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src Changed fetch parameters in the adapter Mar 15, 2020
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npm version

This library allows LWC components to connect to REST services using an easy syntax wrapping the browser fetch() method.


useFetch is a simple wire adapter that executes an HTTP request and assigns the result to a component property:

    @wire(useFetch, options) myproperty;

The options are the following:

  • url: the fetch URL.
    If this URL is relative, then it is appended to the FetchClient base URL (see bellow).
  • init: the options passed to the native fetch method (a RequestInit object).
  • queryParams: query parameters.
    The queryParams option lists the parameters to be added to the query string of the url. An undefined value for a parameter prevents the parameter to be added, while a null value adds it without a value (just the parameter name, no '=' sign). Each parameter, name & value, is properly encoded using encodeURIComponent().
  • variables: substitution variables.
    The URL parts between {} are substituted by these variables. The value is encoded using encodeURIComponent(). As it better handles undefined and null values, it is advised to use queryParams for the query string.

Here is an example showing these capabilities:

export default class ComputerList extends LightningElement {

    @track variables = {
        instance: 'xyz'

    @track queryParams = {
        offset: 0,
        limit: 10

    @wire(useFetch, {
        url: '/{instance}/computers',
        variables: '$variables',
        queryParams: '$queryParams'
    }) computers;

The initial fetch URL will be something like: https://myserver/api/xyz?offset=0&limit=10

Note: to make the wire adapter react on a variable value change, the whole queryParams or variables objects have to be replaced, as a change in one of their sub-properties is not detected. For example, changing the offset should be done with code like:

	 // Right way to update an object
    handleFirst() {
        this.queryParams = {
            offset: 0
//    // This does not trigger a wire adapter change!
//    handleFirst() {
//        this.queryParams.offset = 0;
//    }

Fetch Result

The fetch wire adapter assigns the following values to the result variable:

    loading:        boolean;  // true when the request is being executed
    data?:          any;      // Data if the request was succesful
    error?:         string;   // Error message if an error occurred
    initialized:    boolean;  // true when the request has already been executed at least once	

    client:         FetchClient, // FetchClient used for the request
    fetch?:         (options, q, v): Promise<void> // fetch() method to re-execute the request (see 'lazy')


Behind the scene, useFetch uses a FetchClient instance that holds a base URL, and can intercept the requests/responses (see bellow). By default, it uses a default FetchClient, registered as a global singleton. But an explicit client can be passed a parameter if needed:

    @wire(useFetch, {
    	client: myFetchClient,
    }) mydata;

Fetch URL

The url parameter of useFetch is relative to the FetchClient being used, unless it is itself absolute. Note that using an absolute URL within the components is not considered as a good practice, as it statically points to a server.

If the URL is more complex to build, then it can be defined as a component property and calculated when needed:

    @track url
    @wire(useFetch, {
       url: '$url',
    }) mydata;

Fetch options (init)

Behind the scene, the wire adapter uses the browser Fetch API to execute the query. The fetch() function uses options that are set with the top level property fetchOptions:

    @wire(useFetch, {
    	init: {
          method: 'POST',
    }) mydata;

Note that some of these options (authentication headers, cors mode, cache...) should better be set at the FetchClient level, so it is shared by all the wire adapters using the same FetchClient instance.

Lazy mode

The request is automatically emitted when the wire adapter configuration is available, which means when the component is connected to the DOM. This works well for data needed by the component to display right away but, sometimes, the request should be executed manually. This is certainly true for update requests (POST,PUT,DELETE) and for data requested on demand (list for a pop-up, ...).

To support that, the wire adapter offers a lazy mode. When set to true, the request is only executed with an explicit call to a fetch() method, provided as part of the @wire variable.

This fetch method has the following signature:

    interface FetchParams {
        init?: RequestInit,
        queryParams?: Record<string, any>, 
        variables?: Record<string, any> 
    fetch(params?: FetchParams): Promise<void>
  • init
    These are initialization parameters that are merged with the ones defined at the adapter level.
  • queryParams
    Merges, if defined, with the query parameters defined at the wire adapter level.
  • variables
    Merges, if defined, with the variables defined at the wire adapter level.

The function returns a Promise that can be observed to know when the result has been retrieved. The Promise does not provide that value, but it can be accessed from the @wire variable.

Here is an example:

    @wire(useFetch, {
    	lazy: true
    }) mydata;
    handleClick() {
    	// Explicitly fetch the data
    	this.mydata.fetch().then( () => {
    		console.log('The data was retrieved: ';

Current limitations

useFetch is kept simple on purpose, but should be enhanced over time:

  • It does not use a store behind the scene, which means that the request results are not cached and shared between adapters.

  • It does not normalize the data (see: normalizr.js).

The target browser should have native Fetch available, see: CanIUse Fetch. If not, (ex: IE11), there are some polyfills available: Fetch Polyfill.


Some enhancements have to be made to this class so it will change over time

FetchClient is a javascript class to help with calling the fetch() standard method. It includes:

  • A base url.
    This will be prepended to any no absolute urls used in the fetch() method.
  • An array of RequestInterceptor Request interceptors can be used to update the options used by the browser fetch() method. A request interceptor can return a new object with the options, or a Promise resolving to this object.
  • An array of ResponseInterceptor response interceptors can be used to process the response. They return a Promise with the processed result.

Global client

The module exports two methods to get and set a global, shared FetchClient (singleton). It is used by useFetch when no explicit client is passed as a parameter.

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