Public malware techniques used in the wild: Virtual Machine, Emulation, Debuggers, Sandbox detection.
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README.md

Al-Khaser v0.75

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Content

Introduction

al-khaser is a PoC "malware" application with good intentions that aims to stress your anti-malware system. It performs a bunch of common malware tricks with the goal of seeing if you stay under the radar.

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Download

You can download the latest release here: x86 | x64.

Possible uses

  • You are making an anti-debug plugin and you want to check its effectiveness.
  • You want to ensure that your sandbox solution is hidden enough.
  • Or you want to ensure that your malware analysis environment is well hidden.

Please, if you encounter any of the anti-analysis tricks which you have seen in a malware, don't hesitate to contribute.

Features

Anti-debugging attacks

  • IsDebuggerPresent
  • CheckRemoteDebuggerPresent
  • Process Environment Block (BeingDebugged)
  • Process Environment Block (NtGlobalFlag)
  • ProcessHeap (Flags)
  • ProcessHeap (ForceFlags)
  • NtQueryInformationProcess (ProcessDebugPort)
  • NtQueryInformationProcess (ProcessDebugFlags)
  • NtQueryInformationProcess (ProcessDebugObject)
  • WudfIsAnyDebuggerPresent
  • WudfIsKernelDebuggerPresent
  • WudfIsUserDebuggerPresent
  • NtSetInformationThread (HideThreadFromDebugger)
  • NtQueryObject (ObjectTypeInformation)
  • NtQueryObject (ObjectAllTypesInformation)
  • CloseHanlde (NtClose) Invalide Handle
  • SetHandleInformation (Protected Handle)
  • UnhandledExceptionFilter
  • OutputDebugString (GetLastError())
  • Hardware Breakpoints (SEH / GetThreadContext)
  • Software Breakpoints (INT3 / 0xCC)
  • Memory Breakpoints (PAGE_GUARD)
  • Interrupt 0x2d
  • Interrupt 1
  • Parent Process (Explorer.exe)
  • SeDebugPrivilege (Csrss.exe)
  • NtYieldExecution / SwitchToThread
  • TLS callbacks
  • Process jobs
  • Memory write watching
  • Page exception breakpoint detection
  • API hook detection (module bounds based)

Anti-injection

  • Enumerate modules with EnumProcessModulesEx (32-bit, 64-bit, and all options)
  • Enumerate modules with ToolHelp32
  • Enumerate the process LDR structures with LdrEnumerateLoadedModules
  • Enumerate the process LDR structures directly
  • Walk memory with GetModuleInformation
  • Walk memory for hidden modules

Anti-Dumping

  • Erase PE header from memory
  • SizeOfImage

Timing Attacks [Anti-Sandbox]

  • RDTSC (with CPUID to force a VM Exit)
  • RDTSC (Locky version with GetProcessHeap & CloseHandle)
  • Sleep -> SleepEx -> NtDelayExecution
  • Sleep (in a loop a small delay)
  • Sleep and check if time was accelerated (GetTickCount)
  • SetTimer (Standard Windows Timers)
  • timeSetEvent (Multimedia Timers)
  • WaitForSingleObject -> WaitForSingleObjectEx -> NtWaitForSingleObject
  • WaitForMultipleObjects -> WaitForMultipleObjectsEx -> NtWaitForMultipleObjects (todo)
  • IcmpSendEcho (CCleaner Malware)
  • CreateWaitableTimer
  • CreateTimerQueueTimer
  • Big crypto loops (todo)

Human Interaction / Generic [Anti-Sandbox]

  • Mouse movement
  • Total Physical memory (GlobalMemoryStatusEx)
  • Disk size using DeviceIoControl (IOCTL_DISK_GET_LENGTH_INFO)
  • Disk size using GetDiskFreeSpaceEx (TotalNumberOfBytes)
  • Mouse (Single click / Double click) (todo)
  • DialogBox (todo)
  • Scrolling (todo)
  • Execution after reboot (todo)
  • Count of processors (Win32/Tinba - Win32/Dyre)
  • Sandbox known product IDs (todo)
  • Color of background pixel (todo)
  • Keyboard layout (Win32/Banload) (todo)

Anti-Virtualization / Full-System Emulation

  • Registry key value artifacts

    • HARDWARE\DEVICEMAP\Scsi\Scsi Port 0\Scsi Bus 0\Target Id 0\Logical Unit Id 0 (Identifier) (VBOX)
    • HARDWARE\DEVICEMAP\Scsi\Scsi Port 0\Scsi Bus 0\Target Id 0\Logical Unit Id 0 (Identifier) (QEMU)
    • HARDWARE\Description\System (SystemBiosVersion) (VBOX)
    • HARDWARE\Description\System (SystemBiosVersion) (QEMU)
    • HARDWARE\Description\System (VideoBiosVersion) (VIRTUALBOX)
    • HARDWARE\Description\System (SystemBiosDate) (06/23/99)
    • HARDWARE\DEVICEMAP\Scsi\Scsi Port 0\Scsi Bus 0\Target Id 0\Logical Unit Id 0 (Identifier) (VMWARE)
    • HARDWARE\DEVICEMAP\Scsi\Scsi Port 1\Scsi Bus 0\Target Id 0\Logical Unit Id 0 (Identifier) (VMWARE)
    • HARDWARE\DEVICEMAP\Scsi\Scsi Port 2\Scsi Bus 0\Target Id 0\Logical Unit Id 0 (Identifier) (VMWARE)
    • SYSTEM\ControlSet001\Control\SystemInformation (SystemManufacturer) (VMWARE)
    • SYSTEM\ControlSet001\Control\SystemInformation (SystemProductName) (VMWARE)
  • Registry Keys artifacts

    • HARDWARE\ACPI\DSDT\VBOX__ (VBOX)
    • HARDWARE\ACPI\FADT\VBOX__ (VBOX)
    • HARDWARE\ACPI\RSDT\VBOX__ (VBOX)
    • SOFTWARE\Oracle\VirtualBox Guest Additions (VBOX)
    • SYSTEM\ControlSet001\Services\VBoxGuest (VBOX)
    • SYSTEM\ControlSet001\Services\VBoxMouse (VBOX)
    • SYSTEM\ControlSet001\Services\VBoxService (VBOX)
    • SYSTEM\ControlSet001\Services\VBoxSF (VBOX)
    • SYSTEM\ControlSet001\Services\VBoxVideo (VBOX)
    • SOFTWARE\VMware, Inc.\VMware Tools (VMWARE)
    • SOFTWARE\Wine (WINE)
    • SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Virtual Machine\Guest\Parameters (HYPER-V)
  • File system artifacts

    • "system32\drivers\VBoxMouse.sys"
    • "system32\drivers\VBoxGuest.sys"
    • "system32\drivers\VBoxSF.sys"
    • "system32\drivers\VBoxVideo.sys"
    • "system32\vboxdisp.dll"
    • "system32\vboxhook.dll"
    • "system32\vboxmrxnp.dll"
    • "system32\vboxogl.dll"
    • "system32\vboxoglarrayspu.dll"
    • "system32\vboxoglcrutil.dll"
    • "system32\vboxoglerrorspu.dll"
    • "system32\vboxoglfeedbackspu.dll"
    • "system32\vboxoglpackspu.dll"
    • "system32\vboxoglpassthroughspu.dll"
    • "system32\vboxservice.exe"
    • "system32\vboxtray.exe"
    • "system32\VBoxControl.exe"
    • "system32\drivers\vmmouse.sys"
    • "system32\drivers\vmhgfs.sys"
    • "system32\drivers\vm3dmp.sys"
    • "system32\drivers\vmci.sys"
    • "system32\drivers\vmhgfs.sys"
    • "system32\drivers\vmmemctl.sys"
    • "system32\drivers\vmmouse.sys"
    • "system32\drivers\vmrawdsk.sys"
    • "system32\drivers\vmusbmouse.sys"
  • Directories artifacts

    • "%PROGRAMFILES%\oracle\virtualbox guest additions\"
    • "%PROGRAMFILES%\VMWare\"
  • Memory artifacts

    • Interupt Descriptor Table (IDT) location
    • Local Descriptor Table (LDT) location
    • Global Descriptor Table (GDT) location
    • Task state segment trick with STR
  • MAC Address

    • "\x08\x00\x27" (VBOX)
    • "\x00\x05\x69" (VMWARE)
    • "\x00\x0C\x29" (VMWARE)
    • "\x00\x1C\x14" (VMWARE)
    • "\x00\x50\x56" (VMWARE)
    • "\x00\x1C\x42" (Parallels)
    • "\x00\x16\x3E" (Xen)
    • "\x0A\x00\x27" (Hybrid Analysis)
  • Virtual devices

    • "\\.\VBoxMiniRdrDN"
    • "\\.\VBoxGuest"
    • "\\.\pipe\VBoxMiniRdDN"
    • "\\.\VBoxTrayIPC"
    • "\\.\pipe\VBoxTrayIPC")
    • "\\.\HGFS"
    • "\\.\vmci"
  • Hardware Device information

    • SetupAPI SetupDiEnumDeviceInfo (GUID_DEVCLASS_DISKDRIVE)
      • QEMU
      • VMWare
      • VBOX
      • VIRTUAL HD
    • Power policies (S1-S4 states, thermal control)
  • System Firmware Tables

    • SMBIOS string checks (VirtualBox)
    • SMBIOS string checks (VMWare)
    • SMBIOS string checks (Qemu)
    • ACPI string checks (VirtualBox)
    • ACPI string checks (VMWare)
    • ACPI string checks (Qemu)
  • Driver Services

    • VirtualBox
    • VMWare
  • Adapter name

    • VMWare
  • Windows Class

    • VBoxTrayToolWndClass
    • VBoxTrayToolWnd
  • Network shares

    • VirtualBox Shared Folders
  • Processes

    • vboxservice.exe (VBOX)
    • vboxtray.exe (VBOX)
    • vmtoolsd.exe(VMWARE)
    • vmwaretray.exe(VMWARE)
    • vmwareuser(VMWARE)
    • VGAuthService.exe (VMWARE)
    • vmacthlp.exe (VMWARE)
    • vmsrvc.exe(VirtualPC)
    • vmusrvc.exe(VirtualPC)
    • prl_cc.exe(Parallels)
    • prl_tools.exe(Parallels)
    • xenservice.exe(Citrix Xen)
    • qemu-ga.exe (QEMU)
  • WMI

    • SELECT * FROM Win32_Bios (SerialNumber) (GENERIC)
    • SELECT * FROM Win32_PnPEntity (DeviceId) (VBOX)
    • SELECT * FROM Win32_NetworkAdapterConfiguration (MACAddress) (VBOX)
    • SELECT * FROM Win32_NTEventlogFile (VBOX)
    • SELECT * FROM Win32_Processor (NumberOfCores and ProcessorId) (GENERIC)
    • SELECT * FROM Win32_LogicalDisk (Size) (GENERIC)
    • SELECT * FROM Win32_ComputerSystem (Model and Manufacturer) (GENERIC)
    • SELECT * FROM MSAcpi_ThermalZoneTemperature CurrentTemperature) (GENERIC)
    • SELECT * FROM Win32_Fan (GENERIC)
  • DLL Exports and Loaded DLLs

    • avghookx.dll (AVG)
    • avghooka.dll (AVG)
    • snxhk.dll (Avast)
    • kernel32.dll!wine_get_unix_file_nameWine (Wine)
    • sbiedll.dll (Sandboxie)
    • dbghelp.dll (MS debugging support routines)
    • api_log.dll (iDefense Labs)
    • dir_watch.dll (iDefense Labs)
    • pstorec.dll (SunBelt Sandbox)
    • vmcheck.dll (Virtual PC)
    • wpespy.dll (WPE Pro)
    • cmdvrt32.dll (Comodo Container)
    • cmdvrt64.dll (Comodo Container)
  • CPU

    • Hypervisor presence using (EAX=0x1)
    • Hypervisor vendor using (EAX=0x40000000)
      • "KVMKVMKVM\0\0\0" (KVM)

        • "Microsoft Hv"(Microsoft Hyper-V or Windows Virtual PC)
        • "VMwareVMware"(VMware)
        • "XenVMMXenVMM"(Xen)
        • "prl hyperv "( Parallels) -"VBoxVBoxVBox"( VirtualBox)

Anti-Analysis

  • Processes

    • OllyDBG / ImmunityDebugger / WinDbg / IDA Pro
    • SysInternals Suite Tools (Process Explorer / Process Monitor / Regmon / Filemon, TCPView, Autoruns)
    • Wireshark / Dumpcap
    • ProcessHacker / SysAnalyzer / HookExplorer / SysInspector
    • ImportREC / PETools / LordPE
    • JoeBox Sandbox

Macro malware attacks

  • Document_Close / Auto_Close.
  • Application.RecentFiles.Count

Code/DLL Injections techniques

  • CreateRemoteThread
  • SetWindowsHooksEx
  • NtCreateThreadEx
  • RtlCreateUserThread
  • APC (QueueUserAPC / NtQueueApcThread)
  • RunPE (GetThreadContext / SetThreadContext)

Contributors

References