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ssh-blocker NAME ssh-blocker - read a log pipe and block attacks with ipset OVERVIEW ssh-blocker is a program that reads log lines from a named pipe (FIFO) and tries to find IP addresses in lines containing login attempts. On a successful login attempt, the address is added to a whitelist. When a certain number of invalid login attempts is reached within a pre-defined period, the address will be added to a blacklist. The whitelist and blacklists are stored with ipset, a relevant iptables rule must exist that take care of it. Using ipset, the blocked address will expire after some time. REQUIREMENTS This program needs the following libraries: - libcap - for dropping privileges when running as root - libpcre - for matching log lines - libipset - for keeping a blacklist and whitelist of IP addresses The following programs are recommended: - iptables - for actual allowing or denying access based on ipset lists. - OpenSSH - the service to protect by reading its logs. One log provider must be available: - rsyslog - for writing log messages to the named pipe (FIFO). - systemd - for retrieving log messages from the systemd journal. Debian Wheezy has been used for testing. Older versions of the above software may also work, but is no guaranteed. CONFIGURATION The file ssh-blocker.h can be changed to adapt to your configuration. Some interesting defaults are shown below: - MATCH_THRESHOLD - After 5 invalid login attempts, the IP is blocked. - SETNAME_WHITELIST and SETNAME_BLACKLIST - The names of the blacklist as used with ipset (and which can be used with iptables). Defaults to "ssh-whitelist" and "ssh-blacklist" respectively. - WHITELIST_TIME - After a successful login attempt, you are unblocked for 3600 seconds (one hour) (in which you can perform as many invalid login attempts as you want). - BLOCK_TIME - If an IP address is blocked, it will last 3600 seconds (one hour). For more options, see the comments in ssh-blocker.h. Edit your sshd configuration (/etc/ssh/sshd_config) and set "UseDNS no". This will prevent IP addresses from being resolved to hostnames. Reload the SSH configuration thereafter. Exactly one log provider can be used, this must be specified at compile time. (for rsyslog only) Assuming the named pipe to be located at /run/ssh-blocker.fifo, create a new rsyslog configuration file (/etc/rsyslog.d/ssh-blocker.conf) containing: :programname,isequal,"sshd" |/run/ssh-blocker.fifo For best security, create a new system user, say "ssh-blocker". Its shell can be /sbin/nologin with /nonexistent as home directory. To finish, you need to perform actions in the correct order and add iptables rules. Continue reading the USAGE section. USAGE There are some ways to set-up this program: - Manually create a FIFO before starting rsyslog, start this program thereafter. Alternative: start this program followed by rsyslog. (only applicable in log pipe configuration) - Manually create the whitelist and blacklist ipsets, set iptables rules and start this program. Alternative: start this program and set iptables rules thereafter. The command is invoked as follows: ssh-blocker -d username log-pipe-file Or if systemd is used instead of a pipe: ssh-blocker -d username "-d" is optional, it causes the program to daemonize. This happens just before log entries are read, so any errors in opening the fifo, dropping privileges can be caught earlier. Note that "-d" can be specified only as the first argument, getopt is not used for now. "username" is the user under which the program should run. Do not run this program under someone like "nobody" because all "nobody" users can kill this program, write junk to the FIFO or ptrace it if settings/permissions allow it. When using the systemd (journal) source, be sure that this user is a member of the 'systemd-journal' group). (only applicable in log pipe configuration) "log-pipe-file" must be replaced by the path to a named pipe. If it does not exist at start-up, it will be created with permissions 0600 (read/write for owner only) under the user and group the program was started with. If the file already exists, it must be a FIFO that is owned by root (or the user that started this program) and not be world-writable. (only applicable in log pipe configuration) Suggested start-up order: - Start this program before rsyslog: ssh-blocker ssh-blocker /run/ssh-blocker.fifo - (rsyslog starts here) When the iptables rules are loaded: - Create the whitelist and blacklist ipsets with timeout support (do not fail if the set has been created before): ipset -exist create ssh-whitelist hash:ip timeout 0 ipset -exist create ssh-blocklist hash:ip timeout 0 - Use iptables-restore to apply rules. An example configuration that first applies the whitelist, then the blacklist and finally limits connection attempts to 10 per minute is shown below this list. - Recommended: add your own IP addresses to the ssh-whitelist. For example, if your IP is 203.0.113.1: ipset -exist add ssh-whitelist 203.0.113.1 timeout 0 Since the the ipsets are created with no timeout by default, this will be permanently saved (well, as long as you do not destroy or flush the sets). An example ipset ruleset for SSH: -N ssh -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 22 -j ssh # Apply ssh-blocker whitelist and blacklists -A ssh -m set --match-set ssh-whitelist src -j ACCEPT -A ssh -m set --match-set ssh-blocklist src -j DROP # Whatever you would normally add for limiting SSH connection attempts -A ssh -m recent --name ssh --update --seconds 60 --hitcount 10 -j DROP -A ssh -m recent --name ssh --set -A ssh -j ACCEPT SECURITY This program was originally created to reduce syslog spam. It can also be used as a replacement for Fail2ban or DenyHosts if you do not need fancy features. As with any program that monitors syslog, note that syslog can usually be written by everyone. That means that rogue local users can insert bogus entries into the syslog. It is as trivial as: logger -p auth.notice -t sshd '...' Therefore, use this program with care. Add known good IP addresses to the whitelist and do not let untrusted users to your system. When the program is run as root, it tightens its capabilities to CAP_NET_ADMIN (for ipset) and CAP_SETUID+CAP_SETGID (for changing users). Then it changes to the user as specified in the command line arguments. When the user has succesfully changed its real, effective and saved uid/gid, it will further tighten its privileges to include CAP_NET_ADMIN only. Note that the log file is created and/ or opened before changing users. TODO - IPv6 is not supported (yet). - Host name lookups for log entries are not supported. Set UseDNS to no in your sshd configuration. - When over IPLIST_LENGTH (currently 512) different IP addresses are shown in the logs, no block will be performed as old entries are overwritten. This should only be an issue when a botnet is attacking you. With spoofed IP addresses, you have different issues. - Nicier log source selection. AUTHORS Written by Peter Wu. REPORTING BUGS Report bugs to Peter Wu <firstname.lastname@example.org>. COPYRIGHT Copyright (c) 2013-2016 Peter Wu. License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>. This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.