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STTwitter.podspec

README.md

STTwitter

A comprehensive Objective-C library for Twitter REST API 1.1

STTwitter will be presented at SoftShake 2013, Geneva, on October 24th.

  1. Installation
  2. Code Snippets
  3. Various Kinds of OAuth Connections
  4. OAuth Consumer Tokens
  5. Demo / Test Project
  6. Integration Tips
  7. Troubleshooting
  8. Developers
  9. Applications Using STTwitter
  10. BSD 3-Clause License

Installation

Drag and drop STTwitter directory into your project.

Link your project with the following frameworks:

  • Accounts.framework
  • Twitter.framework
  • Security.framework (OS X only)
  • Social.framework (iOS only, weak)

If you want to use CocoaPods, include the STTwitter pod in your project's podfile and install it:

pod 'STTwitter'
pod install

STTwitter does not depend on AppKit or UIKit and can be used in a command-line Twitter client.

STTwitter requires iOS 5+ or OS X 10.7+.

Code Snippets

Notes:

  • STTwitter must be used from the main thread
  • all callbacks are called on the main thread
Instantiate STTwitterAPI
STTwitterAPI *twitter = [STTwitterAPI twitterAPIWithOAuthConsumerName:@""
                                                          consumerKey:@""
                                                       consumerSecret:@""
                                                             username:@""
                                                             password:@""];
Verify the credentials
[twitter verifyCredentialsWithSuccessBlock:^(NSString *username) {
    // ...
} errorBlock:^(NSError *error) {
    // ...
}];
Get the timeline statuses
[twitter getHomeTimelineSinceID:nil
                          count:100
                   successBlock:^(NSArray *statuses) {
    // ...
} errorBlock:^(NSError *error) {
    // ...
}];
Streaming API
[twitter getStatusesSampleDelimited:nil
                      stallWarnings:nil
                      progressBlock:^(id response) {
    // ...
} stallWarningBlock:nil
         errorBlock:^(NSError *error) {
    // ...
}];
App Only Authentication
STTwitterAPI *twitter = [STTwitterAPI twitterAPIAppOnlyWithConsumerKey:@""
                                                        consumerSecret:@""];

[twitter verifyCredentialsWithSuccessBlock:^(NSString *bearerToken) {

    [twitter getUserTimelineWithScreenName:@"barackobama"
                              successBlock:^(NSArray *statuses) {
        // ...
    } errorBlock:^(NSError *error) {
        // ...
    }];

} errorBlock:^(NSError *error) {
    // ...
}];

Various Kinds of OAuth Connections

You can instantiate STTwitterAPI in three ways:

  • use the Twitter account set in OS X Preferences or iOS Settings
  • use a custom consumer key and consumer secret (three flavors)
    • get an URL, fetch a PIN, enter it in your app, get oauth access tokens
    • set username and password, get oauth access tokens with XAuth, if the app is entitled to
    • set oauth token and oauth token secret directly
  • use the Application Only authentication and get / use a "bearer token"

So there are five cases altogether, hence these five methods:

+ (STTwitterAPI *)twitterAPIOSWithFirstAccount;

+ (STTwitterAPI *)twitterAPIWithOAuthConsumerKey:(NSString *)consumerKey
                                  consumerSecret:(NSString *)consumerSecret;

+ (STTwitterAPI *)twitterAPIWithOAuthConsumerKey:(NSString *)consumerKey
                                  consumerSecret:(NSString *)consumerSecret
                                        username:(NSString *)username
                                        password:(NSString *)password;

+ (STTwitterAPI *)twitterAPIWithOAuthConsumerKey:(NSString *)consumerKey
                                  consumerSecret:(NSString *)consumerSecret
                                      oauthToken:(NSString *)oauthToken
                                oauthTokenSecret:(NSString *)oauthTokenSecret;

+ (STTwitterAPI *)twitterAPIAppOnlyWithConsumerKey:(NSString *)consumerKey
                                    consumerSecret:(NSString *)consumerSecret;
Reverse Authentication

Reference: https://dev.twitter.com/docs/ios/using-reverse-auth

The most common use case of reverse authentication is letting users register/login to a remote service with their OS X or iOS Twitter account.

iOS/OSX     Twitter     Server
-------------->                 reverse auth.
< - - - - - - -                 access tokens

----------------------------->  access tokens

               <--------------  access Twitter on user's behalf
                - - - - - - ->

Here is how to use reverse authentication with STTwitter:

STTwitterAPI *twitter = [STTwitterAPI twitterAPIWithOAuthConsumerName:nil
                                                          consumerKey:@"CONSUMER_KEY"
                                                       consumerSecret:@"CONSUMER_SECRET"];

[twitter postReverseOAuthTokenRequest:^(NSString *authenticationHeader) {

    STTwitterAPI *twitterAPIOS = [STTwitterAPI twitterAPIOSWithFirstAccount];

    [twitterAPIOS verifyCredentialsWithSuccessBlock:^(NSString *username) {

        [twitterAPIOS postReverseAuthAccessTokenWithAuthenticationHeader:authenticationHeader
                                                            successBlock:^(NSString *oAuthToken,
                                                                           NSString *oAuthTokenSecret,
                                                                           NSString *userID,
                                                                           NSString *screenName) {

                                                                // use the tokens...

                                                            } errorBlock:^(NSError *error) {
                                                                // ...
                                                            }];

    } errorBlock:^(NSError *error) {
        // ...
    }];

} errorBlock:^(NSError *error) {
    // ...
}];

Contrary to what can be read here and there, you can perfectly access direct messages from iOS Twitter accounts.

OAuth Consumer Tokens

In Twitter REST API v1.1, each client application must authenticate itself with consumer key and consumer secret tokens. You can request consumer tokens for your app on Twitter website: https://dev.twitter.com/apps.

STTwitter demo project comes with TwitterClients.plist where you can enter your own consumer tokens.

Demo / Test Project

There is a demo project for OS X in demo_osx, which lets you choose how to get the OAuth tokens (see below).

Once you got the OAuth tokens, you can get your timeline and post a new status.

There is also a simple iOS demo project in demo_ios.

STTwitter STTwitter Demo iOS STTwitter Demo Tweet

Integration Tips

Boolean Parameters

There are a lot of optional parameters In Twitter API. In STTwitter, you can ignore such parameters by passing nil. Regarding boolean parameters, STTwitter can't just use Objective-C YES and NO because NO has the same value as nil (zero). So boolean parameters are wrapped into NSNumber objects, which are pretty easy to use with boolean values thanks to Objective-C literals. So, with STTwitter, you will give an optional parameter of Twitter API either @(YES), @(NO) or nil.

Long Methods

STTwitter provides a full, "one-to-one" Objective-C front-end to Twitter REST API. It often results in long methd names with many parameters. In your application, you may want to add your own simplified methods on top of STTwitterAPI. A good idea is to create an Objective-C category for your application, such as shown in the following code.

STTwitterAPI+MyApp.h

#import "STTwitterAPI.h"

@interface STTwitterAPI (MyApp)

- (void)getStatusesShowID:(NSString *)statusID
             successBlock:(void(^)(NSDictionary *status))successBlock
               errorBlock:(void(^)(NSError *error))errorBlock;

@end

STTwitterAPI+MyApp.m

#import "STTwitterAPI+MyApp.h"

@implementation STTwitterAPI (MyApp)

- (void)getStatusesShowID:(NSString *)statusID
             successBlock:(void(^)(NSDictionary *status))successBlock
               errorBlock:(void(^)(NSError *error))errorBlock {

    [self getStatusesShowID:statusID
                   trimUser:@(YES)
           includeMyRetweet:nil
            includeEntities:@(NO)
               successBlock:^(NSDictionary *status) {

                   successBlock(status);

               } errorBlock:^(NSError *error) {

                   errorBlock(error);

               }];
}

@end

Troubleshooting

xAuth

Twitter restricts the xAuth authentication process to xAuth-enabled consumer tokens only. So if you get an error like NSURLErrorDomain Code=-1012, Unhandled authentication challenge type - NSURLAuthenticationMethodOAuth2 while accessing https://api.twitter.com/oauth/access_token then your consumer tokens are probably not xAuth-enabled. You can read more on this on Twitter website https://dev.twitter.com/docs/oauth/xauth and ask Twitter to enable the xAuth authentication process for your consumer tokens.

Concurrency

STTwitter is supposed to be used from main thread. The network requests are performed anychronously and the callbacks are guaranteed to be called on main thread.

Anything Else

Please fill an issue on GitHub.

Developers

The application only interacts with STTwitterAPI.

STTwitterAPI maps Objective-C methods with all documented Twitter API endpoints.

You can create your own convenience methods with fewer parameters. You can also use this generic methods directly:

- (NSString *)fetchResource:(NSString *)resource
                 HTTPMethod:(NSString *)HTTPMethod
              baseURLString:(NSString *)baseURLString
                 parameters:(NSDictionary *)params
              progressBlock:(void (^)(NSString *requestID, id response))progressBlock
               successBlock:(void (^)(NSString *requestID, NSDictionary *rateLimits, id))successBlock
                 errorBlock:(void (^)(NSString *requestID, NSError *error))errorBlock;
Layer Model
 +-------------------------------------------------+
 |                Your Application                 |
 +-------------------------------------------------+
                         v
 +-------------------------------------------------+
 |                  STTwitterAPI                   |
 +-------------------------------------------------+
        v              v                 v
 + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
 |              STTwitterOAuthProtocol             |
 + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +
        v              v                 v
 +-------------+----------------+------------------+
 | STTwitterOS | STTwitterOAuth | STTwitterAppOnly |
 |             +----------------+------------------+
 |             |          STHTTPRequest            |
 +-------------+-----------------------------------+
  |
  + Accounts.framework
  + Social.framework
Summary
 * STTwitterAPI
    - can be instantiated with the authentication mode you want
    - provides methods to interact with each Twitter API endpoint

 * STTwitterOAuthProtocol
    - provides generic methods to POST and GET resources on Twitter hosts

 * STTwitterOS
    - uses Twitter accounts defined in OS X Preferences or iOS Settings
    - uses OS X / iOS frameworks to interact with Twitter API

 * STTwitterOAuth
    - implements OAuth and xAuth authentication

 * STTwitterAppOnly
    - implements the 'app only' authentication
    - https://dev.twitter.com/docs/auth/application-only-auth

 * STHTTPRequest
    - block-based wrapper around NSURLConnection
    - https://github.com/nst/STHTTPRequest

Applications Using STTwitter

  • Adium developers have chosen to use STTwitter to handle Twitter connectivity in Adium, starting from version 1.5.7.

BSD 3-Clause License

Copyright (c) 2012-2013, Nicolas Seriot All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

  • Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
  • Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
  • Neither the name of the Nicolas Seriot nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

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