_assoc_new(INT2FIX(fd), INT2FIX(save_fd))));

        newary = sargp->fd_close;
        if (newary == Qfalse) {
            newary = hide_obj(rb_ary_new());
            sargp->fd_close = newary;
        }
        rb_ary_push(newary, hide_obj(rb_assoc_new(INT2FIX(save_fd), Qnil)));
    }

    return 0;
}

static int
intcmp(const void *a, const void *b)
{
    return *(int*)a - *(int*)b;
}

static int
intrcmp(const void *a, const void *b)
{
    return *(int*)b - *(int*)a;
}

struct run_exec_dup2_fd_pair {
    int oldfd;
    int newfd;
    long older_index;
    long num_newer;
};

static long
run_exec_dup2_tmpbuf_size(long n)
{
    return sizeof(struct run_exec_dup2_fd_pair) * n;
}

/* This function should be async-signal-safe when sargp is NULL. Hopefully it is. */
static int
run_exec_dup2(VALUE ary, VALUE tmpbuf, struct rb_execarg *sargp, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    long n, i;
    int ret;
    int extra_fd = -1;
    struct run_exec_dup2_fd_pair *pairs = 0;

    n = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
    pairs = (struct run_exec_dup2_fd_pair *)RSTRING_PTR(tmpbuf);

    /* initialize oldfd and newfd: O(n) */
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
        VALUE elt = RARRAY_PTR(ary)[i];
        pairs[i].oldfd = FIX2INT(RARRAY_PTR(elt)[1]);
        pairs[i].newfd = FIX2INT(RARRAY_PTR(elt)[0]); /* unique */
        pairs[i].older_index = -1;
    }

    /* sort the table by oldfd: O(n log n) */
    if (!sargp)
        qsort(pairs, n, sizeof(struct run_exec_dup2_fd_pair), intcmp); /* hopefully async-signal-safe */
    else
        qsort(pairs, n, sizeof(struct run_exec_dup2_fd_pair), intrcmp);

    /* initialize older_index and num_newer: O(n log n) */
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
        int newfd = pairs[i].newfd;
        struct run_exec_dup2_fd_pair key, *found;
        key.oldfd = newfd;
        found = bsearch(&key, pairs, n, sizeof(struct run_exec_dup2_fd_pair), intcmp); /* hopefully async-signal-safe */
        pairs[i].num_newer = 0;
        if (found) {
            while (pairs < found && (found-1)->oldfd == newfd)
                found--;
            while (found < pairs+n && found->oldfd == newfd) {
                pairs[i].num_newer++;
                found->older_index = i;
                found++;
            }
        }
    }

    /* non-cyclic redirection: O(n) */
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
        long j = i;
        while (j != -1 && pairs[j].oldfd != -1 && pairs[j].num_newer == 0) {
            if (save_redirect_fd(pairs[j].newfd, sargp, errmsg, errmsg_buflen) < 0) /* async-signal-safe */
                goto fail;
            ret = redirect_dup2(pairs[j].oldfd, pairs[j].newfd); /* async-signal-safe */
            if (ret == -1) {
                ERRMSG("dup2");
                goto fail;
            }
            rb_update_max_fd(pairs[j].newfd); /* async-signal-safe but don't need to call it in a child process. */
            pairs[j].oldfd = -1;
            j = pairs[j].older_index;
            if (j != -1)
                pairs[j].num_newer--;
        }
    }

    /* cyclic redirection: O(n) */
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
        long j;
        if (pairs[i].oldfd == -1)
            continue;
        if (pairs[i].oldfd == pairs[i].newfd) { /* self cycle */
#ifdef F_GETFD
            int fd = pairs[i].oldfd;
            ret = fcntl(fd, F_GETFD); /* async-signal-safe */
            if (ret == -1) {
                ERRMSG("fcntl(F_GETFD)");
                goto fail;
            }
            if (ret & FD_CLOEXEC) {
                ret &= ~FD_CLOEXEC;
                ret = fcntl(fd, F_SETFD, ret); /* async-signal-safe */
                if (ret == -1) {
                    ERRMSG("fcntl(F_SETFD)");
                    goto fail;
                }
            }
#endif
            pairs[i].oldfd = -1;
            continue;
        }
        if (extra_fd == -1) {
            extra_fd = redirect_dup(pairs[i].oldfd); /* async-signal-safe */
            if (extra_fd == -1) {
                ERRMSG("dup");
                goto fail;
            }
            rb_update_max_fd(extra_fd);
        }
        else {
            ret = redirect_dup2(pairs[i].oldfd, extra_fd); /* async-signal-safe */
            if (ret == -1) {
                ERRMSG("dup2");
                goto fail;
            }
            rb_update_max_fd(extra_fd);
        }
        pairs[i].oldfd = extra_fd;
        j = pairs[i].older_index;
        pairs[i].older_index = -1;
        while (j != -1) {
            ret = redirect_dup2(pairs[j].oldfd, pairs[j].newfd); /* async-signal-safe */
            if (ret == -1) {
                ERRMSG("dup2");
                goto fail;
            }
            rb_update_max_fd(ret);
            pairs[j].oldfd = -1;
            j = pairs[j].older_index;
        }
    }
    if (extra_fd != -1) {
        ret = redirect_close(extra_fd); /* async-signal-safe */
        if (ret == -1) {
            ERRMSG("close");
            goto fail;
        }
    }

    return 0;

  fail:
    return -1;
}

/* This function should be async-signal-safe. Actually it is. */
static int
run_exec_close(VALUE ary, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    long i;
    int ret;

    for (i = 0; i < RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
        VALUE elt = RARRAY_PTR(ary)[i];
        int fd = FIX2INT(RARRAY_PTR(elt)[0]);
        ret = redirect_close(fd); /* async-signal-safe */
        if (ret == -1) {
            ERRMSG("close");
            return -1;
        }
    }
    return 0;
}

/* This function should be async-signal-safe when sargp is NULL. Actually it is. */
static int
run_exec_open(VALUE ary, struct rb_execarg *sargp, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    long i;
    int ret;

    for (i = 0; i < RARRAY_LEN(ary);) {
        VALUE elt = RARRAY_PTR(ary)[i];
        int fd = FIX2INT(RARRAY_PTR(elt)[0]);
        VALUE param = RARRAY_PTR(elt)[1];
        char *path = RSTRING_PTR(RARRAY_PTR(param)[0]);
        int flags = NUM2INT(RARRAY_PTR(param)[1]);
        int perm = NUM2INT(RARRAY_PTR(param)[2]);
        int need_close = 1;
        int fd2 = redirect_open(path, flags, perm); /* async-signal-safe */
        if (fd2 == -1) {
            ERRMSG("open");
            return -1;
        }
        rb_update_max_fd(fd2);
        while (i < RARRAY_LEN(ary) &&
               (elt = RARRAY_PTR(ary)[i], RARRAY_PTR(elt)[1] == param)) {
            fd = FIX2INT(RARRAY_PTR(elt)[0]);
            if (fd == fd2) {
                need_close = 0;
            }
            else {
                if (save_redirect_fd(fd, sargp, errmsg, errmsg_buflen) < 0) /* async-signal-safe */
                    return -1;
                ret = redirect_dup2(fd2, fd); /* async-signal-safe */
                if (ret == -1) {
                    ERRMSG("dup2");
                    return -1;
                }
                rb_update_max_fd(fd);
            }
            i++;
        }
        if (need_close) {
            ret = redirect_close(fd2); /* async-signal-safe */
            if (ret == -1) {
                ERRMSG("close");
                return -1;
            }
        }
    }
    return 0;
}

/* This function should be async-signal-safe when sargp is NULL. Actually it is. */
static int
run_exec_dup2_child(VALUE ary, struct rb_execarg *sargp, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    long i;
    int ret;

    for (i = 0; i < RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
        VALUE elt = RARRAY_PTR(ary)[i];
        int newfd = FIX2INT(RARRAY_PTR(elt)[0]);
        int oldfd = FIX2INT(RARRAY_PTR(elt)[1]);

        if (save_redirect_fd(newfd, sargp, errmsg, errmsg_buflen) < 0) /* async-signal-safe */
            return -1;
        ret = redirect_dup2(oldfd, newfd); /* async-signal-safe */
        if (ret == -1) {
            ERRMSG("dup2");
            return -1;
        }
        rb_update_max_fd(newfd);
    }
    return 0;
}

#ifdef HAVE_SETPGID
/* This function should be async-signal-safe when sargp is NULL. Actually it is. */
static int
run_exec_pgroup(const struct rb_execarg *eargp, struct rb_execarg *sargp, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    /*
* If FD_CLOEXEC is available, rb_fork waits the child's execve.
* So setpgid is done in the child when rb_fork is returned in the parent.
* No race condition, even without setpgid from the parent.
* (Is there an environment which has setpgid but no FD_CLOEXEC?)
*/
    int ret;
    pid_t pgroup;

    pgroup = eargp->pgroup_pgid;
    if (pgroup == -1)
        return 0;

    if (sargp) {
        /* maybe meaningless with no fork environment... */
        sargp->pgroup_given = 1;
        sargp->pgroup_pgid = getpgrp();
    }

    if (pgroup == 0) {
        pgroup = getpid(); /* async-signal-safe */
    }
    ret = setpgid(getpid(), pgroup); /* async-signal-safe */
    if (ret == -1) ERRMSG("setpgid");
    return ret;
}
#endif

#if defined(HAVE_SETRLIMIT) && defined(RLIM2NUM)
/* This function should be async-signal-safe when sargp is NULL. Hopefully it is. */
static int
run_exec_rlimit(VALUE ary, struct rb_execarg *sargp, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    long i;
    for (i = 0; i < RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
        VALUE elt = RARRAY_PTR(ary)[i];
        int rtype = NUM2INT(RARRAY_PTR(elt)[0]);
        struct rlimit rlim;
        if (sargp) {
            VALUE tmp, newary;
            if (getrlimit(rtype, &rlim) == -1) {
                ERRMSG("getrlimit");
                return -1;
            }
            tmp = hide_obj(rb_ary_new3(3, RARRAY_PTR(elt)[0],
                                       RLIM2NUM(rlim.rlim_cur),
                                       RLIM2NUM(rlim.rlim_max)));
            if (sargp->rlimit_limits == Qfalse)
                newary = sargp->rlimit_limits = hide_obj(rb_ary_new());
            else
                newary = sargp->rlimit_limits;
            rb_ary_push(newary, tmp);
        }
        rlim.rlim_cur = NUM2RLIM(RARRAY_PTR(elt)[1]);
        rlim.rlim_max = NUM2RLIM(RARRAY_PTR(elt)[2]);
        if (setrlimit(rtype, &rlim) == -1) { /* hopefully async-signal-safe */
            ERRMSG("setrlimit");
            return -1;
        }
    }
    return 0;
}
#endif

#if !defined(HAVE_FORK)
static VALUE
save_env_i(VALUE i, VALUE ary, int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    rb_ary_push(ary, hide_obj(rb_ary_dup(argv[0])));
    return Qnil;
}

static void
save_env(struct rb_execarg *sargp)
{
    if (!sargp)
        return;
    if (sargp->env_modification == Qfalse) {
        VALUE env = rb_const_get(rb_cObject, rb_intern("ENV"));
        if (RTEST(env)) {
            VALUE ary = hide_obj(rb_ary_new());
            rb_block_call(env, rb_intern("each"), 0, 0, save_env_i,
                          (VALUE)ary);
            sargp->env_modification = ary;
        }
        sargp->unsetenv_others_given = 1;
        sargp->unsetenv_others_do = 1;
    }
}
#endif

/* This function should be async-signal-safe when sargp is NULL. Hopefully it is. */
int
rb_execarg_run_options(const struct rb_execarg *eargp, struct rb_execarg *sargp, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    VALUE obj;

    if (sargp) {
        /* assume that sargp is always NULL on fork-able environments */
        MEMZERO(sargp, struct rb_execarg, 1);
        sargp->redirect_fds = Qnil;
    }

#ifdef HAVE_SETPGID
    if (eargp->pgroup_given) {
        if (run_exec_pgroup(eargp, sargp, errmsg, errmsg_buflen) == -1) /* async-signal-safe */
            return -1;
    }
#endif

#if defined(HAVE_SETRLIMIT) && defined(RLIM2NUM)
    obj = eargp->rlimit_limits;
    if (obj != Qfalse) {
        if (run_exec_rlimit(obj, sargp, errmsg, errmsg_buflen) == -1) /* hopefully async-signal-safe */
            return -1;
    }
#endif

#if !defined(HAVE_FORK)
    if (eargp->unsetenv_others_given && eargp->unsetenv_others_do) {
        save_env(sargp);
        rb_env_clear();
    }

    obj = eargp->env_modification;
    if (obj != Qfalse) {
        long i;
        save_env(sargp);
        for (i = 0; i < RARRAY_LEN(obj); i++) {
            VALUE pair = RARRAY_PTR(obj)[i];
            VALUE key = RARRAY_PTR(pair)[0];
            VALUE val = RARRAY_PTR(pair)[1];
            if (NIL_P(val))
                ruby_setenv(StringValueCStr(key), 0);
            else
                ruby_setenv(StringValueCStr(key), StringValueCStr(val));
        }
    }
#endif

    if (eargp->umask_given) {
        mode_t mask = eargp->umask_mask;
        mode_t oldmask = umask(mask); /* never fail */ /* async-signal-safe */
        if (sargp) {
            sargp->umask_given = 1;
            sargp->umask_mask = oldmask;
        }
    }

    obj = eargp->fd_dup2;
    if (obj != Qfalse) {
        if (run_exec_dup2(obj, eargp->dup2_tmpbuf, sargp, errmsg, errmsg_buflen) == -1) /* hopefully async-signal-safe */
            return -1;
    }

    obj = eargp->fd_close;
    if (obj != Qfalse) {
        if (sargp)
            rb_warn("cannot close fd before spawn");
        else {
            if (run_exec_close(obj, errmsg, errmsg_buflen) == -1) /* async-signal-safe */
                return -1;
        }
    }

#ifdef HAVE_FORK
    if (!eargp->close_others_given || eargp->close_others_do) {
        rb_close_before_exec(3, eargp->close_others_maxhint, eargp->redirect_fds); /* async-signal-safe */
    }
#endif

    obj = eargp->fd_open;
    if (obj != Qfalse) {
        if (run_exec_open(obj, sargp, errmsg, errmsg_buflen) == -1) /* async-signal-safe */
            return -1;
    }

    obj = eargp->fd_dup2_child;
    if (obj != Qfalse) {
        if (run_exec_dup2_child(obj, sargp, errmsg, errmsg_buflen) == -1) /* async-signal-safe */
            return -1;
    }

    if (eargp->chdir_given) {
        if (sargp) {
            char *cwd = my_getcwd();
            sargp->chdir_given = 1;
            sargp->chdir_dir = hide_obj(rb_str_new2(cwd));
            xfree(cwd);
        }
        if (chdir(RSTRING_PTR(eargp->chdir_dir)) == -1) { /* async-signal-safe */
            ERRMSG("chdir");
            return -1;
        }
    }

    if (sargp) {
        VALUE ary = sargp->fd_dup2;
        if (ary != Qfalse) {
            size_t len = run_exec_dup2_tmpbuf_size(RARRAY_LEN(ary));
            VALUE tmpbuf = hide_obj(rb_str_new(0, len));
            rb_str_set_len(tmpbuf, len);
            sargp->dup2_tmpbuf = tmpbuf;
        }
    }

    return 0;
}

int
rb_run_exec_options_err(const struct rb_exec_arg *e, struct rb_exec_arg *s, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    return rb_execarg_run_options(rb_execarg_get(e->execarg_obj), rb_execarg_get(s->execarg_obj), errmsg, errmsg_buflen);
}

int
rb_run_exec_options(const struct rb_exec_arg *e, struct rb_exec_arg *s)
{
    return rb_execarg_run_options(rb_execarg_get(e->execarg_obj), rb_execarg_get(s->execarg_obj), NULL, 0);
}

/* This function should be async-signal-safe. Hopefully it is. */
int
rb_exec_async_signal_safe(const struct rb_execarg *eargp, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
#if !defined(HAVE_FORK)
    struct rb_execarg sarg, *const sargp = &sarg;
#else
    struct rb_execarg *const sargp = NULL;
#endif

    before_exec_async_signal_safe(); /* async-signal-safe */

    if (rb_execarg_run_options(eargp, sargp, errmsg, errmsg_buflen) < 0) { /* hopefully async-signal-safe */
        goto failure;
    }

    if (eargp->use_shell) {
proc_exec_sh(RSTRING_PTR(eargp->invoke.sh.shell_script), eargp->envp_str); /* async-signal-safe */
    }
    else {
char *abspath = NULL;
if (!NIL_P(eargp->invoke.cmd.command_abspath))
abspath = RSTRING_PTR(eargp->invoke.cmd.command_abspath);
proc_exec_cmd(abspath, eargp->invoke.cmd.argv_str, eargp->envp_str); /* async-signal-safe */
    }
#if !defined(HAVE_FORK)
    preserving_errno(rb_execarg_run_options(sargp, NULL, errmsg, errmsg_buflen));
#endif

failure:
    preserving_errno(after_exec_async_signal_safe()); /* async-signal-safe */
    return -1;
}

static int
rb_exec_without_timer_thread(const struct rb_execarg *eargp, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    int ret;
    before_exec_non_async_signal_safe(); /* async-signal-safe if forked_child is true */
    ret = rb_exec_async_signal_safe(eargp, errmsg, errmsg_buflen); /* hopefully async-signal-safe */
    preserving_errno(after_exec_non_async_signal_safe()); /* not async-signal-safe because it calls rb_thread_start_timer_thread. */
    return ret;
}

int
rb_exec_err(const struct rb_exec_arg *e, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    return rb_exec_without_timer_thread(rb_execarg_get(e->execarg_obj), errmsg, errmsg_buflen);
}

int
rb_exec(const struct rb_exec_arg *e)
{
#if !defined FD_CLOEXEC && !defined HAVE_SPAWNV
    char errmsg[80] = { '\0' };
    int ret = rb_exec_without_timer_thread(rb_execarg_get(e->execarg_obj), errmsg, sizeof(errmsg));
    preserving_errno(
if (errmsg[0]) {
fprintf(stderr, "%s\n", errmsg);
}
else {
fprintf(stderr, "%s:%d: command not found: %s\n",
rb_sourcefile(), rb_sourceline(),
                    RSTRING_PTR(e->use_shell ? e->invoke.sh.shell_script : e->invoke.cmd.command_name));
}
    );
    return ret;
#else
    return rb_exec_without_timer_thread(rb_execarg_get(e->execarg_obj), NULL, 0);
#endif
}

#ifdef HAVE_FORK
/* This function should be async-signal-safe. Hopefully it is. */
static int
rb_exec_atfork(void* arg, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    return rb_exec_async_signal_safe(arg, errmsg, errmsg_buflen); /* hopefully async-signal-safe */
}
#endif

#ifdef HAVE_FORK
#if SIZEOF_INT == SIZEOF_LONG
#define proc_syswait (VALUE (*)(VALUE))rb_syswait
#else
static VALUE
proc_syswait(VALUE pid)
{
    rb_syswait((int)pid);
    return Qnil;
}
#endif

static int
move_fds_to_avoid_crash(int *fdp, int n, VALUE fds)
{
    int min = 0;
    int i;
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
        int ret;
        while (RTEST(rb_hash_lookup(fds, INT2FIX(fdp[i])))) {
            if (min <= fdp[i])
                min = fdp[i]+1;
            while (RTEST(rb_hash_lookup(fds, INT2FIX(min))))
                min++;
            ret = rb_cloexec_fcntl_dupfd(fdp[i], min);
            if (ret == -1)
                return -1;
            rb_update_max_fd(ret);
            close(fdp[i]);
            fdp[i] = ret;
        }
    }
    return 0;
}

static int
pipe_nocrash(int filedes[2], VALUE fds)
{
    int ret;
    ret = rb_pipe(filedes);
    if (ret == -1)
        return -1;
    if (RTEST(fds)) {
        int save = errno;
        if (move_fds_to_avoid_crash(filedes, 2, fds) == -1) {
            close(filedes[0]);
            close(filedes[1]);
            return -1;
        }
        errno = save;
    }
    return ret;
}

struct chfunc_protect_t {
    int (*chfunc)(void*, char *, size_t);
    void *arg;
    char *errmsg;
    size_t buflen;
};

static VALUE
chfunc_protect(VALUE arg)
{
    struct chfunc_protect_t *p = (struct chfunc_protect_t *)arg;

    return (VALUE)(*p->chfunc)(p->arg, p->errmsg, p->buflen);
}

#ifndef O_BINARY
#define O_BINARY 0
#endif

/*
* Forks child process, and returns the process ID in the parent
* process.
*
* If +status+ is given, protects from any exceptions and sets the
* jump status to it, and returns -1. If failed to fork new process
* but no exceptions occurred, sets 0 to it. Otherwise, if forked
* successfully, the value of +status+ is undetermined.
*
* In the child process, just returns 0 if +chfunc+ is +NULL+.
* Otherwise +chfunc+ will be called with +charg+, and then the child
* process exits with +EXIT_SUCCESS+ when it returned zero.
*
* In the case of the function is called and returns non-zero value,
* the child process exits with non-+EXIT_SUCCESS+ value (normally
* 127). And, on the platforms where +FD_CLOEXEC+ is available,
* +errno+ is propagated to the parent process, and this function
* returns -1 in the parent process. On the other platforms, just
* returns pid.
*
* If fds is not Qnil, internal pipe for the errno propagation is
* arranged to avoid conflicts of the hash keys in +fds+.
*
* +chfunc+ must not raise any exceptions.
*/

static rb_pid_t
retry_fork(int *status, int *ep, int chfunc_is_async_signal_safe)
{
    rb_pid_t pid;
    int state = 0;

#define prefork() ( \
rb_io_flush(rb_stdout), \
rb_io_flush(rb_stderr) \
)

    while (1) {
        prefork();
        if (!chfunc_is_async_signal_safe)
            before_fork();
        pid = fork();
        if (pid == 0) /* fork succeed, child process */
            return pid;
        if (!chfunc_is_async_signal_safe)
            preserving_errno(after_fork());
        if (0 < pid) /* fork succeed, parent process */
            return pid;
        /* fork failed */
switch (errno) {
case EAGAIN:
#if defined(EWOULDBLOCK) && EWOULDBLOCK != EAGAIN
case EWOULDBLOCK:
#endif
if (!status && !ep) {
rb_thread_sleep(1);
continue;
}
else {
rb_protect((VALUE (*)())rb_thread_sleep, 1, &state);
if (status) *status = state;
if (!state) continue;
}
            /* fall through */
default:
if (ep) {
preserving_errno((close(ep[0]), close(ep[1])));
}
if (state && !status) rb_jump_tag(state);
return -1;
}
    }
}

static void
send_child_error(int fd, int state, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen, int chfunc_is_async_signal_safe)
{
    VALUE io = Qnil;
    int err;

    if (!chfunc_is_async_signal_safe) {
        if (write(fd, &state, sizeof(state)) == sizeof(state) && state) {
            VALUE errinfo = rb_errinfo();
            io = rb_io_fdopen(fd, O_WRONLY|O_BINARY, NULL);
            rb_marshal_dump(errinfo, io);
            rb_io_flush(io);
        }
    }
    err = errno;
    if (write(fd, &err, sizeof(err)) < 0) err = errno;
    if (errmsg && 0 < errmsg_buflen) {
        errmsg[errmsg_buflen-1] = '\0';
        errmsg_buflen = strlen(errmsg);
        if (errmsg_buflen > 0 && write(fd, errmsg, errmsg_buflen) < 0)
            err = errno;
    }
    if (!NIL_P(io)) rb_io_close(io);
}

static int
recv_child_error(int fd, int *statep, VALUE *excp, int *errp, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen, int chfunc_is_async_signal_safe)
{
    int err, state = 0;
    VALUE io = Qnil;
    ssize_t size;
    VALUE exc = Qnil;
    if (!chfunc_is_async_signal_safe) {
        if ((read(fd, &state, sizeof(state))) == sizeof(state) && state) {
            io = rb_io_fdopen(fd, O_RDONLY|O_BINARY, NULL);
            exc = rb_marshal_load(io);
            rb_set_errinfo(exc);
        }
        if (!*statep && state) *statep = state;
        *excp = exc;
    }
#define READ_FROM_CHILD(ptr, len) \
(NIL_P(io) ? read(fd, (ptr), (len)) : rb_io_bufread(io, (ptr), (len)))
    if ((size = READ_FROM_CHILD(&err, sizeof(err))) < 0) {
        err = errno;
    }
    *errp = err;
    if (size == sizeof(err) &&
        errmsg && 0 < errmsg_buflen) {
        ssize_t ret = READ_FROM_CHILD(errmsg, errmsg_buflen-1);
        if (0 <= ret) {
            errmsg[ret] = '\0';
        }
    }
    if (NIL_P(io))
        close(fd);
    else
        rb_io_close(io);
    return size != 0;
}

static rb_pid_t
rb_fork_internal(int *status, int (*chfunc)(void*, char *, size_t), void *charg,
        int chfunc_is_async_signal_safe, VALUE fds,
        char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    rb_pid_t pid;
    int err, state = 0;
    int ep[2];
    VALUE exc = Qnil;
    int error_occured;

    if (status) *status = 0;

    if (!chfunc) {
        pid = retry_fork(status, NULL, FALSE);
        if (pid < 0)
            return pid;
        if (!pid) {
            forked_child = 1;
            after_fork();
        }
        return pid;
    }
    else {
if (pipe_nocrash(ep, fds)) return -1;
if (fcntl(ep[1], F_SETFD, FD_CLOEXEC)) {
preserving_errno((close(ep[0]), close(ep[1])));
return -1;
}
        pid = retry_fork(status, ep, chfunc_is_async_signal_safe);
        if (pid < 0)
            return pid;
        if (!pid) {
            int ret;
            forked_child = 1;
            close(ep[0]);
            if (chfunc_is_async_signal_safe)
                ret = chfunc(charg, errmsg, errmsg_buflen);
            else {
                struct chfunc_protect_t arg;
                arg.chfunc = chfunc;
                arg.arg = charg;
                arg.errmsg = errmsg;
                arg.buflen = errmsg_buflen;
                ret = (int)rb_protect(chfunc_protect, (VALUE)&arg, &state);
            }
            if (!ret) _exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
            send_child_error(ep[1], state, errmsg, errmsg_buflen, chfunc_is_async_signal_safe);
#if EXIT_SUCCESS == 127
            _exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
#else
            _exit(127);
#endif
        }
        close(ep[1]);
        error_occured = recv_child_error(ep[0], &state, &exc, &err, errmsg, errmsg_buflen, chfunc_is_async_signal_safe);
        if (state || error_occured) {
            if (status) {
                rb_protect(proc_syswait, (VALUE)pid, status);
                if (state) *status = state;
            }
            else {
                rb_syswait(pid);
                if (state) rb_exc_raise(exc);
            }
            errno = err;
            return -1;
        }
        return pid;
    }
}

rb_pid_t
rb_fork_err(int *status, int (*chfunc)(void*, char *, size_t), void *charg, VALUE fds,
        char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    return rb_fork_internal(status, chfunc, charg, FALSE, fds, errmsg, errmsg_buflen);
}

rb_pid_t
rb_fork_async_signal_safe(int *status, int (*chfunc)(void*, char *, size_t), void *charg, VALUE fds,
        char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    return rb_fork_internal(status, chfunc, charg, TRUE, fds, errmsg, errmsg_buflen);
}

struct chfunc_wrapper_t {
    int (*chfunc)(void*);
    void *arg;
};

static int
chfunc_wrapper(void *arg_, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    struct chfunc_wrapper_t *arg = arg_;
    return arg->chfunc(arg->arg);
}

rb_pid_t
rb_fork(int *status, int (*chfunc)(void*), void *charg, VALUE fds)
{
    if (chfunc) {
        struct chfunc_wrapper_t warg;
        warg.chfunc = chfunc;
        warg.arg = charg;
        return rb_fork_internal(status, chfunc_wrapper, &warg, FALSE, fds, NULL, 0);
    }
    else {
        return rb_fork_internal(status, NULL, NULL, FALSE, fds, NULL, 0);
    }

}

rb_pid_t
rb_fork_ruby(int *status)
{
    return rb_fork_internal(status, NULL, NULL, FALSE, Qnil, NULL, 0);
}

#endif

#if defined(HAVE_FORK) && !defined(CANNOT_FORK_WITH_PTHREAD)
/*
* call-seq:
* Kernel.fork [{ block }] -> fixnum or nil
* Process.fork [{ block }] -> fixnum or nil
*
* Creates a subprocess. If a block is specified, that block is run
* in the subprocess, and the subprocess terminates with a status of
* zero. Otherwise, the +fork+ call returns twice, once in
* the parent, returning the process ID of the child, and once in
* the child, returning _nil_. The child process can exit using
* <code>Kernel.exit!</code> to avoid running any
* <code>at_exit</code> functions. The parent process should
* use <code>Process.wait</code> to collect the termination statuses
* of its children or use <code>Process.detach</code> to register
* disinterest in their status; otherwise, the operating system
* may accumulate zombie processes.
*
* The thread calling fork is the only thread in the created child process.
* fork doesn't copy other threads.
*
* If fork is not usable, Process.respond_to?(:fork) returns false.
*/

static VALUE
rb_f_fork(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_pid_t pid;

    rb_secure(2);

    switch (pid = rb_fork_ruby(NULL)) {
      case 0:
rb_thread_atfork();
if (rb_block_given_p()) {
int status;

rb_protect(rb_yield, Qundef, &status);
ruby_stop(status);
}
return Qnil;

      case -1:
rb_sys_fail("fork(2)");
return Qnil;

      default:
return PIDT2NUM(pid);
    }
}
#else
#define rb_f_fork rb_f_notimplement
#endif

static int
exit_status_code(VALUE status)
{
    int istatus;

    switch (status) {
      case Qtrue:
istatus = EXIT_SUCCESS;
break;
      case Qfalse:
istatus = EXIT_FAILURE;
break;
      default:
istatus = NUM2INT(status);
#if EXIT_SUCCESS != 0
if (istatus == 0)
istatus = EXIT_SUCCESS;
#endif
break;
    }
    return istatus;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* Process.exit!(status=false)
*
* Exits the process immediately. No exit handlers are
* run. <em>status</em> is returned to the underlying system as the
* exit status.
*
* Process.exit!(true)
*/

static VALUE
rb_f_exit_bang(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE status;
    int istatus;

    rb_secure(4);
    if (argc > 0 && rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "01", &status) == 1) {
istatus = exit_status_code(status);
    }
    else {
istatus = EXIT_FAILURE;
    }
    _exit(istatus);

    UNREACHABLE;
}

void
rb_exit(int status)
{
    if (GET_THREAD()->tag) {
VALUE args[2];

args[0] = INT2NUM(status);
args[1] = rb_str_new2("exit");
rb_exc_raise(rb_class_new_instance(2, args, rb_eSystemExit));
    }
    ruby_finalize();
    exit(status);
}


/*
* call-seq:
* exit(status=true)
* Kernel::exit(status=true)
* Process::exit(status=true)
*
* Initiates the termination of the Ruby script by raising the
* <code>SystemExit</code> exception. This exception may be caught. The
* optional parameter is used to return a status code to the invoking
* environment.
* +true+ and +FALSE+ of _status_ means success and failure
* respectively. The interpretation of other integer values are
* system dependent.
*
* begin
* exit
* puts "never get here"
* rescue SystemExit
* puts "rescued a SystemExit exception"
* end
* puts "after begin block"
*
* <em>produces:</em>
*
* rescued a SystemExit exception
* after begin block
*
* Just prior to termination, Ruby executes any <code>at_exit</code> functions
* (see Kernel::at_exit) and runs any object finalizers (see
* ObjectSpace::define_finalizer).
*
* at_exit { puts "at_exit function" }
* ObjectSpace.define_finalizer("string", proc { puts "in finalizer" })
* exit
*
* <em>produces:</em>
*
* at_exit function
* in finalizer
*/

VALUE
rb_f_exit(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE status;
    int istatus;

    rb_secure(4);
    if (argc > 0 && rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "01", &status) == 1) {
istatus = exit_status_code(status);
    }
    else {
istatus = EXIT_SUCCESS;
    }
    rb_exit(istatus);

    UNREACHABLE;
}


/*
* call-seq:
* abort
* Kernel::abort([msg])
* Process::abort([msg])
*
* Terminate execution immediately, effectively by calling
* <code>Kernel.exit(false)</code>. If _msg_ is given, it is written
* to STDERR prior to terminating.
*/

VALUE
rb_f_abort(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    rb_secure(4);
    if (argc == 0) {
if (!NIL_P(GET_THREAD()->errinfo)) {
ruby_error_print();
}
rb_exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }
    else {
VALUE args[2];

rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "1", &args[1]);
StringValue(argv[0]);
rb_io_puts(argc, argv, rb_stderr);
args[0] = INT2NUM(EXIT_FAILURE);
rb_exc_raise(rb_class_new_instance(2, args, rb_eSystemExit));
    }

    UNREACHABLE;
}

void
rb_syswait(rb_pid_t pid)
{
    int status;

    rb_waitpid(pid, &status, 0);
}

static rb_pid_t
rb_spawn_process(struct rb_execarg *eargp, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    rb_pid_t pid;
#if !USE_SPAWNV
    int status;
#endif
#if !defined HAVE_FORK || USE_SPAWNV
    VALUE prog;
    struct rb_execarg sarg;
#endif

#if defined HAVE_FORK && !USE_SPAWNV
    pid = rb_fork_async_signal_safe(&status, rb_exec_atfork, eargp, eargp->redirect_fds, errmsg, errmsg_buflen);
#else
    prog = eargp->use_shell ? eargp->invoke.sh.shell_script : eargp->invoke.cmd.command_name;

    if (rb_execarg_run_options(eargp, &sarg, errmsg, errmsg_buflen) < 0) {
        return -1;
    }

    if (prog && !eargp->use_shell) {
        char **argv = ARGVSTR2ARGV(eargp->invoke.cmd.argv_str);
        argv[0] = RSTRING_PTR(prog);
    }
# if defined HAVE_SPAWNV
    if (eargp->use_shell) {
pid = proc_spawn_sh(RSTRING_PTR(prog));
    }
    else {
        char **argv = ARGVSTR2ARGV(eargp->invoke.cmd.argv_str);
pid = proc_spawn_cmd(argv, prog, eargp);
    }
# if defined(_WIN32)
    if (pid == -1)
rb_last_status_set(0x7f << 8, 0);
# endif
# else
    if (!eargp->use_shell) {
        char **argv = ARGVSTR2ARGV(eargp->invoke.cmd.argv_str);
        int argc = ARGVSTR2ARGC(eargp->invoke.cmd.argv_str);
        prog = rb_ary_join(rb_ary_new4(argc, argv), rb_str_new2(" "));
    }
    status = system(StringValuePtr(prog));
    rb_last_status_set((status & 0xff) << 8, 0);
# endif

    rb_execarg_run_options(&sarg, NULL, errmsg, errmsg_buflen);
#endif
    return pid;
}

static rb_pid_t
rb_spawn_internal(int argc, VALUE *argv, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    VALUE execarg_obj;
    struct rb_execarg *eargp;
    rb_pid_t ret;

    execarg_obj = rb_execarg_new(argc, argv, TRUE);
    eargp = rb_execarg_get(execarg_obj);
    rb_execarg_fixup(execarg_obj);
    ret = rb_spawn_process(eargp, errmsg, errmsg_buflen);
    RB_GC_GUARD(execarg_obj);
    return ret;
}

rb_pid_t
rb_spawn_err(int argc, VALUE *argv, char *errmsg, size_t e