Branch: master
Find file Copy path
Fetching contributors…
Cannot retrieve contributors at this time
118 lines (74 sloc) 7.32 KB
LIP: 0003
Title: Uniform ordering of delegates list
Authors: Iker Alustiza <>
Status: Draft
Type: Standards Track
Module: Delegates
Created: 2018-08-17
Updated: 2018-09-28


This LIP addresses two issues affecting delegate list uniformity found within the reference implementation of the Lisk protocol. It proposes a way to uniformly order the delegates list by hashing each delegate’s unique identifier together with a unique identifier for the round.


This LIP is licensed under the GNU General Public License, version 3.


Currently, there is a bug in how the order of the delegates list is generated for every round. This is implemented in the Delegates.prototype.generateDelegateList function of ./modules/delegates.js. Below you can find the reference code which generates the delegate list for every round:

var seedSource = modules.rounds.calc(height).toString();
var currentSeed = crypto.createHash('sha256').update(seedSource, 'utf8').digest();

for (var i = 0, delCount = truncDelegateList.length; i < delCount; i++) {
	for (var x = 0; x < 4 && i < delCount; i++, x++) {
		var newIndex = currentSeed[x] % delCount;
		var b = truncDelegateList[newIndex];
		truncDelegateList[newIndex] = truncDelegateList[i];
		truncDelegateList[i] = b;
	currentSeed = crypto.createHash('sha256').update(currentSeed).digest();

This code snippet contains two unrelated issues, either of which is sufficient to introduce the generation of non-uniform lists of delegates:

  1. The third and fourth lines of code contain two for loops that increment the variable i twice, every 5th time (in the inner and outer loop). This means that the shuffling logic is skipped for every 5th delegate.

  2. The line of code after the second for loop calculates the new index for the current delegate. It takes what can be assumed to be a uniformly distributed random number between 0 and 255 (currentSeed[x]) and calculates the mod101 of it (delCount = 101). This implies that some indices are more probable than others. This happens because, for example:

0 mod 101 = 101 mod 101 = 202 mod 101 = 0


100 mod 101 = 201 mod 101 = 100

Therefore, delegates in positions from 1 to 54 are 50% more likely to be chosen in the loop process than the others.

If we consider the worst affected cases caused by the two issues mentioned above:

  1. Being a delegate in the 5th position, 10th position, 15th position... until 55 i.e. [4, 9, ..., 54].
  2. Being a delegate in the 60th position, 65th position, 70th position... until 101 i.e. [59, 64,..., 99].

And if we assume the vote weighting does not change between rounds, which is the worst case scenario.

For case 1, taking for example delegate[4]:

Knowing that the probability of delegate[4] being swapped by delegate[0] (during the first loop) is 3/253, we have that:

The probability of delegate[4] not being swapped by any of the looped delegates (82 loops) is 0.38. In other words, the delegate[4] will change its position for 61.9% of the rounds. Which is the same for the rest of the delegates considered in this case since we assume a uniform distribution in the hash is generated.

For case 2, taking for example delegate[99]:

Knowing that the probability of delegate[99] being swapped by delegate[0] (during the first loop) is 2/253, we have that:

The probability of delegate[99] not being swapped by any of the looped delegates (82 loops) is 0.526. In other words, the delegate[99] will change its position 47.4% of the rounds. Which is the same for the rest of the delegates considered in this case since we assume a uniform distribution in the hash is generated. So given the current situation, it is noticeable when a delegate is one of these in the case 2, and it may likely not change its position in 2 or more rounds.


Given the study of the issue presented in the previous section, this LIP proposes a solution which will ensure that every delegate's position in the list is recalculated every round, and the probability for a delegate to end up in any position is the same for the whole set of possible positions.

The proposed fix is based on hashing each delegate’s unique identifier together with a unique identifier for the round:

  • The delegate's unique identifier can be the public key or the ID of the delegate. Arguably, it is better to use the public key since the ID system might be changed in the future. However, this is something to be discussed for the reference implementation. Both options are equal in terms of generating randomness.
  • The round's unique identifier can be the height of the block in which the new round starts or the height of the round itself. As an example, it can be calculated in the same way it is calculated currently, using the height of the round:

By having a unique hash per delegate for every round, we will ensure that in every round the list of delegates will be re-ordered based on a uniform distribution.


The changes will only affect the Delegates.prototype.generateDelegateList function mentioned above. These changes consist of removing the nested for loops and generating a new list of “delegate hashes” to be re-calculated and ordered every round. In particular, the proposed fix implements a new algorithm that goes as follows:

  1. The variable seedSource is generated in the same way as now:

    var seedSource = modules.rounds.calc(height).toString();
  2. One hash is generated per delegate using seedSource and the delegate public key (or ID). For simplicity, we propose to use the hashing function already utilised in the existing code, although the final choice here is left to the reference implementation. Example given in pseudo-code:

    forEach delegate
    	delegate.pubKeyHash = createHash(seedSource + delegate.publicKey)
  3. The delegates are reordered according to the hashes generated in step 2. This can be done according to any criteria (in an ascending order, for example) as long as the list is sorted in a deterministic and consistent way. Hence, the sorting algorithm must be stable to generate the same list of delegates on every node on the network, even in the unlikely event of a hash collision in the second point. As an example, the sort() method in JavaScript can be used for this purpose.

This will not only fix the uniformity issue (caused by the two issues raised in the Motivation section), but it will also reduce complexity, allowing simpler, more human-readable code in any implementation.

Backwards Compatibility

This change will cause a hard fork. Nodes implementing this fix will generate a different delegate list every round compared to the previous version, therefore every node will need to use an implementation which contains the proposed fix in order to maintain consensus.

Additionally, the current algorithm will need to be maintained for syncing/validation of blocks before this proposal is implemented.

Reference Implementation