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Common Pitfalls and Troubleshooting

In this section, we'll walk you through a lot of concepts that are hard to grasp when developing on the BOLOS platform, and we'll provide some analysis of common failure scenarios that you might experience while developing applications.

Not Enough RAM

At the time of writing, the default link script provided by the SDK for the Ledger Nano S allocates 4 KiB of RAM for applications to use. This 4 KiB has to be enough to store all global non-const and :doc:`non-NVRAM <memory>` variables as well as the call stack (which is currently set to 768 bytes by default, also defined in the link script).

This is the linker error you will experience if you declare too many global non-const and non-NVRAM variables to fit in RAM:

bin/app.elf section `.bss' will not fit in region `SRAM'

The only solution to this problem is, of course, using less RAM. You can accomplish this by making your application's memory layout more efficient. Alternatively, if you're feeling adventurous, you can attempt to modify the link script (script.ld in the SDKs) to optimize the space allocated for the call stack. If you choose to pursue the latter option, we recommend you read the next section as well.

Stack Overflows

Determining the exact amount of the call stack used by your application can be difficult to do without simply running your application. The technique we recommend for avoiding stack overflows is using a stack canary. Creating a stack canary involves setting a magic value at the start of the stack area (the stack grows towards lower addresses, so a canary at the start of this region will be located at the top of the stack), and then the canary is checked regularly. If the canary was modified, then this means there was a stack overflow.

In a future version of the BOLOS SDKs, this feature will be implemented automatically. Until then, this is the recommended way to implement a stack canary:

// This symbol is defined by the link script to be at the start of the stack
// area.
extern unsigned long _stack;

#define STACK_CANARY (*((volatile uint32_t*) &_stack))

void init_canary() {

void check_canary() {

The canary should be checked regularly. For example, you could run the check every time io_event(...) is called.

Error Handling

Error handling in C can sometimes be a bit counter-intuitive. With our error model, there are two common failure scenarios.

Firstly, you must take care to always close a try context when jumping out of it. For example, in the block of code below, the CLOSE_TRY macro must be used to close the try context before returning from the function in the case that i > 0. However, in the CATCH clause, the try has already been closed automatically so CLOSE_TRY is not necessary.

bool is_positive(int8_t i) {
        TRY {
            if (i == 0)
            if (i > 0) {
                return true;
        } CATCH_OTHER(e) {
            return false;
        } FINALLY {}
    } END_TRY;
    return false;

Another common failure scenario is caused by the compiler making invalid assumptions when optimizing your code because it doesn't understand how our exception model works. To avoid this problem, when modifying variables within a try / catch / finally context, always declare those variables volatile.

uint16_t multiply(uint8_t a, uint8_t b) {
    volatile uint16_t product = 0;
    volatile uint8_t multiplier = b;
    while (true) {
        BEGIN_TRY {
            TRY {
                if (multiplier == 0)
                product += a;
            } CATCH_OTHER(e) {
                if (e == 1)
                    return product;
            } FINALLY {}
        } END_TRY;
    // Suppress compiler warning
    return 0;

In the above example, a does not need to be declared volatile because it is never modified.

On another note, you should use the error codes defined in the SDKs wherever possible (see EXCEPTION, INVALID_PARAMETER, etc. in os.h). If you decide to use custom error codes, never use an error code of 0.

Application Stalled

An application stalling when run on the device (the device's screen freezes and stops responding to APDU) could be caused by a number of issues from the SE being isolated due to invalid handling of SEPROXYHAL packets, to a core fault on the device (perhaps due to a misaligned memory access or an attempt to access restricted memory). If this occurrs, it is best to attempt to simplify the app and strip away as much code as possible until the problem can be isolated.