Arduino hardware package for ATmega1284, ATmega644, ATmega324, ATmega324PB, ATmega164, ATmega32, ATmega16 and ATmega8535
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README.md

MightyCore

Build Status MegaCore forum thread

An Arduino core for ATmega8535, ATmega16, ATmega32, ATmega164, ATmega324, ATmega644 and ATmega1284, all running a custom version of Optiboot. Major libraries such as SD, Servo, SPI and Wire are modified to work with this core. Still, a large amount of third-party libraries often work without any modifications.
This core requires at least Arduino IDE v1.6, but v1.6.11+ is recommended.
If you're into "generic" AVR programming, I'm happy to tell you that all relevant keywords are being highlighted by the IDE through a separate keywords file. Make sure to test the example files (File > Examples > AVR C code examples).

If you're looking for a great development board for these DIP-40 microcontrollers, I got you covered! I've used the Arduino UNO for years, but felt like some functionality was missing on the board. When designing this board I made sure all missing functionality was added. The board can be bought on my Tindie store. Read more in the hardware section below.

Table of contents

Supported microcontrollers

  • ATmega1284
  • ATmega644
  • ATmega324
  • ATmega164
  • ATmega32
  • ATmega16
  • ATmega8535

* All variants - P, PA, A, PB. Select the correct version in the 'Variant' menu

Can't decide what microcontroller to choose? Have a look at the specification table below:

mega1284 mega644 mega324 mega164 mega32 mega16 mega8535
Flash 128kB 64kB 32kB 16kB 32kB 16kB 8kB
RAM 16kB 4kB 2kB 1kB 2kB 1kB 512B
EEPROM 4kB 2kB 1kB 512B 512B 512B 512B
Serial ports 2 2 2/3* 2 1 1 1
PWM pins 8 6 6/9* 6 4 4 4
IO pins 32 32 32/39* 32 32 32 32

* ATmega324PB has 3 serial ports, 9 PWM pins and 39 IO pins if internal oscillator is used.

Supported clock frequencies

  • 16 MHz external oscillator (default)
  • 20 MHz external oscillator
  • 18.432 MHz external oscillator *
  • 12 MHz external oscillator
  • 8 MHz external oscillator
  • 8 MHz internal oscillator **
  • 1 MHz internal oscillator

Select your microcontroller in the boards menu, then select the clock frequency. You'll have to hit "Burn bootloader" in order to set the correct fuses and upload the correct bootloader.
Make sure you connect an ISP programmer, and select the correct one in the "Programmers" menu. For time critical operations an external oscillator is recommended.

* When using the 18.432 MHz option (or any frequency by which 64 cannot be divided evenly), micros() is 4-5 times slower (~110 clocks). It reports the time at the point when it was called, not the end. This clock frequency is not recommended if your application relies on accurate timing, but is superb for UART communication. Millis() is not affected, only micros() and delay(). Micros() executes equally fast at all clock speeds, but returns wrong values with anything that 64 doesn't divide evenly by.

** There might be some issues related to the internal oscillator. It's factory calibrated, but may be a little "off" depending on the calibration, ambient temperature and operating voltage. If uploading fails while using the 8 MHz internal oscillator you have three options:

  • Edit the baudrate line in the boards.txt file, and choose either 115200, 57600, 38400 or 19200 baud.
  • Upload the code using a programmer (USBasp, USBtinyISP etc.) and drop the bootloader
  • Use the 1 MHz option instead

BOD option

Brown out detection, or BOD for short lets the microcontroller sense the input voltage and shut down if the voltage goes below the brown out setting. To change the BOD settings you'll have to connect an ISP programmer and hit "Burn bootloader". Below is a table that shows the available BOD options:

ATmega1284 Atmega644 ATmega324 ATmega164 ATmega32 ATmega16 ATmega8535
4.3v 4.3v 4.3v 4.3v 4.0v 4.0v 4.0v
2.7v 2.7v 2.7v 2.7v 2.7v 2.7v 2.7v
1.8v 1.8v 1.8v 1.8v - - -
Disabled Disabled Disabled Disabled Disabled Disabled Disabled

Link time optimization / LTO

Link time optimization (LTO for short) has been supported by the IDE since v1.6.11. The LTO optimizes the code at link time, making the code (often) significantly smaller without making it "slower". In Arduino IDE 1.6.11 and newer LTO is enabled by default. I've chosen to disable this by default to make sure the core keep backward compatibility. Enabling LTO in IDE 1.6.10 and older will return an error. I encourage you to try the new LTO option and see how much smaller your code gets! Note that you don't need to hit "Burn Bootloader" in order to enable LTO. Simply enable it in the "Tools" menu, and your code is ready for compilation. If you want to read more about LTO and GCC flags in general, head over to the GNU GCC website!

Here's some numbers to convince you. These sketches were compiled for an ATmega1284 using Arduino IDE 1.6.12 (avr-gcc 4.9.2).

Blink.ino AnalogReadSerial.ino SerialReadWrite.ino CardInfo.ino
LTO enabled 1084 bytes 1974 bytes 7190 bytes 9416 bytes
LTO disabled 1216 bytes 2414 bytes 7710 bytes 11518 bytes

Pinout

This core has three different pinout options:

  • Standard: The default pinout, and is based on the original AVR pinout.
  • Bobuino: Basically an Arduino UNO pinout setting. This pinout version is great for using with shields or code that's written for the Arduino UNO, as the pin functions stay the same (MOSI on D11, MISO on D12, SCK on D13).
  • Sanguino: This pinout is common on older 3D printer controllers such as the Sanguino, RepRap Sanguinololu, and RepRap Gen7. This pinout is also known as "avr_developers".

Please have a look at the (pins_arduino.h) files for more info. Pick your favorite!

Click to enlarge:

MightyCore Standard pinout MightyCore Bobuino pinout MightyCore Sanguino pinout



Programmers

MightyCore adds its own copies of all the standard programmers to the "Programmer" menu. You must select the MightyCore copy of the programmer you are using for "Upload Using Programmer" to work with ATmega1284, ATmega324A, ATmega324PB, or ATmega164A.

Write to own flash

MightyCore implements @majekw's fork of Optiboot, which enables flash writing functionality within the running application. This means that content from e.g. a sensor can be stored in the flash memory directly, without the need of external memory. Flash memory is much faster than EEPROM, and can handle about 10 000 write cycles.
Please check out the Optiboot flasher example for more info about how this feature works, and how you can try it on your MightyCore compatible microcontroller.

How to install

Boards Manager Installation

This installation method requires Arduino IDE version 1.6.4 or greater.

  • Open the Arduino IDE.
  • Open the File > Preferences menu item.
  • Enter the following URL in Additional Boards Manager URLs: https://mcudude.github.io/MightyCore/package_MCUdude_MightyCore_index.json
    • Separate the URLs using a comma ( , ) if you have more than one URL
  • Open the Tools > Board > Boards Manager... menu item.
  • Wait for the platform indexes to finish downloading.
  • Scroll down until you see the MightyCore entry and click on it.
  • Click Install.
  • After installation is complete close the Boards Manager window.

Manual Installation

Click on the "Download ZIP" button. Extract the ZIP file, and move the extracted folder to the location "~/Documents/Arduino/hardware". Create the "hardware" folder if it doesn't exist. Open Arduino IDE, and a new category in the boards menu called "MightyCore" will show up.

ATmega324PB

If you plan to use the new ATmega324PB, you'll need to update to the latest version of the Arduino toolchain. At the time of writing the latest version is 1.6.207. Here's how you install it:

  • Open Arduino IDE.
  • Open the File > Preferences menu item.
  • In the Additional Boards Manager URLs field, add:
    https://downloads.arduino.cc/packages/package_avr_3.6.0_index.json
    
  • Open the Tools > Board > Boards Manager... menu item.
  • Wait for the platform indexes to finish downloading.
  • The top is named Arduino AVR boards. Click on this item.
  • Click Update.
  • After installation is complete close the Boards Manager window.

PlatformIO

PlatformIO is an open source ecosystem for IoT development. It has a built-in library manager and is Arduino compatible. It supports most operating systems; Windows, MacOS, Linux 32 and 64-bit; ARM and X86.

Getting started with MightyCore

Ok, so you've downloaded and installed MightyCore, but how do you get the wheels spinning? Here's a quick start guide:

  • Hook up your microcontroller as shown in the pinout diagram.
    • If you're not planning to use the bootloader (uploading code using a USB to serial adapter), the FTDI header and the 100 nF capacitor on the reset pin can be omitted.
  • Open the Tools > Board menu item, and select a MighyCore compatible microcontroller.
  • If the BOD option is presented, you can select at what voltage the microcontroller will shut down at. Read more about BOD here.
  • Select your prefered pinout. Personally I prefer the standard pinout because it's "cleaner", but the Bobuino pinout is better at Arduino UNO pin compatibility. Read more about the different pinouts here.
  • Select your prefered clock frequency. 16 MHz is standard on most Arduino boards.
  • Select what kind of programmer you're using under the Programmers menu.
  • If the Variants option is presented, you'll have to specify what version of the microcontroller you're using. E.g the ATmega1284 and the ATmega1284P have different device signatures, so selecting the wrong one will result in an error.
  • Hit Burn Bootloader. If an LED is connected to pin PB0, it should flash twice every second.
  • Now that the correct fuse settings is set and the bootloader burnt, you can upload your code in two ways:
    • Disconnect your programmer tool, and connect a USB to serial adapter to the microcontroller, like shown in the minimal setup circuit. Then select the correct serial port under the Tools menu, and click the Upload button. If you're getting some kind of timeout error, it means your RX and TX pins are swapped, or your auto reset circuity isn't working properly (the 100 nF capacitor on the reset line).
    • Keep your programmer connected, and hold down the shift button while clicking Upload. This will erase the bootloader and upload your code using the programmer tool.

Your code should now be running on your microcontroller! If you experience any issues related to bootloader burning or serial uploading, please use this forum post or create an issue on Github.

Wiring reference

To extend this core's functionality a bit futher, I've added a few missing Wiring functions. As many of you know Arduino is based on Wiring, but that doesn't mean the Wiring development isn't active. These functions are used as "regular" Arduino functions, and there's no need to include an external library.
I hope you find this useful, because they really are!

Function list

  • portMode()
  • portRead()
  • portWrite()
  • sleepMode()
  • sleep()
  • noSleep()
  • enablePower()
  • disablePower()

For further information please view the Wiring reference page!

Library porting

Some users have reported issues when trying to use some 3rd party libraries with the ATmega8535, ATmega16 or ATmega32. A simple guide on how to port a library can be found here.

Hardware

I've designed a development board for this particular core. I've added all the functionality I missed with the original Arduino boards, and added the original AVR pinout. And for just 35$ it's a really good deal! Not all supported microcontrollers have the same pin functions, and differences are highlighted. The boards measures 8.0 * 10.0 cm (3.15 * 3.94 in)
The development board has some additional unique features:

  • A voltage select jumper to run the microcontroller at 5V or 3.3V
  • All pins are located on the same side of the board, making it easy to hook it up to a breadboard
  • Possible to add both male and female headers for the IO pins (and solder a row of male headers under the board for breadboarding)
  • A JTAG header for programming and debugging
  • A high voltage parallel programming header for programming and fixing bad fuse settings (pin compatible with the AVR Dragon)
  • A potmeter for using as a voltage reference (e.g adjusting the LCD contrast)
  • LOTS of 5V, 3.3V and GND points broken out, both male and female
  • A large ground pad on the underside of the board for connecting alligator clips, such as the ground clip of your oscilloscope
  • Socketed crystal, perfect for experimenting with different clock frequencies
  • A Reset enable header to enable/disable auto-reset when uploading new code or opening the serial monitor
  • PWM pins are clearly marked, and a lookup table can be found on the under side of the board (three ~ - all microcontrollers, two ~ - 164; 324; 644; 1284, one ~ - 1284)
  • IO peripherals can be found on the underside of the board. No need to search in the datasheet anymore!
  • Mini USB instead of the large USB Type-B plug
  • The USB to serial chip is broken out on the underside of the board in a standard "FTDI pinout" for using the board as a USB to serial adapter, or for using an external programmer instead
  • The all hand shake pins (CTS, DTR, RI, DCD, DRT, RST) to the USB to serial adapter are broken out for other applications, such as bit banging

The development board can be bought on my Tindie store. This includes a pre programmed ATmega32.


Click the images for full resolution

Development board front

Development board back

Pinouts

Minimal setup

Here is a simple schematic showing a minimal setup using an external crystal. Skip the crystal and the two capacitors if you're using the internal oscillator.
Click to enlarge:

DIP-40 package TQFP-44 SMD package ATmega324PB SMD package