A Python (2 *and* 3) module for wrapping whatever strings you want in HTML tags.
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The htmltag module


The latest, complete documentation of htmltag can be found here: http://liftoff.github.io/htmltag/

The latest version of this module can be obtained from Github: https://github.com/LiftoffSoftware/htmltag

htmltag.py - A Python (2 and 3) module for wrapping whatever strings you want in HTML tags. Example:

>>> from htmltag import strong
>>> print(strong("SO STRONG!"))
<strong>SO STRONG!</strong>

What tags are supported? All of them! An important facet of modern web programming is the ability to use your own custom tags. For example:

>>> from htmltag import foobar
>>> foobar('Custom tag example')
'<foobar>Custom tag example</foobar>'

To add attributes inside your tag just pass them as keyword arguments:

>>> from htmltag import a
>>> print(a('awesome software', href='http://liftoffsoftware.com/'))
<a href="http://liftoffsoftware.com/">awesome software</a>

To work around the problem of reserved words as keyword arguments (i.e. can't have 'class="foo"') just prefix the keyword with an underscore like so:

>>> from htmltag import div
>>> print(div("example", _class="someclass"))
<div class="someclass">example</div>

Another option--which is useful for things like 'data-*' attributes--is to pass keyword arguments as a dict using the ** operator like so:

>>> from htmltag import li
>>> print(li("CEO", **{"class": "user", "data-name": "Dan McDougall"}))
<li class="user" data-name="Dan McDougall">CEO</li>

If you want to use upper-case tags just import them in caps:

>>> from htmltag import STRONG
>>> print(STRONG('whatever'))

Combining Tags and Content

You can combine multiple tags to create a larger HTML string like so:

>>> from htmltag import table, tr, td
>>> print(table(
...     tr(td('100'), td('200'), id="row1"),
...     tr(td('150'), td('250'), id="row2"),
... ))
<table><tr id="row1"><td>100</td><td>200</td></tr><tr id="row2"><td>150</td><td>250</td></tr></table>

NOTE: If you're going to do something like the above please use a real template language/module instead of htmltag. You're probably "doing it wrong" if you end up with something like the above in your code. For example, try Tornado's template engine.

Special Characters

Special characters that cause trouble like, '<', '>', and '&' will be automatically converted into HTML entities. If you don't want that to happen just wrap your string in :class:`htmltag.HTML` like so:

>>> from htmltag import HTML, a
>>> txt = HTML("<strong>I am already HTML. Don't escape me!</strong>")
>>> a(txt, href="http://liftoffsoftware.com/")
'<a href="http://liftoffsoftware.com/"><strong>I am already HTML. Don\'t escape me!</strong></a>'

Since Python doesn't allow modules to have dashes (-) in their names, if you need to create a tag like that just use an underscore and change its 'tagname' attribute:

>>> from htmltag import foo_bar
>>> print(foo_bar('baz')) # Before
>>> foo_bar.tagname = 'foo-bar'
>>> print(foo_bar('baz')) # Before

By default self-closing HTML tags like '<img>' will not include an ending slash. To change this behavior (i.e. for XHTML) just set 'ending_slash' to True:

>>> from htmltag import img
>>> img.ending_slash = True
>>> img(src="http://somehost/images/image.png")
'<img src="http://somehost/images/image.png" />'
>>> img.ending_slash = False # Reset for later doctests

Protections Against Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)

By default all unsafe (XSS) content in HTML tags will be removed:

>>> from htmltag import a, img
>>> a(img(src="javascript:alert('pwned!')"), href="http://hacker/")
'<a href="http://hacker/">(removed)</a>'

If you want to change this behavior set the tag's 'safe_mode' attribute like so:

>>> from htmltag import a, img
>>> a.safe_mode = False
>>> img.safe_mode = False
>>> a(img(src="javascript:alert('pwned!')"), href="http://hacker/")
'<a href="http://hacker/"><img src="javascript:alert(\'pwned!\')"></a>'
>>> a.safe_mode = True # Reset for later doctests
>>> img.safe_mode = True # Ditto

You may also change the replacement text if you like:

>>> from htmltag import a, img
>>> img.replacement = "No no no!"
>>> a(img(src="javascript:alert('pwned!')"), href="http://hacker/")
'<a href="http://hacker/">No no no!</a>'

If you set 'replacement' to 'entities' the rejected HTML will be converted to character entities like so:

>>> from htmltag import a, img
>>> a.replacement = "entities"
>>> img.replacement = "entities"
>>> a(img(src="javascript:alert('pwned!')"), href="http://hacker/")
'<a href="http://hacker/">&lt;img src="javascript:alert(\'pwned!\')"&gt;</a>'

It is also possible to create a whitelist of allowed tags. All other tags contained therein will automatically be replaced:

>>> from htmltag import span
>>> whitelist = ['span', 'b', 'i', 'strong']
>>> span.whitelist = whitelist
>>> span(HTML('This is <b>bold</b> new lib is <script>awesome();</script>'))
'<span>This is <b>bold</b> new lib is (removed)awesome();(removed)</span>'

Lastly, all strings returned by htmltag are actually a subclass of str: ~htmltag.HTML. It has a useful escaped property:

>>> from htmltag import address
>>> address.safe_mode = False # Turn off so we have a dangerous example ;)
>>> html = address('1 Hacker Ln., Nowhere, USA')
>>> print(html)
<address>1 Hacker Ln., Nowhere, USA</address>
>>> print(html.escaped)
&lt;address&gt;1 Hacker Ln., Nowhere, USA&lt;/address&gt;

This can be extremely useful if you want to be double-sure that no executable stuff ends up in your program's output.

Functions and Classes